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1
HITMAN Sonic Technology
for
Improved Profitability
North America – June 2007
Peter Carter – Chief Executive, Fibre-gen
N...
2
Contents
• Fibre-gen and sonic technology
• Values and contribution to profit
• The value chain – integrating the techno...
3
Financial values
What is stiffness worth – a couple of examples
• Verified visual grading – batch pass/fail
– VSG8 lumbe...
4
Financial values
What is stiffness worth – more examples
• Sitka Spruce – United Kingdom
– Structural £150, Industrial £...
5
Financial values
Other values are significant too
• Microfibril angle
– R2 in range 0.8 – 0.9
– MFA is key predictor of ...
6
Feasibility
Hitman ST300
• New tools are quick, non-destructive, easy and efficient
– Less than 1 minute/tree for testin...
7
Feasible and valuable - Breeding
Hitman ST300
• Variability and heritability are
high
• Example mean 3.2 km/sec with
SD ...
8
Lo blo lly pine (m e a n 3 .2 , SD 0 .2 1)
X <= 2 . 8 8 3 0
5 . 0%
X <= 3 . 5 85 5
9 5. 0 %
0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1
...
9
• At US$40/mbf price differential on lumber,
660ft/sec improvement in log velocity (0.2 km/sec)
increases MSR out-turn b...
10
Results
• Over 150 HM200 tools in use
• Many trials undertaken in NZ, Aus, N America, UK, Sweden
• Tools predict stiffn...
11
Results – monitoring moisture content
• Acoustic velocity can be used as an indicator of moisture content
• Application...
12
New tools for measuring stiffness
• Full range of tools now available to measure stiffness
• Manage quality from forest...
13
Portables for field application
Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or
Tree Processor to Mill Veneer
ST300 PH3...
14
New development – processor head tool
Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or
Tree Processor to Mill Veneer
ST3...
15
Hitman LG640 – automated log tool
• Test 100% of logs
• Longitudinal or
transverse chain
• Continuous operation
• Sort ...
16
HM200, LG640 – how they work
• Stiffness = density x (velocity)2
• Velocity is derived from resonant
frequency (2nd har...
17
Director ST300, PH330 – how they work
• ‘Time of flight’ outerwood velocity measure – higher than
log measure
• Ruggedi...
18
Results – sales/business benefits
• Capability to measure quality before processing
– On log supply
– On harvest planne...
19
Conclusions
• HITMAN sonic technology available for use
in forest, yard, and mill
• Improved ability to meet orders, wi...
20
Further detail for implementation
21
Results – effect of temperature on velocity
In general
• Acoustic velocity increases with lower temperature
But
• Rate ...
22
Results – log velocity within stem – butt to top
• Acoustic velocity varies from butt to top although
greatest variatio...
23
Location of boards in the log
Average
stiffness of
wood in
boards up
the stems
Average stiffness of lumber cut from
som...
24
Results – velocity and MoE correlate with age
In general
• Acoustic velocity increases with increasing age
But
• Other ...
25
Standing tree sampling – single trees
• Measure is a single sample of outerwood velocity
• Sampling procedure and inten...
26
Standing tree sampling – single trees
• Eyrewell study – radiata pine, age 28
• Correlation between standing tree and l...
27
Standing tree sampling - stands
• More extensive sampling procedure to match need
• Stand average measure
– Link sampli...
28
Standing tree velocity
• Correlation with log measures good
• Absolute conversion varies primarily with velocity
Data B...
29
Standing tree velocity
• Green density adjustment of log measure appears
useful
Data Bank - Director HM200 (Green Densi...
30
Verified Visual Grading – NZ example
• Consultation and introduction in NZ in 2006 –
December deadline for adoption
• V...
31
Verified Visual Grading – NZ example
Characteristic stresses for
visually graded timber (GPa)
3.24.83.011.07.5No 1 Fram...
32
Verified Visual Grading – NZ example
• Acoustic velocity from standing trees or green log velocity
measures offer a gui...
33
Example program - Scotland
• Preliminary tests to familiarise with tools
• Forest survey – map acoustic speed at stand ...
