China – Media A2
By Georgina Rees & Kirby Sztanko
Political State And Principles
The People's Republic of China was founded by the Communist Party of China,
which is the leader of the Chinese people. The Chinese Communist Party has
ruled the country since 1949, tolerating no opposition and often dealing
brutally with dissent.
The socialist system led by the working class and based on the alliance of the
workers and farmers is the fundamental system of the People's Republic of
All the power in the country belongs to the people who exercise their power
through the National People's Congress and local people's congress at all
levels. The people manage the state, economy, culture and other social affairs
through a multitude of means and forms.
To concentrate on the socialist modernization drive along the road of building
socialism with Chinese characteristics; to adhere to the socialist road, persist in
the reform and opening up program, improve the socialist system in all
aspects, develop the market economy, expand democracy, and improve the
rule of law.
The armed forces of the People's Republic of China belong to the people.
The organization principle for the state organs is democratic centralism.
The Communist Party of China is the country's sole political party in power.
The socialist system
All rights belong to the people
The fundamental task and goals of the state
The armed forces of the people
To govern the country through the rule of law
All citizens are equal before the law
The right to vote and stand for election
The freedom of speech and thought
The freedom of religious belief
Inviolable freedom of the person
Freedom of correspondence
The right to criticize and make suggestions
Total Population: 1,384,694,199
GDP: 8.227 trillion USD (2012)
Life Expectancy: 73
The right to compensation
The right to work
The right to welfare
The right to receive education
The freedom to engage in academic studies and literary creation
The equality of men and women
Both husband and wife have the duty to practice family planning
Citizens have the obligation to pay taxes in accordance with the law
The right of interpretation of the Constitution
The Communist Party is the sole party in power in China.
Founded in 1921, the Communist Party of China established the people's
Republic of China in 1949 through years of armed struggle.
The Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China
in 1949 through years of armed struggled.
The CPC now has established formal (through elections within the Party)
and informal (appointed by the organization of the higher level)
organizations within the Chinese government and various levels and walks
of life in the country.
The CPC is the vanguard of the Chinese working class, the faithful
representative of the interests of the Chinese people of all ethnic groups
and the core of leadership over the socialist cause of China.
The CPC's maximum program of long objective to realize the Communist
social system and the minimum program at present is to build socialism
with Chinese characteristics.
China plans to spend billions of dollars in the next few years to develop media
and entertainment companies that it hopes can compete with global giants like
the News Corporation and Time Warner, and will in the process loosen some of
its tight controls of these industries.
Beijing hops the moves will even improve the nation's image overseas – part of
a long-standing effort to use “soft power”, rather than military might to win
Along the way, Beijing will allow private and foreign companies to invest in
everything from music, film and television to theatre, dance and opera
productions – though largely through state-owned companies.
The News Corporation, Viacom and other Western media giants have for years
been frustrated by their inability to win approval to produce films and
television programs aimed as Chinese consumers; often, they have operated
with Chinese joint venture partners and run into delays or political barriers.
The companies will gain greater freedom to finance and produce a wider range
of entertainment and cultural content for distribution inside the country, and
even for export.
In the lead-up to the Beijing Olympics, the government allegedly issued
guidelines to the local media for reporting during the Games.
Censorship in the People's
Republic of China
Censorship in the People's Republic of China is implementated or mandated by
the PRC's ruling party, the Communist Party of China. There are notable
censored subjects include The Tienanmen Square protests of 1989, Maoism,
Falun Gong, ethnic independence movements, corruption, police brutality,
anarchism, gossip, disparity of wealth, food safety, pornography, news sources
that report on these issues, unregistered religious content, and many other
Censored media include essentially all capable of reaching a wide audience
including television, print, media, radio, film, theatre, text messaging, instant
messaging, video games, literature and the internet.
Chinese officials have access to uncensored information via an internal
Censorship in China is largely seen as a measure to maintain the rule of the
Communist Party of China. Censorship prevents Chinese citizens from
discovering or learning more about past and current failures of the Communist
Party that could create or inflame anti-government sentiment.
Usually, this type of censorship is mainly used to prevent political conflicts
from happening within the social environment Usually, people are allowed to
talk about politics on the internet, but certain websites containing antigovernment material would be blocked. Some censorship in China has been
justified as upholding proper morals. This includes limitations on
pornography, particularly extreme pornography, and violence in films.
The People's Republic of China has historically sought to use censorship to
'protect the country's culture'. During the Cultural Revolution, foreign
literature and art art forms, religious works and symbols, and even
artefacts of ancient Chinese culture were deemed “reactionary” and
became targets for destruction.
Although much greater cultural freedom exists in China today, continuing
crackdowns on banning foreign cartoons from Chinese prime TV, and
limits on screening for foreign films could been seen as a continuation of
A number of religious texts, publications, and materials are banned or have
their distributions artificially limited in the People's Republic of China.
Foreign citizens are also prohibited from proselytizing in China, and
information concerning the treatment of some religious groups is also
controlled Proselytizing is to try to persuade someone to change their
religious or political beliefs or their way of living to your own.
