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Farmers’ Rights: Achieving Complementarity Between the Informal and Formal Seed Systems

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This presentation was used in the GFAR webinar on "Farmers’ Rights: Achieving Complementarity Between the Informal and Formal Seed Systems". -- Announcement blogpost was here: https://blog.gfar.net/2017/05/10/gfar-webinar-farmers-rights-achieving-complementarity-between-the-informal-and-formal-seed-systems/
...and the actual webinar recording can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQ9c2_nbtBc

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Farmers’ Rights: Achieving Complementarity Between the Informal and Formal Seed Systems

  1. 1. GFAR-Secretariat@fao.org GFAR Webinar on Farmers’ Rights: Achieving Complementarity Between the Informal and Formal Seed Systems
  2. 2. Presenters • Juanita Chaves Posada, Senior Advisor on Genetic Resources, GFAR • Mario Marino, Secretariat of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture • Gloria Otieno, Bioversity International, Regional Office in Uganda • Szonja Csörgõ, European Seed Association, Belgium • Bram de Jonge, Oxfam Novid, The Netherlands Moderators: Charles Plummer/Peter Casier (GFAR)
  3. 3. FARMERS’ RIGHTS WEBINAR: ACHIEVING COMPLEMENTARITY BETWEEN THE INFORMAL AND FORMAL SEED SYSTEMS Webinar Framing and Programme Juanita Chaves Posada 30 May, 2017
  4. 4. • Farmers • Crop genetic improvement by farmers’ selection, classical plant breeding or modern biotechnologies contribute to food security • Informal and formal seed systems • Farmers’ and Breeders’ Rights
  5. 5. • Complementarity needs joint efforts by stakeholders and strong partnerships • No one (individual or organization) can do this by its own. Participatory plant breeding in Honduras. Photo Credit: USC Canada
  6. 6. Aims of the webinar • Reach a common understanding of Farmers’ Rights • Exchange information on specific examples enhancing complementarity • Idenfication of partnerships and collective actions • identification of challenges • Motivate participants of working together, strengthening partnerships and collective actions according to their own roles, to achieve the complementarity between the formal and informal seed systems
  7. 7. Programme • A presentation will be made regarding what Farmers’ Rights as they relate to seeds and the recognition of these rights by the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture • Three presentations will follow on examples achieving complementarity between the sectors in practice, including between conservation on-farm and ex situ; innovation systems, and holistic policies and legal measures recognizing and integrating the roles of the various players of both the informal and formal seed systems
  8. 8. Next steps • Blog with link to presentations, summary of discussion • Report (document) to be presented at the Seventh Session of the Governing Body of the International Treaty and other bodies
  9. 9. JUANITA.CHAVES@FAO.ORG WWW.GFAR.NET THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION
  10. 10. www.fao.org/plant-treaty Article 9 Farmers’ Rights Webinar on Farmers’ Rights: Achieving Complementarity Between the Informal and Formal Seed Systems 30 May 2017 Mario Marino Technical Officer, ITPGRFA
  11. 11. The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) • International instrument for the management and conservation of crop genetic resources • Adopted in 2001, entered into force in 2004 • Objectives: - Conservation - Sustainable Use - Fair and equitable benefit-sharing • Cornerstone: Farmers’ Rights
  12. 12. The important role of farmers The Contracting Parties recognize the enormous contribution that the local and indigenous communities and farmers of all regions of the world (…) have made and will continue to make for conservation and development of plant genetic resources, which constitute the basis of food and agriculture production throughout the world (Art. 9) Affirming that (this contribution) is the basis of Farmers’ Rights (Preamble)
  13. 13. Why Farmers’ Rights Matter? … to enable farmers to continue as stewards and innovators of crop diversity and reward them for their contribution to the global genetic pool and food security.
