China - Media A2 - Georgina Rees & Kirby Sztanko

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Media A2

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China - Media A2 - Georgina Rees & Kirby Sztanko

  1. 1. China – Media A2 By Georgina Rees & Kirby Sztanko
  2. 2. Political State And Principles ● ● ● ● The People's Republic of China was founded by the Communist Party of China, which is the leader of the Chinese people. The Chinese Communist Party has ruled the country since 1949, tolerating no opposition and often dealing brutally with dissent. The socialist system led by the working class and based on the alliance of the workers and farmers is the fundamental system of the People's Republic of China. All the power in the country belongs to the people who exercise their power through the National People's Congress and local people's congress at all levels. The people manage the state, economy, culture and other social affairs through a multitude of means and forms. To concentrate on the socialist modernization drive along the road of building socialism with Chinese characteristics; to adhere to the socialist road, persist in the reform and opening up program, improve the socialist system in all aspects, develop the market economy, expand democracy, and improve the rule of law. ● The armed forces of the People's Republic of China belong to the people. ● The organization principle for the state organs is democratic centralism.
  3. 3. Political Principles ● The Communist Party of China is the country's sole political party in power. ● The socialist system ● All rights belong to the people ● The fundamental task and goals of the state ● Democratic centralism ● The armed forces of the people ● To govern the country through the rule of law ● All citizens are equal before the law ● The right to vote and stand for election ● The freedom of speech and thought ● The freedom of religious belief ● Inviolable freedom of the person ● Freedom of correspondence ● The right to criticize and make suggestions Total Population: 1,384,694,199 GDP: 8.227 trillion USD (2012) Life Expectancy: 73
  4. 4. Political Policies ● The right to compensation ● The right to work ● The right to welfare ● The right to receive education ● The freedom to engage in academic studies and literary creation ● The equality of men and women ● Both husband and wife have the duty to practice family planning ● Citizens have the obligation to pay taxes in accordance with the law ● The right of interpretation of the Constitution
  5. 5. Communist Party ● ● ● ● ● ● The Communist Party is the sole party in power in China. Founded in 1921, the Communist Party of China established the people's Republic of China in 1949 through years of armed struggle. The Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China in 1949 through years of armed struggled. The CPC now has established formal (through elections within the Party) and informal (appointed by the organization of the higher level) organizations within the Chinese government and various levels and walks of life in the country. The CPC is the vanguard of the Chinese working class, the faithful representative of the interests of the Chinese people of all ethnic groups and the core of leadership over the socialist cause of China. The CPC's maximum program of long objective to realize the Communist social system and the minimum program at present is to build socialism with Chinese characteristics.
  6. 6. Media ● ● ● ● ● ● China plans to spend billions of dollars in the next few years to develop media and entertainment companies that it hopes can compete with global giants like the News Corporation and Time Warner, and will in the process loosen some of its tight controls of these industries. Beijing hops the moves will even improve the nation's image overseas – part of a long-standing effort to use “soft power”, rather than military might to win friends abroad. Along the way, Beijing will allow private and foreign companies to invest in everything from music, film and television to theatre, dance and opera productions – though largely through state-owned companies. The News Corporation, Viacom and other Western media giants have for years been frustrated by their inability to win approval to produce films and television programs aimed as Chinese consumers; often, they have operated with Chinese joint venture partners and run into delays or political barriers. The companies will gain greater freedom to finance and produce a wider range of entertainment and cultural content for distribution inside the country, and even for export. In the lead-up to the Beijing Olympics, the government allegedly issued guidelines to the local media for reporting during the Games.
  7. 7. Censorship in the People's Republic of China ● ● ● ● Censorship in the People's Republic of China is implementated or mandated by the PRC's ruling party, the Communist Party of China. There are notable censored subjects include The Tienanmen Square protests of 1989, Maoism, Falun Gong, ethnic independence movements, corruption, police brutality, anarchism, gossip, disparity of wealth, food safety, pornography, news sources that report on these issues, unregistered religious content, and many other websites. Censored media include essentially all capable of reaching a wide audience including television, print, media, radio, film, theatre, text messaging, instant messaging, video games, literature and the internet. Chinese officials have access to uncensored information via an internal document system. Censorship in China is largely seen as a measure to maintain the rule of the Communist Party of China. Censorship prevents Chinese citizens from discovering or learning more about past and current failures of the Communist Party that could create or inflame anti-government sentiment.
  8. 8. Moral ● Usually, this type of censorship is mainly used to prevent political conflicts from happening within the social environment Usually, people are allowed to talk about politics on the internet, but certain websites containing antigovernment material would be blocked. Some censorship in China has been justified as upholding proper morals. This includes limitations on pornography, particularly extreme pornography, and violence in films.
  9. 9. Cultural ● ● The People's Republic of China has historically sought to use censorship to 'protect the country's culture'. During the Cultural Revolution, foreign literature and art art forms, religious works and symbols, and even artefacts of ancient Chinese culture were deemed “reactionary” and became targets for destruction. Although much greater cultural freedom exists in China today, continuing crackdowns on banning foreign cartoons from Chinese prime TV, and limits on screening for foreign films could been seen as a continuation of cultural-minded censorship.