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The HITMAN system explained

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HITMAN Sonic Technology for Improved Profitability
North America – June 2007
Peter Carter – Chief Executive, Fibre-gen
Nigel Sharplin – Director, Fibre-gen

Published in: Technology
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The HITMAN system explained

  1. 1. 1 HITMAN Sonic Technology for Improved Profitability North America – June 2007 Peter Carter – Chief Executive, Fibre-gen Nigel Sharplin – Director, Fibre-gen
  2. 2. 2 Contents • Fibre-gen and sonic technology • Values and contribution to profit • The value chain – integrating the technology • Results and value models • Opportunity analysis and implementation • The tools and how they work • Conclusions
  3. 3. 3 Financial values What is stiffness worth – a couple of examples • Verified visual grading – batch pass/fail – VSG8 lumber premium is NZ$100/m3 ($450 vs $350) – At 55% conversion, 80% structural, equates to $36/m3 log – At 600m3/ha, 70% sawlog, 27 yrs, 8%, equates to $1,893/ha • MSG lumber – incremental benefit – MGP8 lumber premium is NZ$250/m3 – 0.1km/sec gives 5% more MGP8, worth $12.50/m3 – At 600m3/ha, 70% sawlog, 27 yrs, 8%, equates to $657/ha Measuring and managing stiffness will increase profit
  4. 4. 4 Financial values What is stiffness worth – more examples • Sitka Spruce – United Kingdom – Structural £150, Industrial £100 • Spruce – Sweden – MSR 1,450kr, Visual structural 1,350kr • Douglas fir – Oregon, USA – MSR $350, Visual structural $310 – LVL $350, Ply $230 • Southern Yellow Pine – Arkansas – MSR $195, Visual structural $178 Absolute differences vary with market conditions – premiums remain Measuring and managing stiffness will increase profit
  5. 5. 5 Financial values Other values are significant too • Microfibril angle – R2 in range 0.8 – 0.9 – MFA is key predictor of solid wood stability and fibre stiffness • Pulp & Paper properties – Fibre length and paper strength – Coarseness and sheet quality – Energy consumption and yield • Eucalypt stiffness • Ash group Eucalypt internal collapse Measuring and managing stiffness will increase profit
  6. 6. 6 Feasibility Hitman ST300 • New tools are quick, non-destructive, easy and efficient – Less than 1 minute/tree for testing – Wireless, with no cables to tangle or fail – Quick and easy insertion and removal of probes – No cores needed – No significant damage to young trees • Mechanical and software enhancements improve precision • Variability and heritability are high • Breeding program on 10,000ha/annum could deliver >$10m/annum Measuring and managing stiffness will increase profit
  7. 7. 7 Feasible and valuable - Breeding Hitman ST300 • Variability and heritability are high • Example mean 3.2 km/sec with SD 0.2 • Top 10% mean is 3.5 km/sec • Top 2% mean is 3.63km/sec • With heritability of 60%, delivered gain is 0.18 and 0.26 respectively • MSG example values this at $1,180 and $1,700/ha NPV at time of planting Normal Distribution 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Velocity (km/sec)
  8. 8. 8 Lo blo lly pine (m e a n 3 .2 , SD 0 .2 1) X <= 2 . 8 8 3 0 5 . 0% X <= 3 . 5 85 5 9 5. 0 % 0 0 . 2 0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 1 1 . 2 1 . 4 1 . 6 1 . 8 2 2 2. 5 3 3 . 5 4 4. 5 5 5 . 5 6 Operational segregation results – LVL veneer • Pacific NW veneer manufacturers using tools extensively • Roseburg Forest Products adoption – standing trees, logs in forest, logs at mill, specifying to green veneer suppliers • D fir Log sorting trials split at 13,000ft/sec threshold 1. 62% G1&G2 compared against 47% 2. 60% G1&G2 compared against 45% • At US$300/m3 for G1 veneer, 0.1 km (300’)/sec is worth $16 on log volume, or $4.8m for a 300,000 t mill D o u g la s fir (M e a n 4 .0 , SD 0 .3 7) X <= 3 . 4 3 1 8 5. 0 % X <= 4. 6 3 4 8 9 5 . 0 % 0 0 . 2 0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 1 1 . 2 2 2 . 5 3 3 . 5 4 4 . 5 5 5 . 5 6 Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  9. 9. 9 • At US$40/mbf price differential on lumber, 660ft/sec improvement in log velocity (0.2 km/sec) increases MSR out-turn by 10% which is worth $0.3m for a 300,000 t mill • Sampling cost $4,000/annum • Tool cost $10,000 Lo blo lly pine (m e a n 3 .2 , SD 0 .2 1) X <= 2 . 