Definition “Leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how it can be done effectively, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish the shared objectives” (Yukl, 2002, p.7) Influence may be formal or informal; cognitive or affective.
Management and leadership Some have distinguished leadership from management. Not all leaders are managers nor are all managers identified as leaders. In recent years, the concept of leadership has been used in terms of inspiring followers toward achieving common vision and goals and coping with change. On the other hand, management has been used when studying some formal activities such as organizing, monitoring and controlling. Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right things (Bennis & Nanus, 1985, p.21)
Trait theories (1930) Focusing on personal qualities and characteristics of leaders Some important leadership traits are ambition and energy, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, job-relevant knowledge, supportive, team integrator, and visionary.
Limitations of trait theories Some traits increase the likelihood of success as a leader, but these traits do not guarantee success. There may not be universal traits that predict leadership in all situations. Traits predict behavior more in ‘weak’ situations than in ‘strong’ situations. Traits may be better predictors of the appearance of leadership than effective leadership.
Behavioral theories OHIO State studies (1940):Initiating structure: the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure employees’ roles, assign group members to particular tasks, maintain standards of performance.Consideration: the extent to which a leader develops mutual trust, respects for employees’ ideas, regards for feelings, and shows concerns for followers’ comfort and satisfaction.A high-high style has been proposed for the highest achievement. (Similar to the managerial grid)Some results proposed including situational factors in the theory.
Behavioral theories (continued) MICHIGAN Studies (1940)Production-oriented: emphasizing technical and task aspects of job, concerns for accomplishing group tasks.Employee-oriented: emphasizing inter-personal relationships, taking a personal interest in the need of employees, accepting individual differences.Employee-oriented style has been found to be related to group effectiveness and job satisfaction.
Behavioral theories (continued) Scandinavian studies (1991)The dynamic realities of today environment suggest the third dimension: development-orientedThis dimension refers to behaviors such as seeking new ideas, encouraging followers to start new activities, implementing change
Contingency theories Leader Leadership process leadership effectiveness Context Followers Cognitive, behavioral, and affective phenomena
Predictions of this theory If a follower is unable and unwilling, giving clear and specific directions is the most effective style of leadership. If a follower is unable and willing, being highly task- oriented and highly relationship-oriented is the most effective style of leadership. If a follower is able and unwilling, being supportive and participative is the most effective style of leadership. If a follower is able and willing, the leader does not need to do much (laissez-faire).