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Kemahiran Organisasi dan Kepimpinan


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Kemahiran Organisasi dan Kepimpinan

  3. 3. Chapter Overview <ul><li>1- A discussion of the process of creating and sustaining ethical organizational environments. </li></ul><ul><li>2- An analysis of the moral dimensions of transforming leadership theory. </li></ul><ul><li>3- Examination of the ethical influences that participants have on their organizations through behavior modeling. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Creating and sustaining an Ethical Organizational Environment. <ul><li>Understanding and applying ethical theories and models that operate from organizational values or codes of conduct as well as being aware of your own moral development, helps to create and sustain ethical organizational environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Nash (1990, pp 43-47) process four qualities that are necessary for participants to advance ethical standards in an organization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinking skills to analyze and convey the ethical components of a problem or dilemma. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possessing a high degree if integrity to stand up for your personal and professional ethics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to see situations from others perspectives (showing concern to others) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being personally motivated to do the right thing. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>It is important when using these ethical decision making models and principles that you are prepared to received criticism, see members revolt and perhaps experience a decline in membership. </li></ul><ul><li>Not everyone in an organization is prepared or willing to do the right thing or has a moral orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>These four qualities of leadership, when translated into behavior and action, help create an ethical organizational environment. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>All participants- positional leadership and members alike-should be equally empowered to set a tone in the organizational climate that will foster and support ethical and moral actions and sensitivities. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants should identify and operate from a shared set of core values that guide the organizations activities, actions and decisions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Members are empowered to hold each other accountable, participate in moral talk or dialogue, and work together to sustain an ethical environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Creating awards and recognition for members who help sustain an ethical environment by taking risks to do the right thing is an excellent way to publicly acknowledge and promote ethical behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other side of the award continuum, unethical behavior should be addressed, but in a different manner . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Public humiliation was a practice commonly used in the past to confront and punish violators of the law or ethical standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Some organizations lack a positive ethical environment because leaders and participants are not committed to a moral orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>These types of organizations may in fact, reward unethical behavior because it is seen as “improving” the organization. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Individuals committed to leading with integrity are faced with their own dilemma of what to do when their values and principles clash with the organizations standards. </li></ul><ul><li>This is very difficult situation and offers only three choices : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore or put up with the situation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Address the situation and work to change the organizational climate into one that is ethical in nature. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leave the organization. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Moral Purpose as an Act of Courage . <ul><li>David Kaczynski turned his brother, Theodore Kaczynski, in to the authorities because he suspected him of being the Unabomber. </li></ul><ul><li>David Kaczynski is an example of a courageous individual who did what he believed was right for the greater people. </li></ul><ul><li>He acted with emotional agony because he wanted to believe that his brother was not the Unabomber. </li></ul><ul><li>In the final analysis, David Kaczynski acted with the moral purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>More in depth examination is needed of leaders and participants who are ethical in their dealings and who model good leadership- leadership that is moral, courageous, and responsible . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Assumption About Ethical Leadership <ul><li>There are many myths and misunderstandings about “good” leadership-leadership that is ethical and effective (Ciulla, 1995). </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>:: Eight assumptions about ethical leadership (Lucas and Anello, 1995) :: </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics is the heart of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>- It is the central issue in leadership (Ciulla, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>- “Good leadership” means that is effective, in that goal were achieved, and that follows a sound and ehical process. </li></ul><ul><li>- The means do justify the ends when leading with integrity </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>2) All leadership is values-driven </li></ul><ul><li>- Participants and leaders bring to the organization their own values and beliefs about how people should be treated, notions of what is right versus what is wrong, and ideas about what is just and fair. </li></ul><ul><li>3) The journey to ethical leadership bedins with an examination of personal values </li></ul><ul><li>- As well as ongoing reflection of personal core values and how these values are related to the values of organization or community. