Leadership: Whare are we at?


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A powerpoint presented to Heads of Departments explaining the current state of play in Educational Leadership. It looks at current issues in leadership and various models of school leadership culminating in a discussion of three main aspects of leadership: Setting Direction, Developing People and Re-designing the Organisation.

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Leadership: Whare are we at?

  1. 1. LEADERSHIP: WHERE ARE WE AT? A Curriculum Committee presentation
  2. 2. Why report of Leadership? <ul><li>An identified area for Professional Development </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking to lead, rather than just manage Departments </li></ul>
  3. 3. RESEARCH ON SCHOOL LEADERSHIP <ul><li>“ Current Issues in Educational Leadership” </li></ul><ul><li>Neil Cranston, Lisa Ehrich and Leanne Morton (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>(a recent article published in The Australian Educational Leader , ACEL, Vol 29, No. 2) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Quality Teaching and School Leadership: A Scan of Research Findings” </li></ul><ul><li>NIQTSL, Canberra Louise Watson (2005) </li></ul>
  4. 4. IMPACT ON STUDENT OUTCOMES <ul><li>Leadership is second only to quality teaching </li></ul><ul><li>A probable understatement of the impact </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is associated with “patterns of influence in social interaction” (Ingvarson, 2006, p.27). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Theme 1: A critique of the competency approach <ul><li>To simplistic </li></ul><ul><li>Reductionist </li></ul><ul><li>Not future orientated </li></ul><ul><li>A-contextual </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Understanding of emerging developments </li></ul><ul><li>Use to engage school community </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to work with different groups </li></ul><ul><li>Effective leadership in times of change and challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy role for community </li></ul>Theme 2: Need to contextualise leadership thinking
  8. 8. <ul><li>Human/finance and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations, policies, pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation and legal </li></ul><ul><li>External relations </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability requirements </li></ul>Theme 3: Management is important
  9. 9. <ul><li>Student learning and development is the fundamental focus </li></ul><ul><li>Critically reflective, life-long learner </li></ul><ul><li>Theory-practice links </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Formal/informal P.D </li></ul><ul><li>The learner-centred school (for all) </li></ul>Theme 4: Educational leadership is about learning
  10. 10. Theme 5: Educational leadership is a purposeful, values-driven activity <ul><li>Aware of own values/beliefs/principles </li></ul><ul><li>School values/beliefs/principles </li></ul><ul><li>School community service and social responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Learning-centred focus </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion </li></ul><ul><li>Equity, social justice, fairness </li></ul><ul><li>Whole-person development </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics/ethical behaviour </li></ul>Key Values include:
  11. 11. <ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Working with/through others </li></ul><ul><li>Working in non-hierarchical, trusting and mutual respective ways </li></ul><ul><li>Know staff </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul>Theme 6: Educational leadership as distributed activity
  12. 12. <ul><li>Interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Developing relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Manage micro-politics </li></ul>Theme 7: Educational leadership as a relational activity
  13. 13. <ul><li>Literature awash with lists of knowledge, skills, attitudes and dispositions </li></ul><ul><li>The more notable that have emerged in recent years are : </li></ul>Theme 8: Leadership qualities and capabilities
  14. 14. Theme 8: Leadership qualities and capabilities <ul><li>Modeling the way </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge and risk taking </li></ul><ul><li>Influencing others </li></ul><ul><li>Optimism and confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptable and responsive </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Passion </li></ul>
  15. 15. Theme 8: Leadership qualities and capabilities <ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Creative and innovative </li></ul><ul><li>Personal responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Courage </li></ul><ul><li>Relational capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Tough-mindedness </li></ul>
  16. 16. Theme 8: Leadership qualities and capabilities <ul><li>Compassion and fairness </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Political and legal astuteness </li></ul><ul><li>Acting ethically </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-political astuteness </li></ul><ul><li>Managing diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Leading and managing change </li></ul>
  17. 17. REFLECTION!! <ul><li>HOW DO WE MEASURE UP? </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Responding to local/national demands that conflict? </li></ul><ul><li>Acting as “leader” while empowering others? </li></ul><ul><li>Work/life balance </li></ul>Theme 9: Paradoxes and tensions inherent in Educational leadership
