The causes of conflicts vary but include historical ethnic divisions, internal and external political disputes and oppression, poor governance, economic and social disparities, discriminatory policies and abusive control of resourcesThe main casualties of post conflict situations are infrastructure and institutions. Their deterioration adversely affects service delivery thereby undermining economic activity and increases vulnerability of especially the poor. Some of the manifestations of breakdown of institutions are lawlessness, corruption, under-performance, and unsustainable exploitation of natural resourcesWith their infrastructure and institutions severely compromised, these countries face difficulties recovering from crisis—so the crisis becomes protracted. For example, a country whose agricultural research, extension & education capacity is severely eroded cannot stimulate the agric productivity increases needed for it to recover from a crisis or from a further shock such as a disease outbreak.Crises that are not triggered by conflict e.g. by natural disasters such as the earthquake in Haiti or food scarcity such as in Ethiopia in 1970s & 80s and more recently in the 2008 food price crisis, are susceptible to degenerating into conflicts which compound their initial situation.Post conflict and protracted crisis situations are similar to situations in fragile countries defined as those that are not able to deliver basic services to their citizens.Bullet 6: country regarded as protracted crisis when ration is 10% and more
Estimates are contained in the 2010 FAO state of food insecurity report.2PC countries are increasing from 5 in 1990 to 22 in 201077% of protracted crisis countries in AfricaAmounts to about one third of African countries. With regard to numbers of people (rather than countries), about 20% of hungry people are located in a protracted crisis countryBullet 1: development is often viewed as a gradual process of improvement in quality of life with a crisis temporarily interrupting the smooth rise. But in reality especially in recent time, once a country descends into crisis the norm is that it gets trapped thereBullet 2: The characteristics of crisis countries makes the interventions for normal countries untenable. For example in a non-crisis country the capacity for it to adopt new technology is likely to exist. A crisis country may not be able to take advantage of new technology because it lacks the human capacity, the infrastructure and the necessary institutions.Yet the support they receive does not take adequate account of their unique circumstancesOne African crisis country had the conditions to produce huge surpluses for the export market but lacked adequate storage facilities to support marketing of the produce for export.
Sub Saharan Africa is the youngest region (44% of the population is under 15 years (2006 data)) compared to 16% in Europe.Examples child soldiers, kids lured into criminal activities, easy to mobilise for causes that compromise stability of the country (riots).Need to channel this tremendous energy into a force for development. However, a number of factors militate against agricultural reconstruction in post-conflict and protracted crises countries. In addition to asset depletion due to theft and destruction, access to land, water, pasture and forests in post-conflict settings is no longer guaranteed. Clashes of customary and statutory land regimes, loss of historical memory, weak statutory titling, and the destruction of recognized landmarks lead to sustained uncertainty and low motivation to invest in agrarian economic activities.Agricultural research and development (AR4D) systems are basic to finding the long-term solutions to the sources and motors of recurrent crises. AR4D in post-conflict and protracted crises countries invariably suffers from poor research infrastructure and financial means, high staff turnover and loss, weak regional and international collaborative research ties, and virtually in-existent intra-country collaboration between research, universities, producer organisations and the private sector.
Nevertheless, the post-conflict environment offers a window of opportunity for re-inventing the agricultural innovation system in view of changing (inter-)national contexts and development agendas. Moreover, in those countries characterized by sustained hostilities between parties to the conflict, agricultural innovation faces the additional challenge of having to contribute to peace building and reconciliation. The emergence of alliances and collective actions across sectors from scientists to farmers, from research to extension and local knowledge, offer new opportunities for finding enduring solutions to crisis and conflict through agricultural innovation.
Map shows where the scientists trained by SCARDA are now working. The training was carried out to cover the capacity gaps identified through the institutional analysis Bullet 2: The institutional reforms led to the creation of RABWe believe these changes will contribute to increasing agricultural productivity in this country.