  14. 14. The emergence of Farmers’ Rights • The idea of Farmers’ Rights came up in the early 1980s • A proposal to balance the increased demand for plant breeder’s rights • To draw attention to the unremunerated innovations of farmers that were seen as the foundation of all modern plant breeding
  15. 15. The roots of Farmers’ Rights in FAO • In 1987, considerations were suggested in a working group under the FAO that formed the foundation for all further negotiations on Farmers’ Rights: Recognition of farmers’ contribution The need to reward farmers for their contribution The rights holders were not to be single farmers or communities, but entire peoples Farmers’ and plant breeders’ rights to be developed simultaneously, seeking a balance
  16. 16. The roots of Farmers’ Rights in FAO • Resolutions 4/89 and 5/89 were a milestone, but not legally binding, nor were the ways in which it was to be implemented. Based on these, the Conference decided: “Farmers’ Rights will be implemented through an international fund on plant genetic resources which will support plant genetic conservation and utilization programmes, particularly, but not exclusively, in the developing countries.” The fund never materialized…
  17. 17. Reaffirmation of the Concept of Farmers’ Rights • Agenda 21 Chapter 14.60 (a) – UN agencies are regional organizations should strengthen the Global System on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of PGRFA by … taking further steps to realize Farmers’Rights • In 1992: The Convention on Biological Diversity adopted … identified the realization of Farmers’ Rights as one of the ‘outstanding issues’ for further negotiation. • FAO was urged to commence negotiations fro a legally binding international regime on the management of PGRFA, and resolve the question on Farmers’ Rights.
  18. 18. Negotiation outcome: Article 9, Farmers’ Rights • In Article 9, Contracting Parties of the Treaty recognize the enormous contribution that farmers of all regions of the world have made, and will continue to make, for the conservation and development of plant genetic resources as the basis of food and agriculture production throughout the world. • The preamble of the Treaty further addressed Farmers’ Rights • Other Articles in the Treaty also support Article 9
  19. 19. The Implementation of Farmers’ Rights
  20. 20. 95 participants from 37 countries, representing all regions; comprised of farmers’ organizations, indigenous and local communities, government representatives and other relevant stakeholders. Recent Undertakings - Global Consultation on Farmers’ Rights, 27-30 September 2016, Bali, Indonesia
  21. 21. • Establish an ad hoc Working Group to guide and assist Contracting Parties in the implementation of Farmers' Rights. • Request the Secretariat to provide organizational assistance to the Ad Hoc Working Group on Farmers’ Rights, in particular to effectively involve in their work farmers’ organizations and other relevant stakeholders from all regions; • Invite Contracting Parties to contribute to the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Farmers’ Rights by organizational and financial support and by facilitating the participation of farmers’ organizations and other relevant stakeholders.   • Invite Contracting Parties to provide the Secretariat with electronic copies of legislation and other regulations they have adopted relating to the implementation of Farmers' Rights. • Call on Contrating Parties to revise, as necessary, seed laws, intellectual property laws and other legislaton that may limit the legal space or create undue obstacles for the realization of Farmers Rights. Bali Consultation: Key Recommendations to be presented to the GB
  22. 22. 59 participants from 10 Contracting Parties (Angola, Cameroon, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Namibia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe), CSOs (CTDO, BCI, APA), Vice Chair of the Bureau for the Treaty who is also the Chair of the African Group, research organisations (KALRO ARC,) Universities, Regional organisations (ARIPO, SPGRC), CGIAR, farmer organisations and Farmers. - Farmers’ Rights Stakeholders’ Global Consultation, 27-29 June 2016, Harare, Zimbabwe
  23. 23. • Global Forum on Agricultural Research (GFAR) – joint programme on capacity building on Farmers’ Rights • Collaboration within FAO different units and other UN agencies to promote synergies and/or linkages with relevant and related programmes and opportunities for scaling up food security and sustainable development approaches • Collaboration with CSOs (IPC Secretariat, QUNO, regional and national stakeholders) and other groups to promote awareness raising, capacity building and further consultations on Farmers’ Rights to crop genetic resources • Follow up and facilitate the Bali Global Consultation outcomes and recommendations Collaborations and Partnerships and Future Activities
  24. 24. Realization of Farmers’ Rights • Submission of Contracting Parties and other stakeholders (availbale at: ITPGRFA website) • Some examples of best practices and lessons learned - The Benefit Sharing Fund: currently supporting national and local stakeholders in over 45 countries; projects leading to technology transfer, knowledge management and capacity building - a primary form of non-monetary benefits - The India’s Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act (PPVFR Act of 2001) – the Act confers three concurrent rights: to breeders, farmers and researchers. It recognizes the farmer as cultivator, conserver and breeder.