  19. 19. <ul><li>Future orientated while managing the “here and now?” </li></ul><ul><li>Professional learning in face of competing demands </li></ul><ul><li>Effective allocation of limited resources </li></ul>Theme 9: Paradoxes and tensions inherent in Educational leadership
  21. 21. 1. INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Leadership in </li></ul><ul><li>teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>to improve </li></ul><ul><li>student outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>(Watson, 2005, p.67) </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Defining a School Mission (or Strategy) </li></ul><ul><li>Managing the Instructional Program (or Structure) </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting a Positive Learning Climate (or Culture) </li></ul>There are 3 Dimensions:
  23. 23. <ul><li>Five attributes were identified: </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on school level activities </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of school culture </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement of teachers </li></ul><ul><li>“ Dedication” to needs of students </li></ul>In Australian context
  24. 24. 2. TRANSFORMATINAL LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The use of facilitative powers to construct strong cultures that empower individuals, rather than simply exercising authority over them. </li></ul><ul><li>INFLUENCE, NOT AUTHORITY </li></ul>
  25. 25. Liethwood et al (1996): Six dimensions of Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Building School Vision and Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Providing intellectual stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Offering individualised support </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolising professional practices and values </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrating high performance expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Developing structures to foster participation in school decisions </li></ul>
  26. 26. 3. DISTRIBUTED LEADERSHIP <ul><li>A set of functions distributed amongst community members </li></ul><ul><li>Models look at: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms or functions of leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes that distribute leadership </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>A collective activity </li></ul><ul><li>The spanning of task, responsibilities and power </li></ul><ul><li>Expert, not hierarchical authority </li></ul>Three common understandings of D.L:
  28. 28. Recent Research <ul><li>TEACHER LEADERSHIP (Crowther et al – USQ) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers leaders should: </li></ul><ul><li>Convey a better world </li></ul><ul><li>Strive for authenticity in teaching, learning and assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate communities of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Confront barriers to school culture and structures </li></ul><ul><li>Translate ideas into sustainable systems of action </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture a culture of success </li></ul>
  29. 29. Recent Research <ul><li>“ ACTIVE PROFESSIONALISM” (Sachs. 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Broad principles are: </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Collective/collaborative action </li></ul><ul><li>Effective communication of aims, expectations, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of expertise of all </li></ul><ul><li>An environment of trust and mutual respect </li></ul><ul><li>Being responsive and responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Acting with passion </li></ul><ul><li>Experiencing pleasure and fun </li></ul>
  30. 30. REFLECTION!! <ul><li>WHAT STYLE DO I EMPLOY ? </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Effective Leadership was invariably indirect </li></ul><ul><li>School goals the most consistent variable </li></ul>Hallenger/Heck found:
  33. 33. <ul><li>Providing Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Exercising Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(influencing others to achieve the direction) </li></ul></ul>Leithwood’s two generic functions:
  34. 34. <ul><li>Leadership is a Social Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership involves Purpose and Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders exercise Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is a Function </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is Context Specific </li></ul>Five Broad Characteristics of Successful School Leadership
  35. 35. REFLECTION!! <ul><li>What have you identified as the common “elements” in each of the three models thus far? </li></ul>
  37. 37. SETTING DIRECTION (Visionary/Strategic) <ul><li>Clear goals </li></ul><ul><li>Owned by the people </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering a shared sense of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shared Vision” more likely to motivate </li></ul><ul><li>Specific practices include: </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying and articulating a vision </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering the acceptance of group goals </li></ul><ul><li>Creating high performance expectations </li></ul>
