Early jazz ambassadors :Dizzie Gillespie: East Pakistan, Turkey, Syria, Greece, Egypts, Lebanon, Yugoslavia (1956); Uruguay, Ecuador (1956).Benny Goodman: Thailand, Indonesia, Malaya, Philippines, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Vietnam, Burma, Cambodia (1956).1957: Louie Armstrong cancels State Department tour of Soviet Union to protest President Eisenhower’s slow response to the school desegregation crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas. But later that same year, goes on tour of Latin America.Dave Brubeck: Poland, East Germany, urkey, South Asia (India, Afghanistan), Middle East (1958).Louie Armstong: Africa (1960-61).Etc…Other musical performers: Wilbur De Paris’s New Orleans Jazz Orchestra: South Rhodesia, Congo, Tanzania, Sudan, Tunisia, Ethiopia, Morocco, Kenya, Nigerian (1957).Opera singer Marian Anderson : Thailand, South Korea, South Vietnam, India, Philippines (1957).
The Peace Corps “attracts idealists and free spirits, and it does not tell them that they are to advance American foreign policy. But they are, and they do, because they think they are not so doing… [So,] a volunteer is an arm of American foreign policy precisely inasmuch as [he or she] if not an arm of American foreign policy.” Michael Kelly, editor, National Journal.
Short History of U.S. Public Diplomacy
Soft Power andU.S. Public DiplomacyTim Standaert, Deputy Cultural AttachéU.S. EmbassyKyiv, UkraineJune 2011
U.S. Public Diplomacy:Some Basic Questions• What is Public Diplomacy?What is its purpose? Is it simplypropaganda, or something else?• To what extent can the U.S.government (USG) or otherdemocracies really influencethe opinions of foreign publicswith Diplomacy? Using whattools?• How does that help betterprotect our nation’s interests? Ifwe “tell America’s story,” if weclearly explain US policies,society, and values, will ourrelations improve with otherpeople and other governments?
U.S. Public Diplomacy:Continuing debates/tensions/questions• Is information more important thancultural programming, e.g., exchangeprograms, libraries, performing arts, etc?• Should the U.S. Government (USG) befunding cultural diplomacy at all? If so,how much of the taxpayer’s moneyshould be spent on it?• What share of Public Diplomacy shouldbe carried out by foundations, privatecitizens, educational institutions (publicand private), and other non-governmental partners?• Does Public Diplomacy – both theinformation and cultural sides – belongunder the U.S. State Department? Orshould an independent agency, like theU.S. Information Agency, be broughtback to manage these activities?
U.S. Public Diplomacy:Continuing debates/tensions/questions• In its Public Diplomacy efforts, should theUSG aim for the elite in foreigncountries, or the average citizen/broadmasses?• How do you coordinate the PublicDiplomacy of various governmentagencies, e.g., State, USAID, PeaceCorps, U.S. military, etc? How do you alsoinvolve academia, culturalinstitutions, NGOs, business, etc?• How can “hard” and “soft” powercomplement each other?• How does new technology impact theconduct of Public Diplomacy?• How do you measure the effectiveness ofPublic Diplomacy? What are the“metrics”?
Public DiplomacyDefinition• The efforts by a country’s government tocommunicate and interact openly anddirectly with foreign audiences –academics, NGOs, businesses, institutions,and even the general public – to deepenmutual understanding and topromote/protect its national interests.• The aims of a country’s Public Diplomacyactivities are to:– 1) influence how foreign citizensperceive that country, correctingmisperceptions about its policies andvalues, battling stereotypes, etc;– 2) promote greater mutualunderstanding, i.e., Americans mustalso understand other peoples;– 3) (perhaps) impact official relationswith the foreign government in a waythat serves the country’s nationalinterests.
Public DiplomacyThree DimensionsAccording to Joseph Nye, author ofSoft Power, there are 3 dimensions toPD• Dailycommunications:explaining decisionsand policies to themedia, thepublic, elites, etc.
Public DiplomacyThree Dimensions• Strategic communications: focus on simple themes, with symbolicevents and activities planned over the year, relying to some extenton individuals and groups outside government.
Public DiplomacyThree Dimensions• Lasting relationships: With key individuals,institutions, and organizations, throughexchanges, conferences, seminars, etc.