With existing resourcesEstablishment of a consultative platform for global cooperation between 2PC countries. This may include preparation of an advocacy plan, identification of nodal persons in each participating countries, online interactions and exchange of ideas on the platform, and setting up of a portal and virtual learning group.Needs assessment for identifying priorities for concerted actions. Activities here may include organizing the team to do the assessment and outline of methodologies.Inventory of physical resource endowments of 2PC countries. Activities here may include inventorying existing physical resources at national level, organization of a regional marketplace on a non-profit basis, setting up “closed wallets” or non-monetary accounting systems for settling cross-border mutual services.With Additional ResourcesEstablishment of policy frameworks for capacity development. Activities here may include preparation of vision paper; stakeholder analysis; leader identification; stakeholder management strategy; national meeting of donors, ministers and directors from participating countries; identifying champions and lobby strategies and toolsRegional integration of agricultural innovation strategies. Activities here may include development of capacity development programs, bilateral agreements on cross-border collaboration and exchange of human resources and pooling of research infrastructure, establishment of regional centres of expertize, establishment of competitive fund for exchange programs; development of extension models for cross-border pastoral communitiesWith Large scale investmentsValue chain development strategy and market access in 2PC countries. Activities here may include creation of national innovation platforms (multi-actor and multi-sector), training of value chain advisors, development of regional value chains.Development of skilled human resources. Activities here may entail strengthening the capacity for advisory services at national level, regional coordination of universities and research centres, building capacity of scientists, leveraging regional capacity pools to strengthen national capacities, strengthening post-graduate programs and coordination among extension servicesDeveloping private sector agro-dealership systems. Pertinent activities here include identifying best practices, elaboration of field manuals and ToT strategies, identifying private sector sponsors, implementation of regional training programs
Establishment of policy frameworks for capacity development. Activities here may include preparation of vision paper; stakeholder analysis; leader identification; stakeholder management strategy; national meeting of donors, ministers and directors from participating countries; identifying champions and lobby strategies and toolsRegional integration of agricultural innovation strategies. Activities here may include development of capacity development programs, bilateral agreements on cross-border collaboration and exchange of human resources and pooling of research infrastructure, establishment of regional centres of expertize, establishment of competitive fund for exchange programs; development of extension models for cross-border pastoral communities
These meetings are opportunities to influence policy and help establish crisis countries as a priority theme for investment. When an African country was threatened by hunger WFP mobilised US$125m for emergency food aid. Estimated that investment of US$ 20m in science & tech. could have averted this & future hungers in that countryThe journey does not end at GCARD. Beyond GCARD the action plans will be operationalised. African agric science week provides an opportunity to take stock of progress in Africa. Similar forums in other regions are envisaged
P3.3. Rebuilding Livelihoods in Post-Conflict and Protracted Crisis Countries
Rebuilding Livelihoods in Post-Conflict and Protracted Crisis Countries: Results of the Kigali Workshop on Strengthening Capacity for Agricultural Innovation Irene Annor-Frempong1, Nelson Ojijo1 and Thomas Price2 1Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) 2 Global Forum for Agricultural Research
Outline• Background• Issues presented and discussed• Intended Outcomes of The Kigali Movement by 2014• Commitments to collective actions in 2012 – 2014 (national, regional and international)• Next steps
BackgroundAre characterized by: Several typologies (by FAO, UNDP, World Bank, etc)1. Destruction of infrastructure 4. Erosion of resilience to cope2. Break down of institutions (Brain with shocks and fully recover drain, limited incentives, weak governance) 5. Food insecurity and limited capacity to address it3. Uncertainty & mistrust; risks of the conflict re-emerging 6. Large proportion of external support is humanitarian
Countries once in crisis, tend to be trapped in it • Food insecurity is the commonest feature in these countries • Is 3x as high as in other developing countries • 17 out of the 22 protracted crisis countries (2010) are located in Africa Source: FAO, 2010“No low-income fragile or conflict-affected country has yet achieved a single MDG.” World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development
Why focus AR&D interventions on capacity development in 2PC countries• The Youth – 44% of SSA population is under 15 (2006 data)• Large youth population is huge asset if equipped with skills to generate income• Frustrated, unemployed youth is a big risk
