DRAFT - History of U.S. Public Diplomacy


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DRAFT - History of U.S. Public Diplomacy efforts, with discussion of soft power, the Cold War, Fulbright and other exchange programs, etc, with some recent examples taken from USG programs in Ukraine. NOTE: This is basically just a revision to an earlier PowerPoint uploaded on this site.

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DRAFT - History of U.S. Public Diplomacy

  1. 1. History of U.S. Public Diplomacy Tim Standaert Foreign Service Institute April 2014
  2. 2. U.S. Public Diplomacy: Some Basic Questions • What is Public Diplomacy? What is its purpose? Is it simply propaganda, or something else? • To what extent can the U.S. government (USG) or other democracies really influence the opinions of foreign publics with Diplomacy? Using what tools? • How does that help better protect our nation’s interests? If we “tell America’s story,” if we clearly explain US policies, society, and values, will our relations improve with other people and other governments? Will that give us a better chance of achieving our national objectives? • Is the U.S. good at PD? Are other nations better? How can we do it better?
  3. 3. U.S. Public Diplomacy: Continuing debates/tensions/questions • Is information more important than cultural programming, e.g., exchange programs, libraries, performing arts, etc? Or are they apples and oranges? • Why should the U.S. Government (USG)fundcultural diplomacy at all? And how much of the taxpayer’s money should be spent on it? • What share of Public Diplomacy should be carried out by and/or outsourced to foundations, private citizens, educational institutions (public and private), and other non-governmental partners? • Should Public Diplomacy – both the information and cultural sides – be housed within State? Or should an independent agency, along the lines of the U.S. Information Agency, be brought back to manage these activities?
  4. 4. U.S. Public Diplomacy: Continuing debates/tensions/questions • In its Public Diplomacy efforts, should the USG aim for the elite in foreign countries, or the average citizen/broad masses? • How do you coordinate the Public Diplomacy of various government agencies, e.g., State, USAID, Peace Corps, U.S. military, etc? How do you also involve academia, cultural institutions, NGOs, business, etc? • How can “hard” and “soft” power complement each other? • How does new technology impact the conduct of Public Diplomacy? • How do you measure the effectiveness of Public Diplomacy? What are the “metrics”? How important are the numbers anyway?
  5. 5. Public Diplomacy Definition • The efforts by a country’s government to communicate and interact openly and directly with foreign audiences – academics, NGOs, businesses, institutions, and even the general public – to deepen mutual understanding and to promote/protect national interests. • The aims of a country’s Public Diplomacy activities are to: – 1) influence how foreign citizens perceive that country, correcting misperceptions about its policies and values, battling stereotypes, etc; – 2) promote greater mutual understanding, keeping in mind that this should be a two-way street; – 3)indirectly impact official relations with the foreign government in a way that serves the country’s national interests.
  6. 6. Public Diplomacy Three Dimensions According to Joseph Nye, author of Soft Power, there are 3 dimensions to PD 1) Daily communications: explaining decisions and policies to the media, the public, elites, etc.
  7. 7. Public Diplomacy Three Dimensions 2) Strategic communications: focus on simple themes, with symbolic events and activities planned over the year, relying to some extent on individuals and groups outside government.
  8. 8. Public Diplomacy
  9. 9. Public Diplomacy Three Dimensions 3) Lasting relationships: With key individuals, institutions, and organizations, through exchanges, conferences, seminars, etc.
  10. 10. U.S. Public Diplomacy Embassy Country Team Structure
  11. 11. Soft Power • Term coined by Joseph Nye, former U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense, Dean of Kennedy School of Government (Harvard University), etc. – Watch Nye’s TED talk on global shift in power at: http://www.ted.com/talks/ lang/eng/joseph_nye_on_g lobal_power_shifts.html • Definition: The ability of a country or organization to shape the preferences of others, i.e., to get them to behave in a way that supports interests, without overt tangible benefits coming to them, i.e., without threats (sticks) or payments/ inducements (carrots).
  12. 12. Soft Power • Three vehicles: According to Nye, soft power rests largely on: 1) a country’s (or organization’s) culture (both high and low); 2) its political values; and 3) its foreign policy.
  13. 13. Soft Power
  14. 14. Soft Power
  15. 15. Soft Power Audience • Soft power depends on the existence of willing interpreters and receivers in a country or in group.