8 8 3 0 5 . 0% X <= 3 . 5 85 5 9 5. 0 % 0 0 . 2 0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 1 1 . 2 1 . 4 1 . 6 1 . 8 2 2 2. 5 3 3 . 5 4 4. 5 5 5 . 5 6 Operational segregation results – MSR output D o u g la s fir (M e a n 4 .0 , SD 0 .3 7) X <= 3 . 4 3 1 8 5. 0 % X <= 4. 6 3 4 8 9 5 . 0 % 0 0 . 2 0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 1 1 . 2 2 2 . 5 3 3 . 5 4 4 . 5 5 5 . 5 6 Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  10. 10. 10 Results • Over 150 HM200 tools in use • Many trials undertaken in NZ, Aus, N America, UK, Sweden • Tools predict stiffness (MoE) across all species tested • Extensive research supports commercial application Veneer UPTvsDirector velocity R2 = 0.99 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 2.50 2.70 2.90 3.10 3.30 3.50 3.70 3.90 Director velocity(km/ secaverage of logbatches) UPT(microsecaverageoflog batches) Softwoodspecies(groups) Power (Softwoodspecies (groups)) Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> HM vs LM 2nd Hamonic y = 0.9892x R2 = 0.9642 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 LM freq HMfreq
  11. 11. 11 Results – monitoring moisture content • Acoustic velocity can be used as an indicator of moisture content • Applications - fuel wood stockpiles, and pulp logs for mechanical and semi-chemical pulps • Velocity increases as green density declines • Procedure – Establish definitive MC start point – standard sample Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> – Mark selected logs and record velocities using a fixed assumed average log length in HM200 tool – Re-record velocities at later date – Velocity increase defines loss of water such that reduction in green density is proportional to increase in V2
  12. 12. 12 New tools for measuring stiffness • Full range of tools now available to measure stiffness • Manage quality from forest to lumber or veneer • Comprehensive research programs support users Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader Hand Automated Hand Hand Automated Automated tool tool tool tool tool tool Thinning Sorting Quality control Quality control Resourcing Grading PHA Log making Sorting Sorting Sorting Genetics Sawing Various Fibre-gen Suppliers Timberlands >>>>>>> Processing >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  13. 13. 13 Portables for field application Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  14. 14. 14 New development – processor head tool Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  15. 15. 15 Hitman LG640 – automated log tool • Test 100% of logs • Longitudinal or transverse chain • Continuous operation • Sort logs for batch processing • Alter processing to maximise MSR or veneer out-turn Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  16. 16. 16 HM200, LG640 – how they work • Stiffness = density x (velocity)2 • Velocity is derived from resonant frequency (2nd harmonic) and length • Sensor/microphone detects frequency from hammer blow • Green density is relatively constant 3.3 length velocity = 2 x length / time stiffness densityx velocity≈ 2 Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  17. 17. 17 Director ST300, PH330 – how they work • ‘Time of flight’ outerwood velocity measure – higher than log measure • Ruggedised, waterproof, wireless, auto-distance, audible and visual output, interface to PDA • Velocity correlates strongly with log velocity at stand level Acoustic speed - standing tree vs log 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 ST300 prototype on tree (ft/s) HM200onlog(Director)(ft/s) Sitka spruce Western hemlock Jack pine White birch Ponderosa pine R2 = 0.925 Source: X Wang et al, University of Minnesota Juvenile Wood 15 yrs 25 yrs 35 yrs Juvenile Wood 15 yrs 25 yrs 35 yrs Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  18. 18. 18 Results – sales/business benefits • Capability to measure quality before processing – On log supply – On harvest planned – On stumpage purchased • Capability to forecast actual mill LVL or MSR lumber outturn (currently hard to predict) • Improved ability to reliably fulfill sales orders • Potential to lower G1 & G2 veneer or MSR lumber costs • Customer satisfaction and improved profitability Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  19. 19. 19 Conclusions • HITMAN sonic technology available for use in forest, yard, and mill • Improved ability to meet orders, with higher grade out-turn and profit • Assistance available with opportunity analysis and implementation • For further information peter.carter@fibre-gen.com www.fibre-gen.com
