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GCARD road map (English)


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This document highlights the urgent changes required in Agricultural Research for Development (AR4D) systems to address worldwide challenges. GCARD2

Ce document présente la nécessité, les défis et opportunités de transformer les systèmes de Recherche Agricole pour le Développement (AR4D). GCARD2

Este documento destaca los cambios urgentes necesarios en la investigación agrícola para sistemas de desarrollo (AR4D) para abordar los desafíos en todo el mundo. GCARD2

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GCARD road map (English)

  1. 1. The GCARD Road Map Transforming Agricultural Researchfor Development Systems for Global Impact
  2. 2. The GCARD Road Map Transforming Agricultural Research for Development (AR4D) Systems for Global ImpactGFAR CGIAR
  3. 3. The GCARD RoadMap is a product of the Global Forum on Agricultural Research (GFAR) and has been endorsed by the GFAR Steering Committee. GCARD 2010 was co-organized by GFAR in collaboration with the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and Agropolis International. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of anycountry, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiersor boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or notthese have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO. ISBN 978-92-5-106908-0 All rights reserved. FAO encourages the reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Non-commercial uses will be authorized free of charge, upon request. Reproduction for resale or other commercial purposes, including educational purposes,may incur fees. Applications for permission to reproduce or disseminate FAO copyright materials, and all queries concerning rights and licences, should be addressed by e-mail to copyright@ or to the Chief, Publishing Policy and Support Branch, Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy. © FAO 2011 The Secretariat of the Global Forum on Agricultural Research is hosted at the headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in Rome. GFAR Secretariat, c/o FAO (OEKD), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153, Rome, Italy Tel. +39 06 5705 3413 • Fax +39 06 5705 3898 • E-mail:
  4. 4. ContentsExecutive Summary 51 The New Context of Agricultural Research for Development 62 Why a Road Map? 93 What is required of AR4D systems to increase their impact in development? 114 The Challenges and Opportunities in Transforming AR4D 125 Who needs to be involved? 146 Strategic Elements of the GCARD1 Roadmap, (defining actions, required roles, desired outcomes and milestones) 17 6.1 Inclusively defines key AR4D priorities and actions, driven by evolving national, regional and global development 17 6.2 Invests in ensuring equitable partnership and accountability among all stakeholders of agricultural innovation and developmental change 20 6.3 Actively achieves increased investments in human, institutional and financial resources for AR4D systems to meet demands in development 22 6.4 Develops required institutional capacities for generation, access and effective use of agricultural knowledge in development 24 6.5 Effectively coordinates linkages relating agricultural innovation to development programmes and policies 26 6.6 Demonstrates its value and gains recognition by society through involvement of stakeholders in effective demonstration and reporting 28 of outcomes 7 Roadmap Conclusion 30Annex 1: Acronyms 32
  5. 5. 4 THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t
  6. 6. Executive SummaryThe Global Conference on Agricultural Research agriculture and food-related development needs.for Development (GCARD) is organized by the It proposes a six-point plan for transformingGlobal Forum on Agricultural Research (GFAR), agricultural research for development aroundin association with the reform process of the the world, requiring actions from all those involvedConsultative Group on International Agricultural in the generation, access and use of agriculturalResearch (CGIAR). The GCARD process is knowledge:radically reshaping agricultural innovationand its significance in meeting key Millennium 1 The need for collective focus on key priorities,Development Goals. as determined and shaped by science and society,The global fragmentation and under-resourcing 2 The need for true and effective partnershipof public innovation, education and advisory between research and those it serves,processes and weak linkages with widerdevelopment processes and with farmers, NGOs 3 Increased investments to meet the hugeand the private sector, are major bottlenecks challenges ahead and ensure the requiredconstraining the value and impact of agricultural development returns from AR4Dinnovation on the lives and livelihoods of the poor. 4 Greater capacities to generate, share and make use of agricultural knowledge for developmentThe contributions and dynamic interaction of change among all actorsthousands of stakeholders from all sectors havecreated the GCARD Roadmap, providing a clear 5 Effective linkages that embed research inpath forward for all involved. The Roadmap the wider development context and actionshighlights the urgent changes required in enabling developmental changeAgricultural Research for Development (AR4D) 6 Better demonstration and awareness ofsystems globally, to address worldwide goals of the development impact and returns fromreducing hunger and poverty, creating opportunity agricultural innovationfor income growth while ensuring environmentalsustainability and particularly meeting the needs of The Roadmap shows that this transformationresource-poor farmers and consumers. is the responsibility of all those who care about the future of agriculture and its role inThe GCARD Roadmap establishes an inclusive, development. “Business as usual” is no longerrolling process of reform and capacity development an option; the time for action is now.that aims to mobilize the full power of agriculturalknowledge and innovation towards meetingTHE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u ltu r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t 5