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>4) Ethical leadership can be learned in a variety of ways </li></ul><ul><li>- Experience : trial and error </li></ul><ul><li>- Reflection : about notion what is just and fair in a given situation </li></ul><ul><li>- Conceptualization </li></ul><ul><li>- Application </li></ul><ul><li>:: the life experiences you gain over time will affect your development as an ethical leader </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>5) Ethical leadership involves a connection between ethical thought and action </li></ul><ul><li>- Linking moral reasoning with values and action is imperative in leadership </li></ul><ul><li>- To engage us in ethical analysis and insights based on theories and concepts applied to real-life experiences </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>6) Character developments is an essential ingredient of ethical leadership </li></ul><ul><li>- A leader’s character is defined by his or her actions and behaviours, not simply by the values that are espoused </li></ul><ul><li>- Leaders can be popular yet not be respected by the public because they lack congruency between their values and actions </li></ul><ul><li>- They don’t walk their talk (“cakap tak serupa bikin”) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>7) Members at all levels of an organization or community have the opportunity and responsibility to participate in the process of exercising ethical leadership </li></ul><ul><li>- Ethical leadership is a shared process, not just the responsibility of a positional leader </li></ul><ul><li>- Share the responsibility of advancing core organizational values and of doing the right thing </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>8) Everything we do teaches </li></ul><ul><li>- Role modeling is the powerful way to influence the ethical climate in families, organizations, and communities </li></ul><ul><li>- We learned by watching others and we make judgments about what is acceptable and unacceptable in organizations </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cultural Assumptions <ul><li>Ethics also are culturally bound or culture-specific </li></ul><ul><li>There is no universal agreement on what behaviors or practices are considered appropriate, legal, ethical, or moral across cultures (Henderson,1992; Toffler, 1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Different by each countries and cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Laws and regulations influence the changing nature of ethical practices and behaviors, especially in business world </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ethical Theories and Moral Purposes <ul><li>The study of human behavior as it relate to </li></ul><ul><li>ethics and ethical development reaches back to the philosopher kings (Aristotle, Plato, Socrates) as well as to 18 th and 19 th century philosophers and scholars such as Immanuel Kant and John Stuart </li></ul><ul><li>- Ethical theories glimpse into how human judgments are made and the thought processes individuals engage in solve ethical dilemmas and other problems </li></ul>
  21. 21. Transforming Leadership Theory <ul><li>Transforming leadership is a process in which “leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation” (Burns, 1978, p. 20) </li></ul><ul><li>Transforming leadership is theory is about the relationship and influence between leaders and followers </li></ul><ul><li>Burns describes this symbiotic relatioship as an interaction of power and shared values. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>“ It is the power of a person to become a leader, armed with principles and rising above self-interest narrowly conceived that invest that person with power and may ultimately transform both leaders and followers into persons who jointly adhere to modal values and end-values (Burns, 1978, p. 457) </li></ul><ul><li>The moral purposes of both leaders and participants are the key factors in the transforming leadership process. </li></ul><ul><li>Change results from these shared moral purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational leaders also are value-driven. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a core set of values that are consistent with their action </li></ul>
  23. 23. Modeling a Moral Purpose <ul><li>If participants admire or identify with another member or leader, they will be more likely to imitate that’s person behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning theory provides a framework for understanding how individuals learn from others (Sims & Lorenzi, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Vicarious learning or behavioral modeling has important implications for the leadership process </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Organizational and community members can learn ethical practices by observing those who model these practices in their leadership approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Participants also model behavior that inspires leaders’ ethical awareness (Chaleff, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>For example : the members of a student-owned food co-op influenced the student-manager to use empathy in deciding whether to dismiss an employee who missed work three days in a row to care for his ill elderly grandmother </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>The members asked the manager to consider the fact that the employee who missed was putting himself through and that he was the only relative who could care for his grandmother </li></ul><ul><li>They suggested that the manager revise the work schedule to allow the employee time to help his grandmother and still maintain some hours at the co-op </li></ul><ul><li>In this example, the members were modeling how empathy could be used by putting themselves in the employee’s situation and realizing what the impact of dismissal would be. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Leaders and participants would benefit by engaging in conversations that allow people to explore the moral complicities and demensions of problems or dilemmas. </li></ul><ul><li>Birds and Waters(1989) provide an interesting notion of modeling or influencing ethical behavior through verbal exchanges or moral talk or dialogic leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>The dialogic leader initiates discussion with peer and members about what is ethical approches and to help create a sustain an ethical environment. </li></ul><ul><li>A discussion ensues about whether or not the activitiy is counter to the organization’s values of academic excellence and integrity. </li></ul>MORAL TALK