  16. 16. Soft Power Audience
  17. 17. Soft Power Positive: Bush, Africa and HIV/AIDS • President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR): Bush commited $15 billion over five years (2003–2008, much of it going to Africa.
  18. 18. Soft Power Beyond Government’s Control • The central government, at least in liberal, democratic countries, cannot (and should not) control all levers of soft power, e.g., television, movies, music, sports, products, companies/firms, groups and individual citizens, etc. • These other agents can have a positive or negative impact on a country’s soft power.
  19. 19. Soft Power Negative impact of Bhopal •A subsidiary of Union Carbide was operating a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India. •Night of December 2-3, 1984: A leak of gas and chemicals from the plant killed perhaps 3000 within the first week and 8000 more since, plus over 550,000 injuries, including almost 40,000 temporary or partially disabling and almost 4000 severely and permanently disabling. •8 ex-employees were convicted in 2010.
  20. 20. History of U.S. Public Diplomacy
  21. 21. International Background • French Revolution: Appealing directly to foreign publics to promote a revolutionary ideology. • 1883: In wake of defeat in Franco- Prussian War, France creates Alliance Francaise to repair national prestige, promote French language and literature. • Italy and Germany soon follow suit.
  22. 22. Early Beginnings of U.S. Public Diplomacy • The U.S. lacked any organized, official Public Diplomacy of any sort until the early 20th century. • However, informal people-to-people connections, Americans did exist: – Diplomats, e.g., “Founding Fathers” Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, etc; – Missionaries: schools, libraries, hospitals; – U.S. students and scholars travelled to Europe in the 19th century. Tremendous influence of German university structure on America’s.
  23. 23. Early U.S. Public Diplomacy: Boxer Rebellion •1900 Boxer Uprising in China •Qing Empire defeated, fined $333 million. •U.S. share of indemnity: 7.32% (plus interest) •U.S. “Open Door” Policy toward China – general opposition to “spheres of interest” •U.S. sets up program in 1909 using indemnity funds for education.
  24. 24. Boxer Rebellion Indemnity Scholars •In China: •1909-1929: 1300 Chinese students prepared to study at American universities, most at Tsinghua College, established in Beijing in 1911. •1929: Tsinghua College expanded into a university, with 4-year undergraduate and post- graduate school. •In America: •1926: China Foundation (later the China Institute) founded in New York. 5 groups of scholars educated in U.S. before 1937 Japanese invasion of China.
  25. 25. Boxer Rebellion Indemnity Scholars (continued) •Graduates: •philosopher Hu Shih (later Chinese ambassador to US); •physicist Chen Ning Yang (Nobel Prize-winner); •mathematician Kai Lai Chung; •linguist Yen Ren Chao; •rocket scientist TsienHsue-shen. •UK, France, Japan later follow suit, set up similar programs. •Boxer Rebellion Indemnity Scholars Program became model for Fulbright Program (established in 1946).
  26. 26. First World War: Committee on Public Information (CPI) • One week after U.S. enters war in April 1917, President Woodrow Wilson creates the CPI (Executive Order 2594). • Main purpose: build U.S. public support for the war. But also had offices in 9 foreign countries. • CPI headed by George Creel, editor of The Rocky Mountain News.
  27. 27. First World War: Committee on Public Information (CPI) • Over 20 divisions and bureaus. • News articles, movies, lectures, posters, signboards, wireless cable service, foreign press bureaus, film division, leaflet-filled balloons. • News Division: Official Bulletin, an 8-pages (later 32 page) paper, with positive news, distributed to all US newspapers, post offices, government offices, military bases.
  28. 28. First World War: Committee on Public Information (CPI) • Films Division: Three feature- length films released. • Division of Pictorial Publicity: posters. • Other activities: lectures, signboards, leaflet-filled balloons. • Propaganda? (Creel said no.) Psychological warfare? Honest attempt to counter German disinformation? • CPI ends domestic work with Armistice in November 1918, Congress ends funding for foreign operations in June 1919, formally abolished by Wilson in August 1919.
  29. 29. Franklin Roosevelt, the Good Neighbor Policy, and Internationalism •Uneasy relations with Latin America before FDR – neglect, exploitation, and/or intervention: War with Mexico (1848), unfair business deals, Panama Canal, etc. •Good Neighbor Policy •FDR’s speech at Pan American Union (1933): need for mutual understanding •Montevideo Inter-American Conference (1933): Announcement of lower tariffs, plans to establish cultural exchanges. (Buenos Aires 1936, Lima 1938.)