  7. 7. 1 The New Context of Agricultural Research for Development Past successes in agricultural research and technology adoption have enabled a growing populace to avoid mass starvation and created development investment and capacity, AR4D systems in many countries are weak and ill- equipped to deal with these huge challenges. much-needed food supplies. Yet, according to Average agricultural research investments as a FAO and the World Bank, around a billion people percentage of agricultural GDP in developing still go hungry every day and 1.4 billion live in countries4 are 0.58%, compared with 2.4% in extreme poverty. Two thirds to three quarters of developed economies. By contrast, a few fast- the poor eke out a living from agriculture and they, growing economy (FGE) countries have seen and the urban poor, critically need to increase very rapid growth in AR4D with consequent their net incomes and purchasing power and improvement in food productivity; China, India and depend on sustainable productivity growth in Brazil together now account for nearly half of all agriculture for affordable food. For the poorest public AR4D investments in developing countries. people, GDP growth originating in agriculture is about four times more effective in raising incomes The GCARD1 process strongly recommended that of extremely poor people than GDP growth a radical restructuring and urgent revitalization of originating outside the sector1. However, at present AR4D systems is now urgently required for many to we are not effectively realizing this potential, nor effectively contribute to a significant reduction of are we creating sufficient opportunity for those hunger and malnutrition, to growth out of poverty who lack their own land or who seek livelihood and to addressing the many new challenges opportunities beyond primary production alone. emerging in agriculture. Moreover, GCARD1 achieved a remarkable consensus that “business The Global Conference on Agricultural as usual” is not an option for AR4D and that these Research for Development (GCARD 1), and the aims can be achieved only if: preceding analyses, consultations and discussions culminating in the Montpellier Conference in i) All stakeholders work more effectively March 20102, set out to address the key challenges together to address needs identified as most and opportunities facing agricultural research, important for the poor and see themselves technology generation, knowledge dissemination as true partners in AR4D, all playing their and delivery systems. It identified the changes best possible roles to help create large scale required in research and innovation systems so development impacts worldwide on the lives that millions of hitherto unreached resource-poor and livelihoods of millions smallholder farmers and consumers can benefit ii) The capacities and investments required are from environmentally sustainable productivity put in place to conduct necessary research, growth and improvement in systems that can and transform its outputs into development increase their food security and incomes to tackle outcomes the root causes of poverty, particularly in rural 1 World Bank (2008) World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Develop- areas3. ment. pp384 2 All reports and papers from the GCARD process can be accessed at http:// GCARD1 recognized that, after decades of 3 GCARD (2010), Transforming Agricultural Research for Development. Report of the Global Author Team: U Lele, J Pretty, E Terry and E Trigo. pp264 www. stagnation in public-funded agricultural 4 the less economically-developed countries 6 THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t
  8. 8. iii) The millions of resource-poor small agenda, with the required enabling farmers in diverse environments, along environment to transform innovation into with all other actors in value chains and food development outcomes systems, including consumers, form part of Transforming all AR4D systems thus requires innovation processes from the outset, so that attention to both: the generation of new knowledge is more responsive to development needs and research 1 Collective research and knowledge sharing outputs are more relevant and accessible to the on key outcome-focused themes globally poorest. 2 Transformation and strengtheningiv) AR4D and related knowledge-sharing of agricultural innovation systems in actions with key outcome-focused themes developing countries are embedded in the wider developmentTHE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u ltu r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t 7
  9. 9. 8 THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t
  10. 10. Why a Road Map?The GCARD clearly showed that AR4D systemsneed urgent transformation to better meetthe needs of the poor and in particular those ofresource-poor farmers and rural communities.GCARD 1 participants adopted the conceptof a “Road Map” to address these challenges.Participants recognized that, rather than hopingfor changed behavior in others, all stakeholdersmust play their own respective roles and commit are driven by the needs of poor farmers and consumers and recognizes the needs of poor producers for associated mechanisms to enable rapid adoption of advances and equitable market access. It brings a major focus on improving national AR4D systems across all sectors, supported by international actions, including those of the reformed CGIAR and the restructured FAO. 2themselves to action in improving AR4D, as a Agriculture and rural development are highlymajor contributor to goals of eradicating hunger context-specific and AR4D needs differ aroundand poverty while ensuring environmental the world. Most of the world’s poor and hungrysustainability 5. people live in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, but development needs are present worldwide andThe GCARD Roadmap is a plan for urgent, are changing rapidly with socio-economic shifts.collective action in AR4D, derived from the All are influenced by climate change. AR4D mustviews and analyses expressed through the recognize the multifunctional role of agricultureGCARD process. It matches solutions with short and consider the inter-relationships betweenand long-term goals that can be reached through poverty, food and nutritional security, health andmany paths. This roadmap has three major environmental resilience. Mobilizing and generatingobjectives, to: i) reach a consensus on important agricultural knowledge has a fundamental role inneeds in transforming agricultural research for fostering better-informed policy choices and must bedevelopment and the solutions required to satisfy strengthened at all levels to increase food suppliesthose needs; ii) provide an inclusive mechanism by sustainably, keep production costs and foodwhich to look forward and iii) provide a common prices low, yet ensure high net returns to farmersframework to plan and coordinate actions for and protect the environment worldwide. Thesedevelopment impact. are challenging interactions, requiring collective action and sharing of knowledge, but particularTo address these challenges far-reaching changes trade-offs and benefits will vary depending onare required from all key stakeholders, through the socio-economic and agro-ecological contextsa coherent stepwise approach over a sustained concerned and the policies followed. There areperiod. Changes in perceptions and behaviour many lessons to be learned between regions fromwill be required to bring tangible change in AR4D successes and failures elsewhere.system structure and function. These will need tobe objectively monitored and evaluated through Transforming AR4D requires clear links betweenend-user perceptions and real impact. Successive improved knowledge and its greater impacts inGCARD cycles will hence become important development, with innovation pathways, desiredmutually accountable vehicles, for reporting and milestones and targets. These must also considerevaluating progress in transforming AR4D and its the learning and development required arounddevelopment impact. new approaches and knowledge, while taking into consideration farmers’ risks, options and choices.The Road Map provides a plan for collaborative These pathways need to be defined by individualaction for transforming and strengthening AR4D developing countries in the context of their ownsystems globally, in which all stakeholders have development needs, plans and commitments. Thevital roles to play. Millions of smallholders are Roadmap is policy-informing, not policy prescriptivereliant on agriculture for their livelihoods and for and choices on production systems and institutionalopportunity for economic growth. The Roadmap roles are made by sovereign governments. Thethus particularly emphasizes innovations that GCARD aims to inform such choices through collective learning and feedback.5 As proposed by Ismail Serageldin, Synthesis statement, GCARD 2010.THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u ltu r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t 9