  27. 27. <ul><li>The relationship between leadership and ethics can be illustrated by the application of enduring values in a system of human relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>This sensitive relationship is made difficult by the fact that values system vary from individual to individual. </li></ul><ul><li>While the topic of ethics is encounted by individual leaders and participants, little discourse about ethics is referred to as group muteness (Birds and Waters 1989) </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Unfortunately, individuals often hesitate to participate in moral talk or discussions about ethical dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for this include the avoiddance of complax problems with moral overtones, protection of the positional leaders own managerial flexiblelity in solving problems and avoidance of dealing with varying ideological or moralistic perspectives. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Group members might also avoid discussion of ethics and due to their own ethical illiteracy. The potential harm caused by not modeling this through conversations or discussions is the neglect of moral abuse or an environment that is indifferent to moral considerations. It is the shared responsibility ot members and leaders to initiate moral talk and to avoid moral muteness. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Moral expressions have the potential to arouse feelings of connection with moral action. The language in moral talk has to be connected with experiences and ecpactations of people involved in the organization for the modeling effect to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Moral talk canbe used as a type of modeling influence when the dialogue is used to identify problem, consider issues, advocate and citicize policies and justify and explain decision (Birds and Waters 1989) </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>The leadership process is filled with daily ethical dilemmas and problems thatdo not have readily indentifiable solutions and that leaders and perticipants need to confront and resolve. </li></ul><ul><li>The Relation Leadership Model with his emphasis on inclusiveand process-oriented leadership to achieve results for the common good, suggests that leaders and members both in included in addressing ethical dilemmas. </li></ul>Ethical Decision-Making Models
  32. 32. <ul><li>Leaders and participants together need to be reflective, challenging, caring, purposeful, and consultative when working through ethical issues. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several approaches you can use to resolve ethical dilemmas. Some situations might call for using a professional code of conduct. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Ethic is not a neat and tidy concept. Not all situations can be resolved by the application of professional codes or organizational standards (Beauchamp & Childress 1979) </li></ul><ul><li>It requires human judgment and analysis to evevn determine whether a situation represents an ethical dilemma or something else, like a personality conflict between two members. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Leaders and participants can use moral talk to influence pthers to carefully consider their perspectives and positions on issues. </li></ul><ul><li>One of several models could be used to guide ethical decision making, the following section includes three models that can be use as practical tools in resolving ethical dilemmas. </li></ul><ul><li>All of these models should be used by leaders and participants together to collaboratively work through problems. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>The models should be applied with careful analysis rather than with a rigid application of any parcicular model reflection and a careful consideration of other factors are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>These models call for the use of your moral imagination, that is visualizing new alternatives to old or unsolved problems, otherwise the frameworks cannot stand on their own. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Practical Application <ul><li>Ethical decision- making models encourage people to work through dilemmas with a moral purpose in mind an provide frame works in which to guide decision making and analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than react quickly to dilemmas, you should carefully consider various steps, including ethical analysis, toward making sound decision. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Rest Four-Component Decision-Making Model <ul><li>James Rest (1986) provides a practical decision-making model based on moral reasoning and an ethic of care. </li></ul><ul><li>This model have four components of a decision-making process that can be applied,when faced with a problem that poses no clear solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Moral development or moral behavior is composed of four distinct functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Although one process might interact or influence others, the four processes have distinct funtions. </li></ul><ul><li>Rest’s model describes the processes involved in the production of a moral act, not general traits of people </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>The four compenents are not presented as four virtues that make the ideal moral person but as major units of analysis in tracing how particular course of action was produced in the context of a particular situation. </li></ul><ul><li>The model is not linear,time bound sequence. There may be complicated interactions between the various components. </li></ul><ul><li>For example,a person’s way of defining what is morally right(component 2) might affect the person’s interpretation of situation(component 