  30. 30. Franklin Roosevelt, the Good Neighbor Policy, and Internationalism •By 1937, U.S. (and Britain and France) aware of threat German and Italian propaganda and cultural diplomacy •US State Department sets up Division of Cultural Relations in 1938 to promote exchanges, English language study, set up libraries and reading rooms, translate books, provide, technical assistance, etc. •Note: Focus is on Latin America only at first. •But in pre-war period, Congress still does not want to fund fully.
  31. 31. Second World War: Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs • August 1940 (before US entry into WW2), FDR names millionaire Nelson A. Rockefeller to position. Committed to art and education. • Responsibilities: Coordinate cultural and commercial relations with Latin America.
  32. 32. Second World War: Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs • Rockefeller’s contributions: – Promotion of American high culture, including modern art (though very controversial Washington!) – Positive portrayal of Latinos in Disney movies, e.g., Saludos Amigos, Three Caballeros – Assistance to Mexico’s railroad industry • But also mixed in business, propaganda (paying for placement of positive stories in newspapers), and intelligence- collecting. (Bad mix.)
  33. 33. Second World War: Office of War Information (OWI) • 6 months after Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) establishes Office of War Information (OWI). • OWI’s goal: Explain US policy to domestic and foreign audiences, public and media through movies, leaflets, magazines, and RADIO. – Soviets had begun radio broadcasts in 1926. – Germany, Japan, Britain, Holland follow suit. – “Voice of America” (VOA) inaugurated July 1942.
  34. 34. Public Diplomacy Post-War Germany and Japan • How to “reorient” society? • Weeding out Fascist textbooks, revising curriculum, radio programs (and eventually television), etc. • Exchange programs. • Performing arts, e.g., Tokyo Symphony. • Protection of art and other cultural treasures, e.g., Kaiser Friedrich collection. • Establishment of Amerika Hauser (libraries) throughout Germany. (Warm places to read in the awful winter of 1946-47.)
  35. 35. Public Diplomacy Post-War Germany and Japan • Rebuilding the media, other parts of civil society. • English language training. Book translations. • Censorship of films, including samurai epics in Japan that ostensibly fueled militarism. • No demands for restitution or indemnities. • VERY EXPENSIVE!
  36. 36. Cold War • Rivalry between USSR and U.S./West in many areas, including Public Diplomacy • Information: Voice of America, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty • Culture: The arts, exchanges, exhibits, etc. • Libraries, books, etc. • Obstacles/challenges for U.S.: – racism/segregation – McCarthyism/Red Scare
  37. 37. Establishment of USIA • 1953: Establishment of U.S. Information Agency. – USIA takes books, libraries, English language, and broadcasting. – Exchanges remain responsibility of State Department until 1977. – 1999: USIA merged into State Department.
  38. 38. Posters, Magazines, Publications Cold War and Today
  39. 39. Broadcast Media Cold War and Today
  40. 40. Jazz Diplomacy Cold War • Parallel developments: Cold War, Jazz Diplomacy, U.S. Civil Rights Movement. • 1954: President Eisenhower convinces Congress to fund cultural exchanges as part of the Cold War battle of ideas and ideologies. • During thaw following Stalin’s death, U.S. and USSR agree to bilateral cultural exchanges at Geneva Summit (1955). • Purpose of Jazz Diplomacy during Cold War: – Promote better understanding of American society, including musical heritage. – Part of bilateral cultural exchanges with Soviet Union and other nations after Stalin’s death. – Weapon in U.S. cultural competition with Soviets. – Also helps U.S. combat “image” problem with racism and segregation.