U.S. Public DiplomacyEmbassy Country Team Structure
Soft Power• Term coined by Joseph Nye,former U.S. AssistantSecretary of Defense, Dean ofKennedy School ofGovernment (HarvardUniversity), etc.– Watch Nye’s TED talk on global shift inpower at:http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/joseph_nye_on_global_power_shifts.html• Definition: The ability of acountry or organization toshape the preferences ofothers, i.e., to get them tobehave in a way that supportsits interests, without overttangible benefits coming tothem, i.e., without threats(sticks) or payments/inducements (carrots).
Soft Power• Three vehicles: According to Nye, soft power restslargely on: 1) a country’s (or organization’s) culture(both high and low); 2) its political values; and 3) itsforeign policy.
Soft PowerPositive: Bush, Africa and HIV/AIDS• Presidents EmergencyPlan For AIDS Relief(PEPFAR): Bushcommited $15 billionover five years (2003–2008, much of it goingto Africa.
Soft PowerBeyond Government’s Control• The central government, at least in liberal, democraticcountries, cannot (and should not) control all levers of softpower, e.g., television, movies, music, sports, products,companies/firms, groups and individual citizens, etc.• These other agents can have a positive or negative impacton a country’s soft power.
Soft PowerNegative impact of Bhopal•A foreign subsidiary of the U.S. companyUnion Carbide was operating a pesticide plantin Bhopal, India.•On night of December 2-3, 1984, a leak of gasand chemicals from the plant killed perhaps3000 within the first week and 8000 moresince, plus over 550000 injuries, includingalmost 40000 temporary or partially disablingand almost 4000 severely and permanentlydisabling.•8 ex-employees were convicted in 2010.
History of U.S. Public Diplomacy:Some background• French Revolution: Appealingdirectly to foreign publics topromote a revolutionaryideology.• 1883: France creates AllianceFrancaise in wake of defeatduring Franco-Prussian War torepair national prestige,promote French language andliterature.• Italy and Germany soon followsuit.
History of U.S. Public Diplomacy:Some background• The U.S. lacked any organized,official Public Diplomacy of anysort until the early 20th century.• However, informal people-to-people connections, Americansdid exist:– Diplomats, e.g., “Founding Fathers”Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin;– Missionaries: schools, libraries,hospitals, etc.– U.S. students and scholars travelledto Europe in the 19th century.Tremendous influence of Germanuniversity structure on America’s.
Early U.S. Public Diplomacy:Boxer Rebellion Indemnity Scholars•1900 Boxer Uprising in China•Qing Empire defeated, fined $333million.•U.S. share of indemnity: 7.32% (plusinterest)•U.S. “Open Door” Policy towardChina – general opposition to“spheres of interest”•U.S. sets up program in 1909 usingindemnity funds for education.
Early Public Diplomacy:Boxer Rebellion Indemnity Scholars•In China:•1909-1929: 1300 Chinesestudents prepared to study atAmerican universities, most atTsinghua College, established inBeijing in 1911.•1929: Tsinghua Collegeexpanded into a university, with4-year undergraduate and post-graduate school.•In America:•1926: China Foundation (laterthe China Institute) founded inNew York. 5 groups of scholarseducated in U.S. before 1937Japanese invasion of China.
Early Public Diplomacy:Boxer Rebellion Indemnity Scholars•Graduates:•philosopher Hu Shih (laterChinese ambassador to US);•physicist Chen Ning Yang (NobelPrize-winner;•mathematician Kai Lai Chung;•linguist Yen Ren Chao;•rocket scientist TsienHsue-shen.•UK, France, Japan later followsuit, set up similar programs.•Boxer Rebellion Indemnity ScholarsProgram became model for FulbrightProgram (established in 1946).
First World War:Committee on Public Information (CPI)• One week after U.S. enters war inApril 1917, President WoodrowWilson creates the CPI (ExecutiveOrder 2594).• CPI headed by GeorgeCreel, editor of The RockyMountain News.• Newsarticles, movies, lectures, posters,signboards, wireless cableservice, foreign pressbureaus, film division, leaflet-filled balloons.• Propaganda? Psychologicalwarfare? Honest attempt tocounter German disinformation?
First World War:Committee on Public Information (CPI)• One week after U.S. enters war inApril 1917, President WoodrowWilson creates the CPI (ExecutiveOrder 2594).• Main purpose: build U.S. publicsupport for the war. But also hadoffices in 9 foreign countries.• CPI headed by George Creel, editorof The Rocky Mountain News. Over20 divisions and bureaus.• News Division: Official Bulletin, an8-pages (later 32 page) paper, withpositive news, distributed to all USnewspapers, post offices,government offices, military bases.