  11. 11. 10 THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t
  12. 12. What is required of AR4D systems toincrease their impact in development?From GCARD1 it was possible to define thecharacteristics of a well-functioning AR4Dsystem (Box 1). This creates clear expectationsfor all involved in the innovation process, from a clear need to avoid past failures of AR4D systems, to contribute to achieving national development targets and to ensure benefits to resource-poor smallholder farmers and poor consumers and thus 3intended beneficiaries to advanced research and help meet key Millennium Development Goalsbuilding out from national commitments. There is (MDGs). Box 1: A well-functioning AR4D system is one that is committed to action for impact and that: 1. Inclusively defines key AR4D priorities and actions, driven by evolving national, regional and global development needs 2. Invests in ensuring equitable partnership and accountability among all stakeholders in agricultural innovation and developmental change 3. Actively achieves increased investments in human, institutional and financial resources for AR4D systems to meet demands in development; 4. Develops required human and institutional capacities for generation, access and effective use of agricultural knowledge in development; 5. Effectively coordinates linkages relating innovation to development programmes and policies; 6. Demonstrates its value and gains recognition by society through involvement of stakeholders in effective demonstration and reporting of outcomes.THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u ltu r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t 11
  13. 13. 4The Challenges and Opportunitiesin Transforming AR4DThe constraints and opportunities of AR4Dhave been well documented in previous analyses,including the World Development Report 2008 andthe 2009 report from the International Assessmentof Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology 2 Inadequate attention to the many contextual factors required, including enabling policy environment, good governance, institutional and human resource capacity, capital investment for trade, infrastructure, finance,for Development6, as well as in the regional and mobilization of farmer and communityglobal reports and synthesis report developed entrepreneurship and management of relatedthrough the GCARD process. risks, all of which impact on agricultural production and productivity of smallholderThe major challenges to be farmers.overcome include: 3 A poor linkage between research processes and the development agenda, in particularAt the national level in many developing the wider enabling policies, investments andcountries: mechanisms of rural development, as well1 A lack of political commitment to invest in as wider issues such as nutrition, health and AR4D resulting in a huge gap in investment markets. and capacity required in AR4D. 4 A lack of involvement of all relevant stakeholders in agricultural research,6 Agriculture at a Crossroads: The Global Report, (2009) International Assess- technology development and learning ment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development Eds: BD McIntyre, HR Herren, J Wakhungu, RT Watson. pp606, Island Press frameworks and actions.12 THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t
  14. 14. 5 The difficulty of defining national AR4D as a major driver of economic and social priorities and actions and lack of effective development for both the rural and urban poor mechanisms to put these priorities into and new investments and funding mechanisms action through national and regional AR4D following the recent food price crisis organizations, to build equitable partnerships 2 Growth of ICTs and new roles of advisory and to conduct relevant research addressing services hastening knowledge access even in poverty, food security and environmental remote areas sustainability needs. 3 Growing inclusion of resource-poor farmersAt the regional level: in markets and strengthening of small rural- based enterprises and producer companies,6 The difficulties encountered in integrating creating opportunities for economic growth. actions at regional level, due to the complexity of social, cultural, political and At the regional level environmental factors among nations. 4 Integrated regional policies to improve7 Under-resourced regional organizations collective actions, such as the CAADP Pillar IV in and networks, with limited ownership and Africa involvement across the range of national AR4D stakeholders, compared to what is now 5 Value of multi-stakeholder Regional Fora in required. facilitating actions for development along the agriculture, food and nutrition value chain8 A lack of wider international political commitment to support regionally-organized 6 Collective actions addressing shared actions and development organizations and to challenges on a larger scale e.g. the Rice- share technological innovations Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plain, international research for developmentAt the global level: programmes, action-oriented networks and issue-based consortia.9 The as yet incomplete reform of the CGIAR and challenges in creating operational At the global level synergies between CGIAR centers and with their partners. 7 Political recognition of the role of AR4D10 Insufficient commitment to collaborative 8 Reform of international agencies such as the actions on a global scale and the need CGIAR and FAO, to become more smallholder for integrated, synergetic mobilization of producer and impact oriented. international stakeholder networks and 9 Growing recognition of GFAR as the open research and development initiatives. and inclusive mechanism for action among11 Impacts of inequitable trade worldwide, all stakeholders and the GCARD being the compounded with emerging issues with common instrument for achieving change strong adverse effects such as climate change, 10 Increased role of the fast-growing economies water scarcity and trans-boundary diseases, each as providers of technologies and learning leading to increased vulnerabilities of the poor. opportunities for other regions. 11 Technologies for more developed agriculture,Yet there are many opportunities, including those developed by both science andfor example: farmers and technologies for processing and value addition that are now finding increasingAt the national level application in developing countries.1 Renewed recognition in government policies of the role and impact of agricultureTHE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u ltu r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t 13