  20. 20. 20 Further detail for implementation
  21. 21. 21 Results – effect of temperature on velocity In general • Acoustic velocity increases with lower temperature But • Rate of change not well defined • Moisture content changes may compensate on logs, but not in trees Temperature Effect on Acoustic Velocity of Green Board 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 3600 3800 4000 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Board Temperature (C) AcousticWaveVelocity(m/s) Stack 6 (50 boards) Stack 2 (50 boards) V = 2365 - 17.69T (T ? 0 °C) V = 2365 - 41.42T (T ? 0 °C) Density(MC) adjustedacousticspeed 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 Series1 Series2 Series3 Series4 Series5 Series6 Series7 Series8 Series9 Series10 Series11 Series12 Source: L Bjorklund, VMR, SDCSource: P Harris, IRLSource: X Wang, University of Minnesota Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  22. 22. 22 Results – log velocity within stem – butt to top • Acoustic velocity varies from butt to top although greatest variation is between stems • Highest velocity logs are in mid section of stem • Variation follows pattern of microfibril angle Source: X Wang et al, University of Minnesota Radiata Pine - Log velocity within stem 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Distance upstem(m) Velocity(km/sec) Average 3.2 km/ sec Average + 2 x SD Average -2 x SD Stand Mean 3.2 Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  23. 23. 23 Location of boards in the log Average stiffness of wood in boards up the stems Average stiffness of lumber cut from some 60 trees. Note the low stiffness at the base of the tree, in the butt logs. Why not cut a short, 2.5 m butt log? 1st log 2nd log 3rd log Ping Xu, 2002 Results – log velocity within stem – pith to bark Source: J Walker, University of CanterburyStanding Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  24. 24. 24 Results – velocity and MoE correlate with age In general • Acoustic velocity increases with increasing age But • Other factors affect velocity and MoE • Wide range of velocities within stands • Strategy - harvest highest V rather than oldest age (extra 0.06km/sec) Log age vs. average acoustic velocity R 2 = 0.66 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 Log age (years) Stand Linear (Stand) VelocityvsStand Age 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Age (years) Velocity(km/sec) Mean Velocity (50% oldest age) = 3.43 Mean Velocity (50% highest V) = 3.37 Benefit = 0.06km/sec Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  25. 25. 25 Standing tree sampling – single trees • Measure is a single sample of outerwood velocity • Sampling procedure and intensity must match need • Single tree - intensive sampling – Variation around stem – Knot location – Transverse – Compression wood – Hit variability • 3 sets of 3 hits, in each of 2-4 locations around stem • High productivity (>60 sample sets/hour) – faster than density coring Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  26. 26. 26 Standing tree sampling – single trees • Eyrewell study – radiata pine, age 28 • Correlation between standing tree and log velocity improves as sample intensity increases Location/s on tree taps R 2 Upper side 3 0.44 Upper side 3 0.48 Upper side 3 0.43 Upper side (A) 9 0.50 Lower side (B) 9 0.45 Random side (D) 9 0.60 Mean A+B 18 0.61 Mean A+D 18 0.62 Mean A+B+D 27 0.67 Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  27. 27. 27 Standing tree sampling - stands • More extensive sampling procedure to match need • Stand average measure – Link sampling to pre-harvest assessment – Cover the stand – plots of 5+ trees – Cover diameter range – Variability between trees > within – Sample as many trees as possible in least time • 1 set of 3 hits/tree on 35+ trees/stand • Productivity dependent upon terrain and vegetation Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  28. 