Few things about energy - part 2

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Few slides on energy issues, especially about resources.

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Few things about energy - part 2

  1. 1. Few things I know about « Energy » Part 2 : Resources Guillaume FERY May 2010
  2. 2. TRENDS =>
  3. 3. Future scenario for liquid fuels
  4. 4. Energy measures <ul><li>Flows have to be measured : production, transformation, distribution, uses </li></ul><ul><li>Many units (difficult to combine) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume : m3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight : short ton, long ton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat : calories, b.t.u </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power : kilowatt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production : M3/day, baril/day (1 baril =159 litres) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currency : mainly US Dollar </li></ul>
  5. 5. Energy measures : equivalences <ul><li>Hydrocarbures : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Ton of petrol => 7,3 baril </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 M-baril/day => 50 M Ton/year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1000 m3 natural gas => 1 TEP => 1,5 T coal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>1 Twh => 0,086 M TOE (ton of oil equivalent) </li></ul>
  6. 6. STOCKS <ul><li>Ressources is different than stock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind, solar, water = ressource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal, uranium, etc. = stock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ratio : reserve/consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1973 : 30 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2008 : 48 years (thanks to new technologies) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proven stocks by energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal 606 TOE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural gas 181 TOE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil 164 TOE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But each energy exploitation has a different impact on CO2 emissions ... </li></ul>
  7. 7. About energy costs (from craddle to end uses) <ul><li>Production cost : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossile : USD 2/baril </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal : USD between 20 and 50 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total cost structure for Fossile energy : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration & Production : USD 13/baril for : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opex + capex of the drill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport (pipeline, tanker) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rafinage, stock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. About electricity costs <ul><li>A nuclear power plant is difficult to built and expensive (1500 up to 3000 euros/kwh) </li></ul><ul><li>(gas turbine is less than 900 euros/kwh and is more easy to build) </li></ul><ul><li>But day to day exploitation costs are not the same either … </li></ul><ul><li>=> mix the plants to adapt offer/demand </li></ul><ul><li>=> take into account the environmental cost (CO2, radioactivity, waste) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Energy & pollution <ul><li>Local and global : production sites, usage (streets, homes) but also GhG (CO2, etc.) at Earth level </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the externalities : see EU study (ExternE, about electricity) about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture, soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internalize externalities : ex : shipping and oil spills, mostly paid by local governments instead of private companies … </li></ul>
  10. 10. Energy, GhG and emissions <ul><li>Greenhouse effect is natural and vital. But the increase of GhG is dangerous for a stable ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>The most common green house gas are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>72% : Carbon dioxyde (CO2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18% methane (CH4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% azote protoxyde (NO2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origins of Emissions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy consumption is responsible for 65% of emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soils exploitation & deforestation : 18% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture 14% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste 3% </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. About carbon & sequestration <ul><li>Mainly with CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Big issue : capture and storage </li></ul><ul><li>Technological challenge </li></ul><ul><li>3 steps for sequestration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture (66% total cost) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport (pipes, shipping) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage (underground) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economical impact : sequestration would double the price of electricity made with coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO2 price on the market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological impact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local acceptability </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Guillaume FERY </li></ul><ul><li>http://uk.linkedin.com/in/gfery </li></ul><ul><li>http://orignal.blogspirit.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://twitter.com/gfery </li></ul>

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