  15. 15. 5Who needs to be involved?The GCARD2010 identified the stakeholders thatneed to be mobilized at the national, regional andinternational levels to meet these challenges witheach as an owner of the process of transforming the knowledge in development; e.g. the UN agencies, national rural development institutions, ICT providers, micro-finance and micro-insurance agencies, farmersgeneration and use of agricultural knowledge and organizations and legislatures and thosetechnologies for development. Here we consider concerned with related agendas e.g.the needs and aims of resource-poor farmers and health, nutrition, trade and environmentalconsumers to be at the centre of the AR4D system: sustainability;• Civil society, including in particular smallholder • Donors and other development assistance farmers and farmer cooperatives/producer agencies, including bilateral and multilateral companies, community organizations and non- institutions, development banks and investors; governmental organizations at all levels, from and private foundations; local to national, regional and international and • The media. with particular need for inclusion of women and the more vulnerable groups; Rather than starting from a technology and its potential promise, transforming AR4D requires• National publicly funded agricultural research, thinking based on delivering the outcomes education and advisory institutions and desired by and for the poor and how knowledge institutional combinations of these roles; generation, access and use can help lead to these.• Private sector, including small, medium Old models of linear innovation pathways and and large agricultural input and agri-food institutional silos no longer hold in today’s rapidly enterprises, service providers, banks, insurers changing agricultural systems and stakeholders are and the agribusiness and marketing sectors and interconnected in multiple directions and pathways ethnic diasporas now spread across the world; across a spectrum of interactions, depending on the context concerned.• National policymakers of economically developed and developing countries and in The GCARD process has redefined the role of regional political and technical organizations; the Global Forum for Agricultural Research• Multi-stakeholder Regional Fora, mobilizing (GFAR) as the open and inclusive multi-stakeholder advocacy, institutional transformation, mechanism for catalyzing these changes. GFAR is knowledge sharing and regional actions not an implementing agency in itself, but brings towards large-scale development impacts. together the AR4D institutions, stakeholder networks and practical programmes active across• Institutions of international agricultural all sectors to address their common strategic research, in particular the CGIAR, the national needs in: i) policy advocacy, ii) inter-regional and institutions in fast-growing economies, global partnership, iii) institutional strengthening advanced research institutions and professional and iv) knowledge sharing. The role of the GFAR societies addressing agricultural and associated mechanism in the transformation of agricultural fundamental science; research for development systems worldwide is• Those supporting the use of agricultural a crucial function, recognized in the G8 L’Aquila14 THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t
  16. 16. Statement on Food Security, 2009. This Roadmapestablishes the common path to do so, relevantto and involving all sectors and stakeholders andin a frame built through subsidiarity, from local/national needs and actions, to regional and henceto the global frame.As the main international agricultural researchsystem, the Consultative Group on InternationalAgricultural Research (CGIAR) also has a criticalrole to play in furthering these changes. Thereform of the CGIAR towards outcome-orientedprogrammes in a more open and inclusiveinternational system creates tremendousopportunity to add value to national capabilitiesand for working in collective actions via equitablepartnerships addressing agreed national andregional development objectives. These principlesand the new focus of the CGIAR are laid out in theCGIAR’s Strategy and Results Framework (SRF),which defines the goals and expectations of thereformed system and how it aims to work withpartners and other stakeholders. The GCARDitself provides a crucial mechanism of publicaccountability for the value of the reformed CGIARsystem and its programmes, to help shape andstrengthen the value of the reformed system tobetter meet its purpose and the needs of nationalpartners of all forms.THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u ltu r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e n t S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t 15
  17. 17. 16 THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t
  18. 18. Strategic Elements of the GCARD1 RoadmapDefining actions, required roles, desired outcomes and milestonesThe GCARD Road Map aims to transform AR4D globally, from its current fragmented status to morecoherent and cohesive systems for greater impact. Its goal is that agricultural knowledge, science andtechnology should play their fullest possible roles in removing poverty, hunger and malnutrition fromthe world. To do so, collective actions are required to develop each of the six essential characteristics ofwell-functioning AR4D systems defined through the GCARD 2010 process: 6Inclusively defines key AR4D priorities and actions, driven byevolving national, regional and global development(a) Strategic elementsAR4D systems need to be focused towards and income needs of the rural poor and the food demand of increasingly urbanized populations, 6.1 while ensuring the sustainability of production andachieving defined development impacts, food systems.recognizing the complex realities in which theseoccur. Defining national development priorities and The GCARD 2010 process has identified keyeffective AR4D actions among diverse partners is AR4D themes and actions on a global scale,not a straightforward process. It requires political reflecting the research and development needs ofwill to frame innovation in a way that learns developing countries through a multi‐stakeholderfrom the past. It requires changed mandates that review and consultation organized by thetake a broader view of agricultural innovation, Agricultural Research Fora in each region of thenew operational norms and methodologies world (AARINENA, APAARI, CACAARI, EFARD, FARAwhich are both standardized and flexible, better and FORAGRO), together with issues identified byplanning and learning from actions and better the analyses of the CGIAR and the internationaluse of existing knowledge into these processes. It agricultural development priorities agreed byrequires accountability to those served by AR4D, Governments through the processes of FAO,as well as those paying for the work. Priorities the World Bank and other UN agencies. Despiteneed to integrate