  25. 25. Educational Module on Farmers’ Rights • The third in a series of five educational modules of the International Treaty • The module is for a broad range of stakeholders, especially for the learners that are new in the International Treaty • The module explains the conceptual foundation of Farmers’ Rights • Based on submissions of Contracting Parties, written books and publications – the module presents some best practices and examples leading to the realization of Farmers’ Rights, and through the examples, encourages learners to think of innovative ways of implementing Farmers’ Rights into practical realities and according to their country-specific context • Provides some useful links to websites, books and publications, programmes and initiatives relevant to Farmers’ Rights Soon To Launch…
  26. 26. THANK YOU Mario Marino Technical Officer, ITPGRFA
  27. 27. Seed systems and Farmers’ Rights: Experiences from East and Southern Africa Gloria Otieno Associate Scientist: Genetic Resources and Food Security Policy
  28. 28. Challenges faced by farmers today  Challenges  Climate change  Pests and diseases  Inaccessibility of “suitable seeds”  Poor quality seed  Lack of inputs  Consequences  Low productivity  Food & nutrition insecurity
  29. 29. Farmers’ rights to equitably participate in benefit sharing: finding suitable genetic resources through various ABS mechanisms and the multilateral system Reference Communities in Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, Zambia & Zimbabwe International Gene Bank Collections National Gene Bank Accessions Voluntary inclusions Other communities Voluntaryinclusions
  30. 30. Participatory evaluation and selection of seed from the MLS & national gene banks Farmers in Nyando, Kenya evaluating millet varieties from the national gene bank collections and MLS Evaluating banana varieties in Nakaseke, Uganda
  31. 31. Farmers rights to save and exchange and exchange seeds through seed fairs Seed fair organized by Kiziba CSB In Uganda Seed fair by Chibika CSB in Uzumba Maramba Pfungwe, Zimbabwe
  32. 32. Partnerships: Linking CSBs with National Gene banks and Research in Uganda Established with Bioversity’s Support
  33. 33. The Role of Intermediaries & institutions: Local NGOs eg CTDT Zimbabwe, outreach to communities to access CG center materials from ICRISAT
  34. 34. Protection of traditional knowledge and conservation though Community Seed Banking & Community Biodiversity Registers I • Established by support from various organizations • Linked with National gene banks and breeding programs – which provide support for • restoration of lost varieties • Keeping CBS’s collections in duplicates • Registration of farmer varieties***** • Used as learning platforms for farmers • Supported to establish Local Seed Businesses for QDS Production
  35. 35. Increasing accessibility to seed through Production of quality declared seed (QDS) in Uganda
  36. 36. Recognizing Custodian farmers
  37. 37. Supporting Women farmers in Kenya Women seed savers in Gilgil, Kenya Supported by seed savers’network •Trained on production of quality seed & proper storage •Established their own seed bank •Have developed a community biodiversity register
  38. 38. Challenges  Policy and legal environment  Different ABS Regimes  Farmers’ rights vs, Breeders rights  Stringent seed policies  Registration of farmer varieties***  Low financial capacity to invest in farmer rights related activities
  39. 39. Some useful reading  https://www.bioversityinternational.org/fileadmin/user_up load/Supporting_Community_Seedbanks_Clancy.pdf  https://www.bioversityinternational.org/fileadmin/user_up load/research/Cross- cutting_themes/Gender_at_the_center_of_our_research_ campaign/Kiziba_Uganda_case_study_Bioversity_Internat ional.pdf  https://www.bioversityinternational.org/fileadmin/user_up load/Supporting_Community_Seedbanks_Clancy.pdf
  40. 40. Thank you www.bioversityinternational.org/subscribe @BioversityInt Gloria Otieno g.otieno@cgiar.org
  41. 41. Complementarity from the point of view of the formal seed sector Szonja Csörgő Director IP & Legal Affairs, European Seed Association GFAR webinar on Farmers’ Rights Achieving complementarity between the informal and formal seed systems May 30, 2017
  42. 42. EUROSEEDS.EU42 Challenges to complementarity Why is complementarity important? What are the challenges? Different understanding of the basic concept (FR) Lack of trust Lack of enabling environment To be addressed at Treaty level Mutual In both directions Stakeholder level National level Both sectors are needed to achieve that FR is implemented in the right context
  43. 43. EUROSEEDS.EU43 How is the general trust situation now at policy level? AGUAPAN: The story of a company project focused on the implementation of FR
  44. 44. EUROSEEDS.EU44 How is the general trust situation now? AGUAPAN: The story of a company project focused on the implementation of FR Reaction from representatives of informal sector and policy makers: This cannot be. Why would a seed company do such a thing? There must be something behind...
  45. 45. EUROSEEDS.EU45 Why would a seed company do such a thing? CHALLENGES CHOICE & QUALITY BENEFIT-SHARING
  46. 46. EUROSEEDS.EU46 Where is the proof?