The Kigali Meeting• First of its kind to bring 2PC countries around the globe to rally around a common cause.• 45 participants from 14 2PC countries from Africa and Asia: • Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo Brazzaville, Sierra Leone, Burundi, Ethiopia, Uganda, Central African Republic, Chad, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Conakry, Liberia, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan• Elaborated the next steps to arrive at “intended outcomes” and “commitment to collective actions” by 2014• This collaborative effort dubbed “The Kigali Movement” for agricultural research for development in post-conflict and protracted crisis countries
Issues presented and discussed in the Kigali WorkshopPresentations and discussions were based on 3 key areas1. Context of conflict or crisis: key areas identified for re-buildinglivelihoods included; o leadership and vision o human resources o primary emphasis on agriculture or rural development as key primers for inspiring progress from the crisis or conflict situation2. Agricultural capacity: imperatives identified included; o regional integration and solidarity; o multi-actor and multi-sector platforms; o management and rehabilitation of former combatants/fighters; and o political and policy dialogues
Issues presented and discussed in the Kigali Workshop3. Agricultural capacity development: Avenues outlined included • Holistic approach to capacity development that encompasses institutional analysis • Client-driven approaches inclusive of farmers and producer organizations • Improving linkages between agricultural research, extension and education at national, regional and international levels • Cross-border mobility of regional experts and on-the-job training and mentorships in research and academic institutes • Promotion of innovation platforms
Focus on Agriculture and capacity development are effective in rebuilding livelihoods in 2PC countries • Example of the holistic approach (SCARDA) “Rwanda suffered much and in Rwandanobody believed it could comeout of it but we managed tobuild a state which is currentlystrong and proud. The bestway to reach sustainablesocio-economic rehabilitationis investing more inagriculture.”Dr Agnes Kalibata, Laureate of the YARAPrice 2012 for Green Revolution in Africa(The Honorable Minister of Agriculture andAnimal Resources of Rwanda)
Intended Outcomes of The Kigali Movement by 20146 outcome areas emerged;Outcome 1: A Consultative Learning Platform for cooperation between2PC countries in Africa and Asia o Result 1.1. A functional consultative platform for cooperation among 2PC countries established in Africa and AsiaOutcome 2: Availability of adequate policy frameworks for short-, medium- and long-term capacity development for agriculturalinnovation o Result 2.1. Short term policy that facilitates decentralized deployment of inter- disciplinary teams elaborated o Result 2.2. Medium- and long-term policies elaborated
Intended Outcomes of The Kigali Movement by 2014Outcome 3: Regional integration of agricultural research fordevelopment strategies o Result 3.1. National needs assessment for short, medium and long term trainings of policy makers, managers, researchers, extension workers, and farmers’ associations o Result 3.2. Bilateral and regional agreements on the cross-border collaboration and exchange of human resources (including students) and shared infrastructure o Result 3.3. Develop an extension model specific to cross-border pastoral areas
Intended Outcomes of The Kigali Movement by 2014Outcome 4. Support strategies for value chain development andmarket access in post-conflict and protracted crisis settings o Result 4.1. Creation of national innovation platforms (multi actor and multi sector) o Result 4.2. Training of value chain advisors o Result 4.3. Analysis of existing and potential local value chains o Result 4.4. Regional exchange aiming at development of regional chains
Intended Outcomes of The Kigali Movement by 2014Outcome 5: Availability of sufficient skilled human resources o Result 5.1. Capacity of scientific and advisory services strengthened o Result 5.2. Private sector based agro-dealership systems stewardedOutcome 6. Availability of physical resources o Result 6.1. Inventory of existing physical resources necessary for effective AR4D o Result 6.2. Organization of regional market places to stimulate agricultural innovation
Commitments to collective actions in 2012 – 2014 (national, regional and international)With existing resources• Establishment of a consultative platform for global cooperation between 2PC countries• Needs assessment for identifying priorities for concerted actions• Inventory of physical resource endowments of 2PC countriesWith Additional Support• Establishment of policy frameworks for capacity development• Regional integration of agricultural innovation strategies
Commitments to collective actions in 2012 – 2014 (national, regional and international)With specific large scale programme investment• Value chain development strategy and market access in 2PC countries• Development of skilled human resources• Developing private sector agro-dealership systems
The Kigali Movement: Next steps ROME. High level Expert Forum on Protracted Crises 13-14 Sept 2012 KIGALI PUNTA DEL 6-8 Sept 2012 ESTE, Uruguay: Global Conf.on AR4D29Oct-1Nov 2012
The Kigali Movement: Next steps• This GCARD 2 session we expect to consolidate earlier discussion with concrete action areas for collective actions for the next 2 years• Follow inputs into the High Level Expert Forum• Continue to take opportunities to influence policy, investment and action for 2PC AR&D at all levels (national to global)• Operationalization of action plans beyond GCARD• The African agricultural Science week provides an opportunity to take stock of progress in Africa. Similar forums in other regions are envisaged
Thank youfor being part of the “Kigali movement”