science with development obvious regional and contextual differences, globalin consideration of issues such as sustainable integration and GCARD discussion of these analysesintensification, better access to safe, nutritious has found considerable congruence in prioritiesfood by vulnerable communities, increasing identified in key areas where AR4D actions areagricultural incomes through value-adding post- most required and the form and function theseharvest management and creating entrepreneurial should take. These now need to be taken back intoopportunities for resource-poor smallholder national and regional contexts and mapped againstfarmers and producers. In these processes, the incidence of poverty, food and nutritionalbetter use of existing knowledge and generating insecurity, environmental degradation, etc. andnew knowledge are themselves essential tools potential partnerships entailed, to determinefor understanding policy trade-offs and useful where interventions can bring greatest benefitssynergies, to meet both the pressing nutrition and impacts.THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u ltu r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t 17
  19. 19. Improved foresight is essential if development needs and future priorities are to be prioritized and create a clear view of new challenges as they begin to emerge. Forward-looking, anticipatory research and analysis needs to integrate a range of perspectives on key issues, making use of the best available data and interpretations from different sources and directly integrating the diverse views of farmers and other stakeholders on specific problems, so that important issues are examined through multiple ‘lenses’. Each approach here may resolve only part of the story, but together they can produce collective best-bets on future needs, recognizing the benefits and trade-offs among potential policy options. Climate-change analyses already show the value of such an approach. (b) Required Roles National institutions in charge of research priority setting must; i) connect with strategic planning and work from a basis of desired development outcomes identified in rural development, food security and agricultural plans and commitments, ii) adopt an inclusive process involving all relevant stakeholders and centred on meeting the needs of the poor, iii) ensure a diversity of options are considered including use of traditional knowledge, conventional approaches and new technologies, iv) determine actions based on available skills and resources including those from the private sector and the civil society and v) evaluate technologies and knowledge that can be accessed from external sources. Multi-stakeholder regional and sub-regional fora must be strengthened to better include the perspectives of diverse stakeholders and help shape innovation policies and capacities in each region. This strengthening requires strong engagement with all stakeholder constituencies, commitment and funding support from national and regional development organizations and support from international agencies working across and into regions. AR4D fora must engage with regional policy organizations and development banks to derive regional agricultural research and innovation priorities, which in turn are embedded into wider development processes. Opportunities18 THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a ns f o r m i n g A g r i c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t
  20. 20. for sharing information, including success stories (c) Desired outcomes andand stimulating regional collective actions, should milestonesbe examined to enhance both speed and efficacy of • Current and future AR4D agenda and prioritychange. Potential technologies and actions need to setting at National, Regional and Globalbe cross-linked through discussion and agreement levels to be an evolutionary and inclusiveamong partners that can help fulfill each part of the process among all AR4D stakeholders, basedprocesses required. on use of the best available knowledge.At inter-regional/global level, the GFAR By GCARDs 2 and 3, milestones will bemechanism should catalyze and mobilize measured as:the linkages and processes required among i) Experiences and learning in establishinginternational research implementers such as National, Regional and Global multi-the CGIAR, advanced research institutions, the stakeholder planning and monitoringinstitutions of the fast-growing economies and systems for AR4D prioritization andinternational policy bodies such as FAO and UNDP that these add capacity and value to nationaland regional prioritization processes through ii) Number and quality of Regional and Globalexpert advice, analysis and awareness on issues and Partnership Programmes and initiatives,opportunities affecting the potential of AR4D to including, those of the CGIAR, addressingbetter meet national development needs. common and cross-cutting challenges through innovative multi-stakeholderThe need for improved foresight must be actions in agreed frameworks;addressed by mobilizing expert analyses withincountries to analyze specific themes of concern and • Future agricultural scenarios projected bybringing together, via GFAR and the regional Fora multi-stakeholder cross-referenced analyses,and on a coherent and regular basis, the diverse to better identify new knowledge needs andnational and international initiatives to examine shape research required.relevant development scenarios through differentlenses, learning from the outcomes of the different i) Foresight academy consortia establishedmodels and perspectives employed. Alongside this, to address future needs in national andwide stakeholder consultation will be mobilized regional contexts.through national and regional fora, to ‘ground- ii) Coordinated foresight actions establishedtruth’ the realities and impacts of trends among at international level to stimulate andpoor rural communities. integrate diverse analyses of key issues and their projections.THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u ltu r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t 19
  21. 21. 6.2 Invests in ensuring equitable partnership and accountability among all stakeholders of agricultural innovation and developmental change (a) Strategic elements and services. Intellectual property is emerging as a key element to consider in ensuring access Food security and agricultural development are to agricultural innovation of all forms. Clarity is the responsibilities of sovereign governments. needed at all levels as to who benefits from new Development impacts depend on national approaches and how those least able to pay can strategies and commitments around national still be included or protected in the application innovation systems. These must involve public, of new technologies in order to avoid further private, community and civil society actors and exacerbating the problems of the poor. reconcile their different aims and interests through common principles of partnership; developing The international architecture of agricultural shared objectives, agreed roles and responsibilities, research is changing rapidly. In line with transparency, trust and understanding