Christian Bibles are allowed to be printed in China but only in limited
numbers through a single press.
In 2007, anticipating the coming “Year of the Pig” in the Chinese calendar,
depictions of pigs were banned from CCTV to avoid conflicts with ethnic
minorities. This is believed to refer to China's population of 20 million
Muslims (to whom pig are considered “unclean”.
In recent years, censorship in China has been accused of being used not only
for political protectionism but also for economic protectionism.
Foreign and Hong Kong news broadcasts in mainland China are occasionally
censored by being “black out” during controversial segments.
Numerous content which have been blacked out has included references to
the Tiananmen Square protests, the Dalai Lama, the death of Zhao Yiyang, the
2008 Tibetan unrset and negative developments about the Beijing Olympics.
During the Summer Olympics in Beijing, all Chinese TV stations were ordered
to delay live broadcasts by 10 seconds. This policy was designed to give censors
time to react.
Like internet censorship, enforcement in television censorship is increasingly
ineffective and difficult because of satellite signal hacking systems which give
direct access to channels and programs on any satellite that services the Asian
China has a large diversity of different foreign films broadcast through the
media and sold in markets. China has no motion picture rating system, and
films must therefore be deemed suitable by Chinese censors for all audiences
to be allowed to screen.
For foreign-made films, this sometimes means controversial footage must be
cut before such films can play in Chinese cinemas. For example, the removal
of a reference to the Cold War in Casino Royale.
Access to the 12,000 movie screens in China is a powerful incentive for film
makers, especially those producing material such as Kung Fu Panda 3 to
consult and cooperate with Chinese censors. Almost all internationally
released foreign films are freely available in Chinese and English language
versions through the counterfeit trade in DVDS.
All audio visual works dealing with “serious topics” such as the Cultural
Revolution must be registered before distribution
on the mainland.
The album 'Chinese Democracy' by Guns N' Roses is banned in China,
reportedly due to supposed criticism in its title track about the fovernment and
a reference to the anti-government Falun Gong movement. The government
said through a state controlled newspaper that it “turns to spear point on
China”. Also banned is the track “Communist China” by British rock group
The album X by Australian pop singer Kylie Minogue was released as a 10 track
edition of the album by EMI records. The album got three tracks banned due to
strict censorship in the People's Republic of China.
China's internet censorship is regarded by many as the most pervasive and
sophisticated in the world. According to a Harvard study conducted in 2002, at
least 18,000 websites are blocked from within the country, and the number is
believed to be growing constantly. Banned sites have included YouTube,
Facebook and Flickr. Certain search engine terms are blocked as well, and 52
cyber dissidents (a person who publicly disagrees with and criticizes their
government) are reportedly imprisoned in China for their online
More recently, through individual negotiations with the Chinese government,
Wikipedia, Google and YouTube have been opened up for public viewing with
certain restrictions for those who access these sites from within mainland
Although China has opened up Google for public viewing, it is google.cn as
opposed to google.com. This .cn Google follows China's set rules for what is
allowed to be shown through a Google search. All versions of YouTube have
been completely unavailable in China since April 2009.
As of early 2010, cell phone users in Shanghai and Beijing risk have their text
messaging service cut off if they are found to have sent “illegal or unhealthy”
In 2004, the Ministry of Culture set up a committee to screen imported online
video games before they entered the Chinese market. It was state that games
with any of the following violations would be banned from importation:
Violating basic principles of the constitution
Threatening national unity, sovereignty, and territorial integrity
Divulging state security
Damaging the nation's glory
Disturbing social order
Infringing on others' legitimate rights
The State General Administration of Press and Publication and anti-porn and
illegal publication offices have also played a role in screening games. As with
films, piracy makes acquiring banned video games in China very easy.
Propaganda is a form of communication aimed towards influencing the
attitude of the community toward some cause or position by presenting only
one side of an argument. Propaganda statements may be partly false and
partly true. Propaganda is usually repeated and dispersed over a wide variety
of media in order to create the chosen result in audience attitudes.
Propaganda in the people's Republic of China refers to the use of Propaganda
by the Communist Party of China to sway public and international opinion in
favour of its policies.
Propaganda is considered central to the operation of the Chinese government.
In what critics are calling a war on citizen journalists, China has shuttered
more than 100 privately owned news websites since May.
Officially, the move is intended to stem a tide of online extortion against
Chinese officials. A government spokesperson claimed the shut down sites
were "fake news organizations" or concocted damaging reports to "extort
companies," according to the South China Morning Post.
Critics say China's move is an attack on citizen journalism, and runs contrary
to President Xi Jinping's pledge to "always listen to the voice of the people"
when he took office in March.
China’s autocratic southern neighbor, Vietnam, is in the midst of a similar
crackdown on free speech. Starting Sep. 1, bloggers will be banned from
linking to, citing, or quoting any newspaper, effectively forcing them to write
only about themselves.