  38. 38. DEVELOPING PEOPLE (Culture) <ul><li>Support and sustain teacher/student performance </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on knowledge of teaching and learning ( Instructional Leadership aspect ) </li></ul><ul><li>Skills in building relationships in social context </li></ul><ul><li>Specific practices include: </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Intellectual stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Providing individualised support </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering others to make decisions </li></ul>
  39. 39. REDESIGNING THE ORGANISATION (Structural) <ul><li>Assumed schools need to change to meet new challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Must be willing to change the status quo </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of implementing school reform </li></ul><ul><li>Specific practices include: </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening the school culture </li></ul><ul><li>Modifying organisational structures </li></ul><ul><li>Building collaborative practices </li></ul>
  40. 40. A Summary then … <ul><li>Vision is the most important </li></ul><ul><li>Must be a shared vision </li></ul><ul><li>Vision linked to cultural/structural aspects </li></ul><ul><li>REALITY : all three need to develop in concert </li></ul>
  41. 41. STANDARDS OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Many overseas (UK, US, Scotland, Dutch) </li></ul><ul><li>Professional organisations in Australia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APAPDC , ACEL, APC, Cath. Ed. (Qld, Sydney) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governments ( WA , SA, NSW) </li></ul><ul><li>Nationally: Teaching Australia </li></ul>
  42. 42. DEVELOPING LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Developed through authentic task and opportunities for effective collaborative decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Principles for developing such tasks: </li></ul>
  43. 43. Tasks should: <ul><li>Be authentic and, thus, complex </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for variety of forms of leadership practice </li></ul><ul><li>Be open ended </li></ul><ul><li>Be fair </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunity and encouragement of analysis and reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Have Research based knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage leaders to exemplify good practice </li></ul>
  44. 44. CONCLUSION SUMMARY <ul><li>Current research centred on Transformational and Distributed Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Broad characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A social concept </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose and direction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exercising influence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a function </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context specific </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. CONCLUSION SUMMARY (Cont’d) <ul><li>SETTING DIRECTION </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPING PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>REDESIGNING THE ORGANISAION </li></ul>
  46. 46. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? <ul><li>Can we “lead” our own departments? </li></ul><ul><li>A new role/model for HOD’s at TGS? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Job design issues) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased Leadership for HOD’s? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(through practical, authentic, dec.mak. tasks) </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. ATTACHMENTS <ul><li>Responsibilities of Balanced Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>10 Proposition for Transforming Learning </li></ul><ul><li>The Framework (with self reflection guide) </li></ul><ul><li>AAPDC’s Educational Leadership Model </li></ul>
  48. 48. ARTICLES <ul><li>“ The only way to go – shared leadership” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Leadership tips for HOD’s” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Strong leaders build great teams” </li></ul>
  49. 49. FURTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION <ul><li>Australian Principals Association Professional Development Council: </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.apapdc.edu.au / </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Council for Educational Leaders: </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.acel.org.au / </li></ul>
  50. 50. FURTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION <ul><li>Teaching Australia: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.teachingaustralia.edu.au/ta/go </li></ul><ul><li>Mind Tools: </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_LDR.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Survival Guide: </li></ul><ul><li>http://resources.sai-iowa.org/index.html </li></ul>
  51. 51. FURTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION <ul><li>Articles Previously supplied include: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Building Collaboration” </li></ul><ul><li>“ HR management and development: a framework for school subject departments” </li></ul><ul><li>Others can be supplied from my own collection </li></ul>
  52. 52. P.D. OPPORTUNITIES <ul><li>ISQ 2007 State Conference , 25-27 July 2007 (Surfers Paradise) </li></ul><ul><li>Directions for Catholic Educational Leadership in the 21st Century, 29 July – 1 August 2007 (Sydney) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Leadership Challenge,” The 2007 Research Conference of the ACER, 12-14 August 2007, (Melbourne) </li></ul><ul><li>“ New Imagery for Schools and Schooling: challenge, creating and connecting” International Conference of ASCD and ACEL, 10-12 October 2007, (Sydney) </li></ul>