  41. 41. Jazz Diplomacy Cold War • Early jazz ambassadors : – Dizzie Gillespie: East Pakistan, Turkey, Syria, Greece, Egypt, Lebanon, Yugoslavia (1956); Uruguay, Ecuador (1956). – Benny Goodman: Asia (1956). – 1957: Louie Armstrong cancels State Department tour of Soviet Union to protest President Eisenhower’s slow response to the school desegregation crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas. But later that same year, goes on tour of Latin America. – Dave Brubeck: Poland, East Germany, Turkey, South Asia (India, Afghanistan), Middle East (1958). – Louie Armstong: Africa (1960-61). – Etc… Jazz in Ukraine: •Benny Goodman (June 1962): First visit to Soviet Union by an American jazz group, between the Berlin Crisis (August 1961) and Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962). •Earl “Fatha” Hines (1966) •Duke Ellington (1971)
  42. 42. Jazz Diplomacy Cold War
  43. 43. Jazz Diplomacy Today
  44. 44. American Ballet in Ukraine The Cold War • American Dance Performances in Kyiv: – 1960: American Ballet Theater – 1962: New York City Ballet – 1963: Joffrey Ballet (President Kennedy assassinated while in troupe in Ukraine)
  45. 45. Cold War American Exhibit at Sokolniki in Moscow • During thaw following Stalin’s death, U.S. and USSR agree to cultural exchanges at Geneva Summit (1955). • Soviet exhibit in New York City (June 1959) • American exhibit at Sokolniki in Moscow (July 1959) • YouTube video on Nixon-Khrushchev "Kitchen Debate” (GWU) • "Nixon, Khrushchev And A Story Of Cold War Love” (NPR)
  46. 46. Cold War 1959 American Exhibit at Sokolniki in Moscow
  47. 47. Libraries, Reading Rooms, Books Cold War and Today • Books/Libraries: – Was a CPI focus starting in 1917 – Rockefeller revived idea again in Latin America in 1942, reopening reading rooms and building 3 major libraries. – McCarthy era purges – Mexico, Iran, Pakistan, etc. – Through the decades, USG support for libraries rose and, particularly after end of Cold War, fell. – American Corners – established first in Russia (IRO Eric Johnson), concept then spreads.
  48. 48. Libraries in Ukraine • Ukrainian Example: • “America House” (old-style library) set up in Kyiv, eventually transferred to a local university (Kyiv-MohylaAcademy). • The U.S. Embassy maintains an Information Resource Center (ABC) and supports the American Library, and additionally assists libraries throughout Ukraine. • Embassy has established Window on America Centers (same as American Corner) in almost every oblast center, and has set up over 140 free Library Electronic Access Project (LEAP) internet centers all over the country, including (in 2011) three special centers for the blind in Kyiv, Kherson and Rivne. • Click here to see the impact of one LEAP center on a small Ukrainian village.
  49. 49. End of Second World War Fulbright Exchange Program • Sen. William Fulbright (Democrat – Arkansas) • Himself a Rhodes Scholar • 1946: Sponsored legislation to begin exchange programs.
  50. 50. Exchanges Fulbright Program •First handful of exchanges with China and Burma. •First massive wave of Americans go to France and Italy.
  51. 51. End of Second World War Fulbright Exchange Program • UKRAINE - 1992: Fulbright Program launched in independent Ukraine: – Over 700 Ukrainians graduate students, young faculty, and scholars took part over 19 years (up to 2011). – Over 400 American graduate students and scholars came to Ukraine (up to 2011).
  52. 52. Exchange Programs For Ukrainians •20000Ukrainians(1992-2011), including 9000 on academic and 11000 on professional exchanges, including: •700 on Fulbright Programs (Master’s Degree students, young faculty, scholars, etc) •Over 950 on the Muskie Program (Master’s Degree) •Almost 850 on the Global Undergraduate Program •Over 650 secondary school teachers •Over 5000 secondary school students •Plus, over 400 American students and scholars came to Ukraine on the Fulbright Program (1992-2011).
  53. 53. Other Programs Educational Advising • Almost 1700 Ukrainian students are currently studying in the U.S. at American universities. • A network of 4 EducationUSA advising centers provides assistance to Ukrainians on the application process and the search for financial assistance.
  54. 54. Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation (AFCP): Ukraine Over the years, the AFCP has funded a number of projects in Ukraine to help conserve, preserve, and/or promote or display the following: •Fabrics in the Chekhov House-Museum (Yalta); •16th century Golden Rose Synagogue (Lviv); •Papers of Taras Shevchenko, rescued from archives in New York City (Kyiv); •MykytynskaSich fortifications in Nikopol (Dnipropetrovsk oblast);
  55. 55. Ambassadors Fund for Cultural Preservation (AFCP): Ukraine • St. Nicholas wooden church in Kolodne (Zakarpattiya); • Crimean Tatar music, manuscripts and handicrafts; • Studion Icon Collection (Lviv); • 12th century KhystynopolskyApostol manuscripts (Lviv).