First World War:Committee on Public Information (CPI)• Films Division: Three feature-length films released.• Division of Pictorial Publicity:posters.• Other activities:lectures, signboards, leaflet-filled balloons.• Propaganda? (Creel said no.)Psychological warfare? Honestattempt to counter Germandisinformation?• CPI ends domestic work withArmistice in November1918, Congress ends funding forforeign operations in June1919, formally abolished byWilson in August 1919.
Franklin Roosevelt, the Good NeighborPolicy, and Internationalism•Uneasy relations with Latin Americabefore FDR – neglect, exploitation, and/orintervention: War with Mexico (1848),business deals, Panama Canal, etc.•Good Neighbor Policy•FDR’s speech at Pan American Union(1933): need for mutualunderstanding•Montevideo Inter-AmericanConference (1933): Announcementof lower tariffs, plans to establishcultural exchanges. (Buenos Aires1936, Lima 1938.)
Franklin Roosevelt, the Good NeighborPolicy, and Internationalism•By 1937, U.S. (and Britain and France)aware of threat German and Italianpropaganda and cultural diplomacy•US State Department sets up Division ofCultural Relations in 1938 to promoteexchanges, English language study, set uplibraries and reading rooms, translatebooks, provide, technical assistance, etc.•Note: Focus is on Latin America only.•But in pre-war period, Congress still doesnot want to fund fully.
Second World War:Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs• August 1940 (before USentry into WW2), FDRnames millionaireNelson A. Rockefeller toposition. Committed toart and education.• Responsibilities:Coordinate cultural andcommercial relationswith Latin America.
Second World War:Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs• Rockefeller’s contributions:– Promotion of American highculture, including modern art(though very controversialWashington!)– Positive portrayal of Latinos inDisney movies, e.g., SaludosAmigos, Three Caballeros– Assistance to Mexico’s railroadindustry• But also mixed inbusiness, propaganda (paying forplacement of positive stories innewspapers), and intelligence-collecting. (Bad mix.)
Second World War:Office of War Information (OWI)• 6 months after PearlHarbor, President Franklin D.Roosevelt (FDR) establishesOffice of War Information(OWI).• OWI’s goal: Explain US policy todomestic and foreignaudiences, public and mediathroughmovies, leaflets, magazines, andRADIO.– Soviets had begun radiobroadcasts in 1926.– Germany, Japan, Britain, Holland follow suit.– “Voice of America” (VOA)inaugurated July 1942.
Public DiplomacyPost-War Germany and Japan• How to “reorient” society?• Weeding out Fascist textbooks, revisingcurriculum, radio programs (and eventuallytelevision), etc.• Exchange programs.• Performing arts, e.g., Tokyo Symphony.• Protection of art and other culturaltreasures, e.g., Kaiser Friedrich collection.• Establishment of Amerika Hauser (libraries)throughout Germany. (Warm places to readin the awful winter of 1946-47.)• Rebuilding the media, other parts of civilsociety.• English language training. Booktranslations.• Censorship of films, including samurai epicsin Japan that ostensibly fueled militarism.• No demands for restitution or indemnities.• VERY EXPENSIVE!
Cold War• Rivalry between USSRand U.S./West in manyareas, including PublicDiplomacy• Information: Voice ofAmerica, Radio FreeEurope/Radio Liberty• Culture: The arts,exchanges, exhibits, etc.• Libraries, books, etc.• Obstacles/challengesfor U.S.:– racism/segregation– McCarthyism/Red Scare
U.S. State Department andU.S. Information Agency (USAID)• Technical training aspect ofeducation taken from Stateand given to USAID in 1948(during Marshall Plan).• 1953: Establishment of U.S.Information Agency.– USIA takes books, libraries,English language, andbroadcasting.– Exchanges remainresponsibility of StateDepartment until 1977.– 1999: USIA merged intoState Department.
Posters, Magazines, PublicationsCold War and Today
Libraries, Reading Rooms, BooksCold War and Today• Books/Libraries:– Was a CPI focus starting in 1917– Rockefeller revived idea again in Latin America in1942, reopening reading rooms and building 3major libraries– Through the decades, USG support for librariesrose and, particularly after end of Cold War, fell.– U.S. library collection at America House onMelnikova in Kyiv was transferred to the AmericanLibrary at Kyiv-Mohyla Academy.– The U.S. Embassy maintains an InformationResource Center (ABC) and supports the AmericanLibrary, and additionally assists libraries throughoutUkraine.– The Embassy has established Window on AmericaCenters (WOA) in almost every oblast center, andhas set up over 140 free Library Electronic AccessProject (LEAP) internet centers all over thecountry,, including three special centers for theblind in Kyiv, Kherson and Rivne.Click here to see the impact of one LEAP center on asmall Ukrainian village.