and mutual the Paris and Accra Declarations, the active accountability for success. participation of developing countries in the design, implementation and definition of targets Effective and equitable partnership is essential for international research and in establishing to reduce fragmentation in the system and enable shared objectives and commitments, is essential each actor to deliver their best value in a wider for maximizing value addition and impact from frame of actions towards impact. international actions. In return, identifying For this, the interests of intended beneficiaries; global targets can be useful catalysts in helping in particular poor farmers and consumers must countries to revisit their research and development now be represented directly in the shaping and objectives and frameworks and examine how implementation of research. Farmers are also best international AR4D might help deliver innovators and should be seen as partners in desired national outcomes. Advanced research innovation systems, bringing great returns for the institutions (ARIs) are important partners to poor and sparking new lines of upstream research. national systems, either directly or via international research intermediaries and leading-edge Traditional partners in the sharing of knowledge science has much to offer if harnessed towards and learning are rapidly being enhanced or development objectives. ARIs now include at times even displaced by ICTs while service institutions of the fast growing economies (FGEs) delivery is increasingly provided by private and civil and it is important to determine how these new rather than public organizations. ICTs are having a international actors can best support AR4D tremendous impact in breaking through barriers capabilities in other countries and participate in of language, culture and institutional separation inter-regional activities. to provide many new linkages and opportunities, even in remote locations. (b) Required Roles The increasing role of the private sector, NGOs True partnership requires investment of time and and professional farmer organizations as service attention and equitable relationships that have to providers linking science and society must be accommodate vastly different scales of resources recognized in entrepreneurial opportunities, as and very diverse perspectives, knowledge and well as all being key contributors in generating and contexts. National AR4D policymakers and transforming knowledge into innovative products research institutions must develop bottom-up 20 THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t
  22. 22. decentralized processes to engage effectively with opportunities and implications of the new AR4Dcommunities and stakeholders, to better understand architecture in addressing and resourcing majortheir needs and perspectives and integrate themes.these into effective and equitable partnerships.Strengthened Regional Fora, equitably inclusive (c) Desired outcomes andof all sectors, will catalyze international actions milestonesbetween countries and inclusive partnership withactors such as farmers organizations, NGOs and the Development outcomes enhanced throughprivate sector (SMEs, input suppliers and markets), national AR4D systems that fully recognize theinto regional and inter-regional actions geared to multi-stakeholder nature of innovation in theirmeeting development objectives. International planning, delivery and learning and work throughCenters in and beyond the CGIAR, including common principles of effective partnership:ARIs and FGEs, must exploit to their fullest their • Documented shifts in research funding &partnership potential with national systems, regional monitoring systems to incorporate partnershipand global networks and the private and other principles.sectors and development organizations, so thateach plays it’s most effective role, complementing • Equitable Partnership Principles and IPand adding value as a global pool of capabilities procedures put into practice at all levels, withinand with clear strategies for enabling transition the new AR4D architecture and equitableof innovations and roles to national partners. For partnerships fostered by strengthened multi-success, funding bodies will need to invest more in stakeholder Regional Fora.the equitable formulation of and learning from AR4D • Change in attribution and reward systemsprocesses and not just their implementation. GFAR, used by AR4D institutions to better valuethrough mentoring the GCARD process, will catalyze development objectives and contributions ofstructured in-depth consultations to examine the each partner.THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u ltu r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t 21
  23. 23. 6.3 Actively achieves increased investments in human, institutional and financial resources for AR4D systems to meet demands in development (a) Strategic elements National Agricultural Research and Innovation Systems should consider their investment The CGIAR estimates that to deliver commitments in light of the new societal needs developmental outcomes on the scale required and priorities identified, via inclusive processes to meet the major challenges that lie ahead involving all relevant stakeholders. National and in view of the enormous investment backlog systems should develop strategies on what already caused by the under-funding of the technologies and knowledge can be generated past two decades, it will be necessary to triple or mobilized nationally, what capacities and the global scale of investment in AR4D over investments are needed to do so and how to access the next 15 years7. Beyond direct national AR4D new capabilities, technologies and knowledge from investments, increased national investments and external and international sources. aid flows will also be needed in the wider rural development (e.g. in rural infrastructure, water International and national funding agencies access and education) and food systems required to together need to greatly increase their investments achieve large-scale impacts from AR4D outcomes. from the 2010 base, while also improving expenditure quality and accountability. Financial For agricultural innovation to deliver effectively support for AR4D must provide flexibility for towards desired development outcomes, it is also institutions to innovate and recognize the essential to pursue more integrated and effective long-term nature of research and development investments, based on the principles of Paris and investments. More integrated strategies must Accra. This also requires coherent and effective be developed for improving the effectiveness of investments among AR4D actors supporting aid flows for national and global AR4D systems, national actions and their outcomes, including explicitly aligning bilateral and multilateral the CGIAR, the ARIs and the research centers in investments in research with those in wider the FGEs. Increased funding will require strong development. evidence-based advocacy to demonstrate the value of increased and sustained investment in Regional fora should document and track research, training and delivery systems. investments and returns from research and development investments, building from national (b) Required Roles to regional commitments, linking with the policy and investment bodies responsible and working Government commitments must lead these with governments, regional development banks processes and stimulate efforts from others, also and supporting donors as well as the farmer, mobilizing contributions from the private sector private and NGO sectors. Regional and global and civil society and international development intergovernmental policy organizations must assistance and AR4D actors. commit to increase well-coordinated investment and human resource development in AR4D and help ensure that national and international 7 A Draft Strategy and Results Framework for the CGIAR. For discussion at efforts attain the levels of investment required the Global Conference on Agricultural Research for Development (GCARD) 20 March 2010, CGIAR framework-and-mega-programs to meet nationally-established targets towards key MDGs. Multi-country arrangements must be 22 THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t