  56. 56. Other Programs Ukraine
  57. 57. Other Programs Ukraine
  58. 58. Other Programs Ukraine
  59. 59. Other Programs Ukraine
  60. 60. Other Programs Ukraine
  61. 61. Other Programs Ukraine
  62. 62. Other Programs Ukraine
  63. 63. Technical Assistance as a Form of PD • Technical assistance and education had been responsibility of State. • Technical training aspect of education (at least within Europe) taken from State and given to forerunner of USAID in 1948 as part of Marshall Plan.
  64. 64. Technical Assistance as a Form of PD • USAID formally established in 1961. • Some countries “graduate,” no longer needing USAID assistance. • Russia kicks out USAID. • Ukraine example: (http://ukraine.usaid.gov) • Economic Growth • Democracy/Governance • Health and Social Issues • Combating trafficking in persons
  65. 65. Peace Corps • Peace Corps (PC) founded in 1961 • Peace Corps in Ukraine – Largest PC program in the world (as of 2011). All PCVs evacuated in 2014. – 3 areas of activity: • Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) • Community Development (CD) • Youth Development (YD) Peace Corps – http://ukraine.peacecorps.go v/projects.php – PC Volunteer (PCV) website: http://www.pcukraine.org
  66. 66. QUESTIONS?
  67. 67. Bibliography Arndt, Richard T., The First Resort of Kings: American Diplomacy in the Twentieth Century. Cull, Nicholas J., The Cold War and the United States Information Agency: American Propaganda and Public Diplomacy, 1945-1989. Davenport, Lisa E., Jazz Diplomacy: Promoting America in the Cold War Era. Hixson, Walter L., Parting the Curtain: Propaganda, Culture, and the Cold War, 1945-1961. Prevots, Naima, Dance For Export: Cultural Diplomacy and the Cold War. Von Eschen, Penny M., Satchmo Blows Up the World. Wagnleitner, Reinhold, and May, Elaine Tyler, eds., Here, There and Everywhere: The Foreign Policy of American Popular Culture.
  68. 68. Some Websites PUBLIC DIPLOMACY • University of South California’s Center for Public Diplomacy: http://uscpublicdiplomacy.org/ U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLIC DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS • U.S. Embassy Kyiv: ukrainian.ukraine.usembassy.gov (українська), ukraine.usembassy.gov (English), www.facebook.com/usdos.ukraine (English), www.youtube.com/user/USEmbassyKyiv. – Exchange Programs:http://ukrainian.ukraine.usembassy.gov/uk/exchanges.html (українська) or http://ukraine.usembassy.gov/academic_exchanges.html (English). – Window on America (WOA) centers,: http://ukraine.usembassy.gov/woacenters.html Information about U.S. society, culture, policies, and values: http://ukrainian.ukraine.usembassy.gov/uk/ejournals.html (українська), www.america.gov/amlife.html (English), and www.america.gov/ru/amlife.html (русский). – Library Electronic Access Project(LEAP) (free internet access): (http://ukraine.usembassy.gov/leap.html). • EducationUSA Educational Advising Centers (EACs) in Ukraine: http://www.educationusa.info/Ukraine.) – EAC locations: http://www.americancouncilskyiv.org.ua/uk/pages/17/ (українська - Kyiv), http://www.center-osvita.dp.ua (українська – Dnipropetrovsk), http://www.osvita.kharkiv.org/ (English – Kharkiv), http://www.osvita.org/ukr (українська - Lviv). – Publications: "USA Education In Brief" (www.america.gov/publications/books/education-in-brief.html), "See You in the USA.www.educationusa.info/Ukraine (English); See You In the USA” (www.america.gov/see_you.html),;and "Campus Connections" (www.america.gov/media/pdf/ejs/0809.pdf). • American Library (at Kyiv-Mohyla Academy): (http://www.library.ukma.kiev.ua/amer/) • Fulbright Program in Ukraine: www.fulbright.org.ua (українська), www.fulbright.org.ua/page.php (English), http://www.iie.org/en/offices/kyiv (English). • American Councils: www.americancouncilskyiv.org.ua/en (English); www.americancouncilskyiv.org.ua (українська). FLEX Program (secondary school students); Legislative Fellows Program; etc. • IREX: irex.ua/ua (українська); irex.ua/en (English). Global Undergraduate Program (Bachelor’s Degree students); Muskie Program (degree and non-degree studies at the Master’s Degree level).