End of Second World WarFulbright Exchange Program• Sen. William Fulbright(Democrat – Arkansas)• Himself a Rhodes Scholar• 1946: Sponsored legislationto begin exchange programs.• 1992: Fulbright Programlaunched in independentUkraine:– Over 700 Ukrainiansgraduate students, youngfaculty, and scholars havetake part in last 19 years.– Over 400 American graduatestudents and scholars havecome to Ukraine.
ExchangesFulbright Program•First handful of exchanges with China and Burma.•First massive wave to France and Italy.
Jazz DiplomacyCold War• Parallel developments: Cold War, JazzDiplomacy, U.S. Civil Rights Movement.• 1954: President Eisenhower convinces Congressto fund cultural exchanges as part of the Cold Warbattle of ideas and ideologies.• During thaw following Stalin’s death, U.S. andUSSR agree to bilateral cultural exchanges atGeneva Summit (1955).• Purpose of Jazz Diplomacy during Cold War:– Promote better understanding of Americansociety, including musical heritage.– Part of bilateral cultural exchanges withSoviet Union and other nations after Stalin’sdeath.– Weapon in U.S. cultural competition withSoviets.– Also helps U.S. combat “image” problemwith racism and segregation.
Jazz DiplomacyCold War• Early jazz ambassadors :– Dizzie Gillespie: EastPakistan, Turkey, Syria, Greece, Egypt, Lebanon, Yugoslavia (1956);Uruguay, Ecuador (1956).– Benny Goodman: Asia (1956).– 1957: Louie Armstrong cancelsState Department tour of SovietUnion to protest PresidentEisenhower’s slow response to theschool desegregation crisis in LittleRock, Arkansas. But later thatsame year, goes on tour of LatinAmerica.– Dave Brubeck: Poland, EastGermany, Turkey, South Asia(India, Afghanistan), Middle East(1958).– Louie Armstong: Africa (1960-61).– Etc…Jazz in Ukraine:•Benny Goodman (June 1962): First visit to SovietUnion by an American jazz group, between theBerlin Crisis (August 1961) and Cuban MissileCrisis (October 1962).•Earl “Fatha” Hines (1966)•Duke Ellington (1971)
American Ballet in UkraineThe Cold War• American DancePerformances in Kyiv:– 1960: American BalletTheater– 1962: New York City Ballet– 1963: Joffrey Ballet(President Kennedyassassinated while introupe in Ukraine)
Cold WarAmerican Exhibit at Sokolniki in Moscow• During thaw following Stalin’s death, U.S. and USSR agree tocultural exchanges at Geneva Summit (1955).• Soviet exhibit in New York City (June 1959)• American exhibit at Sokolniki in Moscow (July 1959)• YouTube video on Nixon-Khrushchev "Kitchen Debate” (GWU)• "Nixon, Khrushchev And A Story Of Cold War Love” (NPR)
Cold War1959 American Exhibit at Sokolniki in Moscow
Peace Corps• Peace Corps (PC) founded in1961• Peace Corps in Ukraine– Largest PC program in theworld– 3 areas of activity:• Teaching English as a ForeignLanguage (TEFL)• Community Development(CD)• Youth Development (YD)Peace Corps– http://ukraine.peacecorps.gov/projects.php– PC Volunteer (PCV) website:http://www.pcukraine.org
Technical AssistanceUSAID• “Technical assistance”– Separated from educationaland cultural activitiesduring Marshall Plan (1948).Known by various names.– USAID formally establishedin 1961.– USAID in Ukraine(http://ukraine.usaid.gov)• Economic Growth• Democracy/Governance• Health and Social Issues• Combating trafficking inpersons
Exchange ProgramsFor Ukrainians•20000Ukrainians since 1992, including9000 on academic and 11000 onprofessional exchanges, including:•700 on Fulbright Programs(Master’s Degree students, youngfaculty, scholars, etc)•Over 950 on the Muskie Program(Master’s Degree)•Almost 850 on the GlobalUndergraduate Program•Over 650 secondary schoolteachers•Over 5000 secondary schoolstudents•Plus, over 400 American students andscholars have come to Ukraine since1992 on the Fulbright Program.