  24. 24. developed within and between regions and sub- (c) Desired outcomes andregions, to increase the spillover effects of existing milestonesinvestments and capacities, making use of new National research investments reach a target‘South-South’ opportunities for sharing knowledge value of 1% of agricultural GDP by 2025 andand advances. rural development investments to reach 10% ofInternational research actors including CGIAR, agricultural GDP by the same date.ARIs and research centers in FGEs have valuable To achieve these, GFAR constituencies must workroles to play, in mobilizing and leveraging together to address the vast investment gaps ininvestments for international research and in AR4D and linking research investments to wideradvocating the need to build national AR4D development commitments:system capacities to effectively fulfill and sustainactions required. Experiences of FGEs in the • Advocating, monitoring and reportingdevelopment of agricultural research, education investment commitments by both developingand advisory systems can also provide valuable and developed countries from the baseline yearsupporting arguments for leveraging national and of resources and investments in AR4D • Mobilizing expertise to help national, sub-systems globally. regional and regional research organizations toGFAR provides the inclusive and objective improve and track the quality and performancemechanism and GCARD the regularized process of AR4D investments and partnerships, withrequired for monitoring investments and high- enhanced accountability for results.level advocacy for increased investment in the • Advocating the strong potential contribution ofsector, on behalf of all AR4D stakeholders AR4D into high-level policy fora.THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u ltu r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t 23
  25. 25. 6.4 Develops required institutional capacities for generation, access and effective use of agricultural knowledge in development (a) Strategic elements infrastructure/facilities and societal worth need to be provided to attract the best talent at all levels The need for greatly increased local and and to retain trained researchers and advisers. It national capacities of AR4D actors is clear and is important that young people themselves help urgent in many countries, most critically so in express what changes are needed in agricultural countries recovering from protracted conflict or education and incentives to make careers more crisis. Developing the required new AR4D capacities attractive and valued and better recognize demands better analysis of needs and concerted the range of roles now required in AR4D. This policies and actions at all levels along the also requires a shift in thinking and knowledge innovation pathways concerned. The reform and generation to bring best opportunity in roles strengthening of national AR4D systems must help that will bring aggregate value to agricultural them to be more inclusive, more coherent, more production, including marketing, processing focused and more accountable to those they serve. and distribution and their associated innovation, knowledge and financing needs. Agriculture is an ageing and undervalued profession in many countries and special attention Research and innovation value and reward must be given to encouraging young people into systems, for both institutions and employees, careers in all aspects of AR4D and to encouraging need to be radically revised to take better and involving women into roles in AR4D, in account of development value and ‘client’ particular into senior positions. Better career relevance, encourage collective capacities and incentives, including financial reward systems, foster coherence, integrate new approaches with 24 THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t
  26. 26. agricultural realities and increase the contribution public, private and civil actors and the requiredof agricultural science to society. policy and investment commitments to:Actors and capacities involved in the • Better meet development demand, particularlydissemination of knowledge and sharing of recognizing the needs of the disadvantaged;learning are changing significantly. Civil society • Promote better AR4D incentives, includingand the private sector are playing increasing roles new value and skills rewards systems directlyand research/extension/education institutional relevant to development;divides are disappearing. Farmer’s own innovationis increasingly recognized in participatory • Improve awareness, mentoring and rewards toresearch and experiential-learning, but these attract the brightest and best into agriculturalneed to be linked to wider AR4D knowledge careers.and input access for farmers to benefit from the Regional and global intergovernmentalrange of opportunities available. The new roles organizations, CGIAR, ARIs and FGEs mustand partnerships of those compiling, integrating optimize capacity development through coherentand transforming agricultural knowledge into and shared actions, targeting countries whereinnovative practices, technologies and enterprises, the needs are greatest and quickly overcomingneed to be adequately resourced and supported to capacity needs through learning from experiencesdeliver the impacts at scale that are now required. and capabilities elsewhere. The convening roleDeveloping collective capacities to engage with of Regional and Global Fora and their functionsmarkets through producer companies and enabling in the sharing of knowledge and innovationinputs on farm and in value addition processes, between regions is crucial in facilitating capacitysuch as by micro-finance and micro-insurance, are strengthening and networking of skills whereincreasingly important capacity requirements for required to support national developmentmarket supply and quality needs to be met. processes and hasten development through inter- regional learning.Regional capacity development partnershipis needed to: i) generate economies of scale incollaborative AR4D, ii) foster inter-country and (c) Desired outcomes andinter-regional cooperation, learning and exchange