  47. 47. EUROSEEDS.EU47 Conclusions • The notion and the context of FR has to be clarified so that it can be implemented in the right context • On individual project level trust is already achieved BUT trust should achieve a different level
  48. 48. CONTACT US ESA European Seed Association Avenue des Arts 52 B 1000 Brussels T. +32 (0)2 743 28 60 secretariat@euroseeds.eu FOLLOW US ON THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!
  49. 49. GFAR Webinar: Achieving complementarity between the informal and formal seed systems Bram de Jonge Seed Policy Advisor Oxfam, The Netherlands Sowing Diversity= Harvesting Security Program
  50. 50. Page 50 Sowing Diversity=Harvesting Security Goal To uphold, strengthen and mainstream the rights and technical capacities of indigenous peoples and smallholder farmers, and to influence local to global policies and institutions on access to and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and nutrition security under conditions of climate change. Photo:Sacha de Boer
  51. 51. Page 51 SD=HS: D is Diversity • 5 countries: Laos, Myanmar, Peru, Vietnam (North and South), Zimbabwe, 150,000 HH, 50% women • Agro-ecosystems: Low land paddy fields, high mountain altitude, semi-arid region, high and low potential areas • Rice based, potato based , small grains based systems + NUS • 50 Partners and allies: CSOs, IPSHF, governments, universities, national and international research institutions, private sector • Donors: Sida, IFAD, Netherlands Post Code Lottery, Dutch government +++
  52. 52. Page 52 Some Achievements • 2012-now: 410++ FFS established, at least 60 percent women. Reducing hunger periods from 17 to 7 weeks, eliminated in some areas (North Vietnam) • Published and implemented FFS Curriculum, including Facilitators’ Field Guides on PPB in Maize, Pearl Millet, Sorghum and Groundnut • FFS-PPB: effectively proven both in small scale (low potential) and high-yield commercial farming areas • 400 seed clubs in Mekong Delta—30 percent of seed requirement of the region (vs 17percent seed companies) in 2014 • Research and policy advocacy on Seed Laws • http://www.sdhsprogram.org/publications/ • http://www.issdseed.org/sites/default/files/case/issd_africa_t wg3_sp9_seed_laws_170412.pdf • Voluntary Guide for National Seed Policy Formulation
  53. 53. Page 53 Local to Global Savalbard Seed VaultPhotos: ANDES, Svalbard
  54. 54. Page 54 Linking Formal & Farmer Seed Systems Genetic resourcesbreeding multiplication release marketing seed selection production diffusion
  55. 55. Page 55 Farmer Field Schools are key Genetic resourcesbreeding multiplication release marketing seed selection production diffusion Farmer Field Schools
  56. 56. Page 56 Linking community seed banks with (inter)national gene banks Genetic resourcesbreeding multiplication release marketing seed selection production diffusion Farmer Field Schools Facilitated access to gene bank materials; Community seed banks
  57. 57. Page 57 Train Farmers & Breeders in Participatory Plant Breeding, Nutrition & NUS Genetic resourcesbreeding multiplication release marketing seed selection production diffusion Farmer Field Schools Participatory Plant Breeding Facilitated access to gene bank materials; Community seed banks
  58. 58. Page 58 Legal Space: Farmers co-manage variety release Genetic resourcesbreeding multiplication release marketing seed selection production diffusion Participatory Plant Breeding Participatory variety selection; Farmer representation Facilitated access to gene bank materials; Community seed banksFarmer Field Schools
  59. 59. Page 59 Farmers involved in EGS production Genetic resourcesbreeding multiplication release marketing seed selection production diffusion Farmer Field Schools Participatory Plant Breeding Participatory variety selection; Farmer representation Facilitated access to gene bank materials; Community seed banks Special producer groups for early generation seed
  60. 60. Page 60 Establish Farmer Seed Enterprises Genetic resourcesbreeding multiplication release marketing seed selection production diffusion Farmer Field Schools Participatory Plant Breeding Participatory variety selection; Farmer representation Facilitated access to gene bank materials; Community seed banks Farmer Seed Enterprises Special producer groups for early generation seed
  61. 61. Page 61 Legal Space for exchange & trade of protected varieties amongst smallholders farmers Genetic resourcesbreeding multiplication release marketing seed selection production diffusion Farmer Field Schools Participatory Plant Breeding Participatory variety selection; Farmer representation Facilitated access to gene bank materials; Community seed banks Farmer Seed Enterprises Special producer groups for early generation seed ‘Free’ distribution of protected varieties for smallholder farmers
  62. 62. Page 62 Thank you! www.sdhsprogram.org Photo:Sacha de Boer
  63. 63. Questions/Remarks

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