Other ProgramsEducational Advising• Almost 1700 Ukrainian students are currently studying in the U.S. atAmerican universities.• A network of 4 EducationUSA advising centers provides assistanceto Ukrainians on the application process and the search for financialassistance.
Ambassadors Fund for CulturalPreservation (AFCP): UkraineOver the years, the AFCP has funded a number of projects in Ukraine to helpconserve, preserve, and/or promote or display the following:•Fabrics in the Chekhov House-Museum (Yalta);•16th century Golden Rose Synagogue (Lviv);•Papers of Taras Shevchenko, rescued from archives in New York City (Kyiv);•MykytynskaSich fortifications in Nikopol (Dnipropetrovsk oblast);
Ambassadors Fund for CulturalPreservation (AFCP): Ukraine• St. Nicholas wooden church in Kolodne(Zakarpattiya);• Crimean Tatar music, manuscripts andhandicrafts;• Studion Icon Collection (Lviv);• 12th century KhystynopolskyApostolmanuscripts (Lviv).
BibliographyArndt, Richard T., The First Resort of Kings: American Diplomacy in the TwentiethCentury.Cull, Nicholas J.,Public Diplomacy: Lessons From the Past. [Available electronically.]Cull, Nicholas J., The Cold War and the United States Information Agency: AmericanPropaganda and Public Diplomacy, 1945-1989.Davenport, Lisa E., Jazz Diplomacy: Promoting America in the Cold War Era.Hart, Justin, Empire of Ideas: The Origins of Public Diplomacy and the Transformationof U.S. Foreign Policy.Hixson, Walter L., Parting the Curtain: Propaganda, Culture, and the Cold War, 1945-1961.Kiehl, William P., ed., The Last Three Feet: Case Studies in Public Diplomacy.Prevots, Naima, Dance For Export: Cultural Diplomacy and the Cold War.Von Eschen, Penny M., Satchmo Blows Up the World.Wagnleitner, Reinhold, and May, Elaine Tyler, eds., Here, There and Everywhere: TheForeign Policy of American Popular Culture.
Some WebsitesPUBLIC DIPLOMACY• University of South California’s Center for Public Diplomacy: http://uscpublicdiplomacy.org/U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLIC DIPLOMACY PROGRAMS• U.S. Embassy Kyiv: ukrainian.ukraine.usembassy.gov (українська), ukraine.usembassy.gov(English), www.facebook.com/usdos.ukraine (English), www.youtube.com/user/USEmbassyKyiv.– Exchange Programs:http://ukrainian.ukraine.usembassy.gov/uk/exchanges.html (українська) orhttp://ukraine.usembassy.gov/academic_exchanges.html (English).– Window on America (WOA) centers,: http://ukraine.usembassy.gov/woacenters.html Information aboutU.S. society, culture, policies, and values: http://ukrainian.ukraine.usembassy.gov/uk/ejournals.html(українська), www.america.gov/amlife.html (English), and www.america.gov/ru/amlife.html (русский).– Library Electronic Access Project(LEAP) (free internet access):(http://ukraine.usembassy.gov/leap.html).• EducationUSA Educational Advising Centers (EACs) in Ukraine: http://www.educationusa.info/Ukraine.)– EAC locations: http://www.americancouncilskyiv.org.ua/uk/pages/17/ (українська -Kyiv), http://www.center-osvita.dp.ua (українська – Dnipropetrovsk), http://www.osvita.kharkiv.org/(English – Kharkiv), http://www.osvita.org/ukr (українська - Lviv).– Publications: "USA Education In Brief" (www.america.gov/publications/books/education-in-brief.html), "See You in the USA.www.educationusa.info/Ukraine (English); See You In the USA”(www.america.gov/see_you.html),;and "Campus Connections"(www.america.gov/media/pdf/ejs/0809.pdf).• American Library (at Kyiv-Mohyla Academy): (http://www.library.ukma.kiev.ua/amer/)• Fulbright Program in Ukraine: www.fulbright.org.ua (українська), www.fulbright.org.ua/page.php(English), http://www.iie.org/en/offices/kyiv (English).• American Councils: www.americancouncilskyiv.org.ua/en (English); www.americancouncilskyiv.org.ua(українська). FLEX Program (secondary school students); Legislative Fellows Program; etc.• IREX: irex.ua/ua (українська); irex.ua/en (English). Global Undergraduate Program (Bachelor’s Degreestudents); Muskie Program (degree and non-degree studies at the Master’s Degree level).