milestonesof experiences and develop national capacities Effective scale of national AR4D systemsand iii) promote more effective regional and sub- established to meet agriculture-relatedregional collaborative research and networking development needs, educational systems linkedto make better use of available resources and directly with agricultural innovation and newenhance capacity development in the smaller and value systems for a development outcome focus:weaker national systems. Countries devastatedby protracted conflicts are particularly vulnerable i) National policies integrate roles of education,and warrant particular attention in rebuilding research and advisory institutions, withtrust systems and capacities in AR4D, as essential curricula and reward systems revised to betterelements of both enhancing their food security and meet new and future AR4D career needs,rebuilding communities and livelihoods. particularly for women; ii) Concerted international platforms/networks(b) Required Roles enable learning and tangible capacity outcomes between countries and regions;At national scale, clear policies and principlesfor capacity development must be applied to iii) Capacity needs of states emerging fromtransform and build up national systems, linking protracted conflict addressed via learning fromeducation systems directly with research and experiences elsewhere and mobilization ofadvisory institutions and bringing together international supporting efforts.THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u ltu r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t 25
  27. 27. 6.5 Effectively coordinates linkages relating agricultural innovation to development programmes and policies (a) Strategic elements that successful agricultural systems, and in turn agricultural knowledge, play in development, To contribute effectively towards development societal growth and stability. A more holistic outcomes, it is essential that the generation and approach is needed, going far beyond productivity use of new agricultural knowledge is linked with alone, to integrate food security and nutrition, the enabling environment required, in particular livelihoods and environmental sustainability, to enable resource-poor producers to grow from recognizing the mutual synergies and trade offs in poverty through on- and off-farm opportunities achieving each. An example of such an integrated related to agriculture and food (e.g. in market policy and practical approach already exists in opportunity, producer companies, microfinance, Africa, with the Comprehensive African Agricultural value addition, land access etc.) to translate Development Programme (CAADP) and within this innovations into changes and impacts on the the Framework for African Agricultural Productivity. ground and in particular among the intended beneficiaries of research: the hitherto un-reached Wider perspectives themselves throw farm households, consumers and public. Poor up innovative AR4D, for example in value linkages between research processes and those addition, reducing food chain losses and greater enabling wider rural development and between understanding of constraining factors such as land national, multilateral and bilateral development rights that may otherwise negate AR4D impacts assistance in support of these, are collective failings for the poor. For all stakeholders in poor-farmer of AR4D systems around the world. agriculture & food systems and along value chains to be able to take advantage of new knowledge, we Resolving these needs requires a clear outcome- need greater understanding of the organizational based approach, integrating research into requirements of collective actions and enterprises. development processes and linking actions in each. This requires organization from local through to Outcome based planning and coherent actions, global levels, to better articulate collective needs aligned with national strategies and plans, must and demands and engage more effectively with the make use of pathways of innovation and research shaping and implementation of AR4D. that address the value chain from seed to plate and aim to increase returns to poor farmers at all levels, as well as identifying and developing (b) Required Roles viable alternative livelihood opportunities for GFAR stakeholders should examine the policy those unable to take up innovation products and investment linkages between innovation and be competitive producers. This also enables and development at all levels; country by country identification of key interventions required to and region by region and work to ensure that i) remove blockages and barriers to large-scale AR4D investments and innovation pathways are impacts. directly contributing towards wider development commitments and ii) that development policies Closer linkages with other development sectors take full account of agricultural research and are required, particularly with health and nutrition, knowledge sharing in their formulation. Some education, governance, infrastructure and FGEs provide useful illustrations of the returns finance, recognizing the vital multiple functions to be obtained from such an approach and their 26 THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u lt u r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t
  28. 28. experiences need to be shared. • Research elements successfully incorporated into national strategies and investment plans• Smallholder farmers and poor consumers, such as those prepared in Africa under the at the centre of the agenda, need to be better CAADP process. involved to better understand and manage risks and opportunities in the adoption of new • AR4D mapped against national development practices. and investment plans and Ministries brought together for coherent actions on key• Policy makers will examine linkages between development agendas relevant to AR4D. agriculture, health, finance, environment and other sectors to create more joined up systems • Strategies developed for regional actions and of planning and investment that relate to policy investments that address key large scale AR4D frameworks. themes through regional and inter-regional actions, aligned with government roles and• AR4D actors will review and seek to improve regional policy commitments. alignment of investments in research and innovation with those in rural development, • Better documenting the impact and returns food systems and markets, with a particular from agricultural innovation and knowledge in attention to public-private and public-CSO development processes, so that these are better partnerships for effective delivery. recognized in the formulation of strategies and investments.(c) Desired outcomes and • International agendas such as the L’Aquila Foodmilestones Security Initiative on investment and policyAgricultural research for development actions actions of UN agencies incorporate medium-embedded and institutions integrated with long term research and knowledge-sharingprocesses enabling rural development. components within their thinking and planning.THE GCARD ROAD MAP T r a n s f o r m i n g A g r i c u ltu r a l R e s e a r c h for D e v e lo pm e nt S yst e m s for G lo b a l I m pac t 27