  10. 10. Religious ● ● ● ● ● A number of religious texts, publications, and materials are banned or have their distributions artificially limited in the People's Republic of China. Foreign citizens are also prohibited from proselytizing in China, and information concerning the treatment of some religious groups is also controlled Proselytizing is to try to persuade someone to change their religious or political beliefs or their way of living to your own. Christian Bibles are allowed to be printed in China but only in limited numbers through a single press. In 2007, anticipating the coming “Year of the Pig” in the Chinese calendar, depictions of pigs were banned from CCTV to avoid conflicts with ethnic minorities. This is believed to refer to China's population of 20 million Muslims (to whom pig are considered “unclean”. In recent years, censorship in China has been accused of being used not only for political protectionism but also for economic protectionism.
  11. 11. Television ● ● ● ● Foreign and Hong Kong news broadcasts in mainland China are occasionally censored by being “black out” during controversial segments. Numerous content which have been blacked out has included references to the Tiananmen Square protests, the Dalai Lama, the death of Zhao Yiyang, the 2008 Tibetan unrset and negative developments about the Beijing Olympics. During the Summer Olympics in Beijing, all Chinese TV stations were ordered to delay live broadcasts by 10 seconds. This policy was designed to give censors time to react. Like internet censorship, enforcement in television censorship is increasingly ineffective and difficult because of satellite signal hacking systems which give direct access to channels and programs on any satellite that services the Asian Pacific region.
  12. 12. Films ● ● ● ● China has a large diversity of different foreign films broadcast through the media and sold in markets. China has no motion picture rating system, and films must therefore be deemed suitable by Chinese censors for all audiences to be allowed to screen. For foreign-made films, this sometimes means controversial footage must be cut before such films can play in Chinese cinemas. For example, the removal of a reference to the Cold War in Casino Royale. Access to the 12,000 movie screens in China is a powerful incentive for film makers, especially those producing material such as Kung Fu Panda 3 to consult and cooperate with Chinese censors. Almost all internationally released foreign films are freely available in Chinese and English language versions through the counterfeit trade in DVDS. All audio visual works dealing with “serious topics” such as the Cultural Revolution must be registered before distribution on the mainland.
  13. 13. Music ● ● The album 'Chinese Democracy' by Guns N' Roses is banned in China, reportedly due to supposed criticism in its title track about the fovernment and a reference to the anti-government Falun Gong movement. The government said through a state controlled newspaper that it “turns to spear point on China”. Also banned is the track “Communist China” by British rock group Japan. The album X by Australian pop singer Kylie Minogue was released as a 10 track edition of the album by EMI records. The album got three tracks banned due to strict censorship in the People's Republic of China.
  14. 14. Internet ● ● ● ● China's internet censorship is regarded by many as the most pervasive and sophisticated in the world. According to a Harvard study conducted in 2002, at least 18,000 websites are blocked from within the country, and the number is believed to be growing constantly. Banned sites have included YouTube, Facebook and Flickr. Certain search engine terms are blocked as well, and 52 cyber dissidents (a person who publicly disagrees with and criticizes their government) are reportedly imprisoned in China for their online communications. More recently, through individual negotiations with the Chinese government, Wikipedia, Google and YouTube have been opened up for public viewing with certain restrictions for those who access these sites from within mainland China. Although China has opened up Google for public viewing, it is google.cn as opposed to google.com. This .cn Google follows China's set rules for what is allowed to be shown through a Google search. All versions of YouTube have been completely unavailable in China since April 2009. As of early 2010, cell phone users in Shanghai and Beijing risk have their text messaging service cut off if they are found to have sent “illegal or unhealthy” content.
  15. 15. Video Games ● In 2004, the Ministry of Culture set up a committee to screen imported online video games before they entered the Chinese market. It was state that games with any of the following violations would be banned from importation: ● Violating basic principles of the constitution ● Threatening national unity, sovereignty, and territorial integrity ● Divulging state security ● Damaging the nation's glory ● Disturbing social order ● Infringing on others' legitimate rights ● The State General Administration of Press and Publication and anti-porn and illegal publication offices have also played a role in screening games. As with films, piracy makes acquiring banned video games in China very easy.
  16. 16. Propaganda ● ● ● Propaganda is a form of communication aimed towards influencing the attitude of the community toward some cause or position by presenting only one side of an argument. Propaganda statements may be partly false and partly true. Propaganda is usually repeated and dispersed over a wide variety of media in order to create the chosen result in audience attitudes. Propaganda in the people's Republic of China refers to the use of Propaganda by the Communist Party of China to sway public and international opinion in favour of its policies. Propaganda is considered central to the operation of the Chinese government.
  17. 17. China Social Media Equivalent
  18. 18. Citizen Journalism ● ● ● ● In what critics are calling a war on citizen journalists, China has shuttered more than 100 privately owned news websites since May. Officially, the move is intended to stem a tide of online extortion against Chinese officials. A government spokesperson claimed the shut down sites were "fake news organizations" or concocted damaging reports to "extort companies," according to the South China Morning Post. Critics say China's move is an attack on citizen journalism, and runs contrary to President Xi Jinping's pledge to "always listen to the voice of the people" when he took office in March. China’s autocratic southern neighbor, Vietnam, is in the midst of a similar crackdown on free speech. Starting Sep. 1, bloggers will be banned from linking to, citing, or quoting any newspaper, effectively forcing them to write only about themselves.

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