28. 28 Standing tree velocity • Correlation with log measures good • Absolute conversion varies primarily with velocity Data Bank - Director HM200 vs ST300 Velocities y = 0.7965x + 469.14 R 2 = 0.92 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 Standing tree velocity (Scopemeter or Director ST300 - ft/s) Logvelocity(DirectorHM200-ft/s) Sitka Spruce Radiata Pine NZ 8 year old Radiata Pine NZ 16 year old Radiata Pine NZ 25 year old Radiata Pine Aus 10 year old Radiata Pine Aus 20 year old Radiata Pine Aus 28 year old Radiata Pine Aus 37 year old D fir A Oregon W Hemlock Jack Pine Birch Ponderosa Pine Slash Pine A Slash Pine B Loblolly Pine D fir B Oregon D fir C Oregon Radiata Pine Canterbury age 8 Radiata Pine Canterbury age 28 Wisconsin Red Pine Idaho Ponderosa Pine Radiata Pine NZ CNI 26 year old Radiata Pine NZ CNI 26 year old Radiata Pine NZ CNI 26 year old Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  29. 29. 29 Standing tree velocity • Green density adjustment of log measure appears useful Data Bank - Director HM200 (Green Density Adjusted) vs ST300 Velocities y = 0.5887x + 2570.4 R 2 = 0.9624 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 Standing tree velocity (Scopemeter or Director ST300 - ft/s) Logvelocity(DirectorHM200-ft/s) Radiata Pine NZ 8 year old Radiata Pine NZ 16 year old Radiata Pine NZ 25 year old Radiata Pine Aus 10 year old Radiata Pine Aus 20 year old Radiata Pine Aus 28 year old Radiata Pine Aus 37 year old D fir B D fir C D fir A Red Pine Wisconsin Radiata Pine NZ CNI 26 year old Radiata Pine NZ CNI 26 year old Radiata Pine NZ CNI 26 year old Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  30. 30. 30 Verified Visual Grading – NZ example • Consultation and introduction in NZ in 2006 – December deadline for adoption • Visual graded lumber sample will be proof tested – 1 in 1000 boards sampled – Static bending and breaking tests – 30 sample rolling average must exceed standard for MOE and MOR - average and minimum – Self-run with independent auditing Result: Stiffness of supply is critical Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  31. 31. 31 Verified Visual Grading – NZ example Characteristic stresses for visually graded timber (GPa) 3.24.83.011.07.5No 1 Framing1 4.46.54.012.011.7 VSG102 VSG82 G82 Radiata Pine & Douglas Fir 2. Moisture condition – Green2 (m/c = 25%) 4.06.04.015.010.0No 1 Framing1 6.7 5.4 10.0 8.0 8.0 6.0 20.0 18.0 20.0 14.0 VSG10 VSG8 Radiata Pine & Douglas Fir Lower Bound Modulus of Elasticity Elb (GPa) Modulus of Elasticity E (GPa) Tension Strength ft Compression Strength fc Bending Strength fb GradeSpecies 1. Moisture condition – Dry (m/c = 16%). Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  32. 32. 32 Verified Visual Grading – NZ example • Acoustic velocity from standing trees or green log velocity measures offer a guide to absolute stiffness • Stiffness = density x (velocity)2 • Adjustments required for – Green density and moisture content – Increase in stiffness from 30% moisture content to ‘dry’ • Dynamic MOE of 8GPa is indicative of VSG8 production and would require – Average log velocity 2.8km/sec (allowing 0.1km/sec for SE of mean) – Green density 1000kg/m3 – Moisture content 150% • 8GPa target velocity could vary 2.70 - 3.00 Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>
  33. 33. 33 Example program - Scotland • Preliminary tests to familiarise with tools • Forest survey – map acoustic speed at stand level across topography, altitude, soils, age, silviculture (>50 stands) • Confirm relationship between average standing tree velocity and average log velocity. Confirm velocity pattern up tree (>15 stands) • Saw sample of logs and confirm static MOE and MOR of lumber, and grade out-turn, relative to log velocity • Correlate static MOE with predicted MOE from commercial testing devices (x-ray density, acoustic, mechanical bending) Standing Harvesting Stem Log Log Deck Lumber or Tree Processor to Mill Veneer ST300 PH330 HM200 HM200 LM600 Grader >>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>> >>>>>>>

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