1) </li></ul><ul><li>The model presented in exhibit 9.1 should be thought of as depicting a logical order for development of a moral act to occur (Rest,1979,1986). </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>EXHIBIT 9.1 Rest Four-Component Decision-Making Model </li></ul><ul><li>Component 1 : Moral Sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>(interpreting the situation as moral) </li></ul><ul><li>Being aware of the situation’s moral dimension, that is, that the welfare of another person is at stake </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing how possible course of action affect all parties involved </li></ul><ul><li>Component 2 : Moral Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>(defining the morally ideal course of action) </li></ul><ul><li>Determining what should be done </li></ul><ul><li>Formulating a plan of action that applies a moral standard or ideal (example,justice). </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Component 3 : Moral Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>(deciding what to do) </li></ul><ul><li>A. Evaluating the various courses of action for how they would serve moral or nonmoral values (example, political sensitivity, professional aspirations) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Deciding what to do </li></ul><ul><li>Component 4 : Moral Action </li></ul><ul><li>(executing and implementing a moral plan of action) </li></ul><ul><li>Acting as one intended to act ; following through with that decision </li></ul><ul><li>Assisted by perseverence, resoluteness, strong character, core values, the strenght of one’s convictions, and so on </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>In the helping professions, several scholars have adapted Aristotle ethical principles, which serve as the foundation for living an ethical life and as principles or standards to guide physicians, psychologists and counselors in particular(Beauchamp and Childress,1989; Kitchener, 1984). </li></ul><ul><li>Beauchamp and Childress (1979) proposed five principles of biomedical ethics, which were later adapted by Karen Strohm Kitchener. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Exhibit 9.2: The Five Ethical Principles
  43. 43. Respecthing autonomy <ul><li>Respecthing autonomy: providing leaders and members with the freedom of choice, allowing individuals to freely develop their values , and respecthing the right of others to act independently. </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy, like constitutional rights and liberties, has conditions and does not imply unrestricted freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>A major assumption of autonomy is that an invidual possesses a certain level of competence to make rational and informed decisions. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Doing no harm <ul><li>Doing no harm: providing an environment that is free from harm to others, both psychological and physical. </li></ul><ul><li>learders and members refrain from “engaging in actions which risk harming others”(Kitchener, 1984,p.47) </li></ul>
  45. 45. Benefiting others <ul><li>Benefiting others (beneficence): promoting the interests of the organization above personal interests and self-gain. </li></ul><ul><li>The notion of promoting what is good for the whole of the organization or community and promoting the growth of the group is upheld in the principle of beneficense. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Being Just (Justice) <ul><li>Being Just (Justice): treating people fairly and equally. </li></ul><ul><li>The principle is traced to Aristotle’s work on ethics. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Being Faithful (fidelity) <ul><li>Being Faithful (fidelity): keeping promises, being faithful,and being loyal to the group or organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Being faithful is a principle premised on relationships and thrust. </li></ul><ul><li>If you as a leader or member violate the principle of fidelity, it is difficult or impossible for others to develop a trusting relationship. </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Nash (1987) proposes a model of question to use when faced with a problem or dilemma. </li></ul><ul><li>These twelve questions are designed to be used before you commit to an action or a decision. </li></ul><ul><li>The question in Exhibit 9.3 engage you in a thoughtful process as you address a dilemma. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Exhibit 9.3 : 12 Question to ask when Making Ethical Decision <ul><li>Have you defined the problem accurately? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you define the problem if you stood on the other side of the fence? </li></ul><ul><li>How did this situation occur in the first place? </li></ul><ul><li>To whom and to what do you give your loyalty as a person and as a member of the organization? </li></ul><ul><li>What it your intention in the making this decision? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this intention compare with the probable results? </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>7. Whom could your decision or action injure </li></ul><ul><li>8. Can you discuss the problem with the affected parties before you make your decision? </li></ul><ul><li>9. Are confident that your position will be as valid over </li></ul><ul><li>a long period of time as it seems now? </li></ul><ul><li>10. Could you disclose without qualm your decision or action to your boss, the president of the board of directors, your family, society as a whole? </li></ul><ul><li>11. What is symbolic potential of your action if understood? If misunderstood? </li></ul><ul><li>12. Under what conditions would you allow exceptions to your stand? </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>These ethical decision-making models can help you reach a more informed and carefully analyzed decision before you take any action. </li></ul><ul><li>These models alone will not necessarily help you resolve every dilemma you encounter. </li></ul><ul><li>They provide a framework to guide your decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>They do not provide the moral imagination and creative thinking that are needed to address complex situations. </li></ul>