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Milling for Smoothness,
Milling for Profit
Kyle Hammon
Product Manager- Mills & Stabilizers
Roadtec, Inc.
People and Planning
The first step towards achieving a
smooth milling job occurs way before the
construction process begin...
Do I have what I need?
Do I have all the correct safety equipment
Do I have enough teeth to get through the day?
Do we hav...
Choose the proper equipment
Where Do We Start?
Tracking
Watch to see how the machine is tracking.
You may be keeping a good line with front tracks but
if your tracking i...
Keeping a straight line
The deeper the cut the more that a straight line is important.
Side loading the cutter will reduce...
Cross hairs in the cut
Look for a cross hatch pattern in the cut.
a. You should be seeing a up and down cut pattern.
10”
b...
Cross hairs in the cut
2 Types of Smoothness
• Longitudinal Smoothness (Ride)
– How to achieve
– Factors on Ride
• Surface Smoothness
– How to ac...
Grade & Slope Controls
Endgate Averaging
Grade & Slope Controls
Averaging System
Grade & Slope Controls
3D Grade System
Trim Grade based on Position
Checking 0
Be sure you know where to check 0
This is what you want
0 is 0
Keep it Clean
How can you mill with this.
If you have this to work with you will
never achieve grade.
Why?
No really, clean up your mess
Oh that Pile.
Our shovel is on the water truck.
The automatics will take that out…
Clean up your mess
Clean up after you pick up.
What will happen when you set back down.
Instead of taking the time to clea...
Speed and Slope
Continuous Milling
There are a lot of forces
generated during milling.
When you stop so do the
forces.
Plus all of the tee...
2 Types of Smoothness
• Longitudinal Smoothness (Ride)
– How to achieve
– Factors on Ride
• Surface Smoothness
– How to ac...
Surface Texture
Cutter Drum
Quick Change Drum Tooling
Tungsten Carbide
Base
Cutting Tooth (Bit)
Tooth Holder
(Sleeve or Insert)
Flighting (Pedestal)
Cutter Drum
Proper Maintenance
Tool Wear Characteristics
At Stage 3
Tool has lost 0.365 “ [9.3 mm]
of gage height
0.43 in20.15 in2 287% Increase in Surfa...
Production Tradeoff
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
AdvanceRate(fpm)
Milling Depth (inch)
RX-900 New ...
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
AdvanceRate(mpmorfpm)
Milling Depth (cm or inch)
RX-900 New Teeth
RX-...
90% of the holders on this drum
are worn like this. New holders
are 2” from seat to face
New holders have been spotted in ...
Caliper set at EXACTLY 2”
Same holder in previous
picture turned 180 degrees
The tooth tip should
be centered on the
blue line.
The red line shows the
misalignment of the tooling
due to the face wear...
Proper Maintenance
Proper Maintenance
Proper Maintenance
Tooth Pattern
The Math of Milling
Drum RPM
Forward
Speed
Line Spacing
0
Lacing Pattern
Diameter
The 4 Main Factors that
Affect Surface T...
Triple Wrap, Off Set Flighting
Triple Wrap Off Set Flighting
Line Spacing
5/8”
Standard
Drum
5/8” Line Spacing
Profiling
Drum
3/8” Line Spacing
Micro-Milling Pattern
0.2” Line Spacing
Line Spacing and Texture
5/8” (16mm) Triple Wrap Lacing
Pattern
5/8” 5/8”
≈⅛”
5/8” (16mm) Triple Wrap Lacing
Pattern
5/8” (16 mm) Triple Wrap at 30 fpm
2/10” (5mm) Triple Wrap Lacing
Pattern
2/10” (5mm) Triple Wrap Lacing
Pattern
0.2”
≈1/16”
2/10” (5mm) Triple Wrap Lacing
Pattern
Amount of Tools
12’6” (3.5 m) Full Lane Drum
Line Spacing # of Teeth Cost of Teeth
5/8” (16 mm) 268 $1340
3/8” (9 mm) 406 ...
Production Tradeoff
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
AdvanceRate(fpm)
Milling Depth (inch)
RX-900 12'6"
Production Tradeoff
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
AdvanceRate(fpm)
Milling Depth (inch)
RX-900 12'6"
RX-900 12'...
The Math of Milling
Drum RPM
Forward
Speed
Line Spacing
0
Lacing Pattern
Diameter
The 4 Main Factors that
Affect Surface T...
Continuous Milling
There are a lot of forces
generated during milling.
When you stop so do the
forces.
Plus all of the tee...
Forward Speed
“Out running the drum”
Tooth Strikes Line
Up in Straight Lines
Tooth Strikes in One
Drum Rotation
Machine Speeds Up
Patter...
Straight Line Pattern
Advance Rate = 30 fpm
Drum Diameter = 46”
Drum Speed = 100 rpm
Advance Rate = 30 fpm
Machine
Advance
3.6”
0.071”
30 fpm
Advance Rate = 60 fpm
Machine
Advance
7.2”
0.28”
Advance Rate = 60 fpm
Drum Diameter = 46”
Drum Speed = 100 rpm
60 fpm
Advance Rate = 90 fpm
Machine
Advance
10.8”
0.64”
Advance Rate = 90 fpm
Drum Diameter = 46”
Drum Speed = 100 rpm
90 fpm
Advance Rate = 120 fpm
Machine
Advance
14.4”
1.16”
Advance Rate = 120 fpm
Drum Diameter = 46”
Drum Speed = 100 rpm
120 fpm
30 fpm vs. 120 fpm
2.3 miles in a day vs. 9.1 miles in a day
Sand Patch Test
ASTM E965
Indiana Glass Bead Test (ITM 812)
http://www.in.gov/indot/div/mt/itm/pubs/812_testing.pdf
The Math of Milling
Drum RPM
Forward
Speed
Line Spacing
0
Lacing Pattern
Diameter
The 4 Main Factors that
Affect Surface T...
Drum Speed
RX-900 Drum Speeds
Engine Speed Top Sheave Bottom Sheave Gear Ratios
Diameter (in) Diameter (in) 20:1 24:1
2100...
Machine
Advance
12.0”
Advance Rate = 120 fpm
Drum Diameter = 46”
Drum Speed = 120 rpm
Advance Rate = 120 fpm
Machine
Advan...
Advance Rate = 120 fpm
1.16” 0.796”
Machine
Advance
12.0”
Advance Rate = 120 fpm
Drum Diameter = 46”
Drum Speed = 120 rpm
...
The Math of Milling
Drum RPM
Forward
Speed
Line Spacing
0
Lacing Pattern
Diameter
The 4 Main Factors that
Affect Surface T...
Triple Wrap, Off Set Flighting
Triple Wrap Off Set Flighting
Drum Lacings
Scroll Start Comparisons
Triple Wrap Double Hit
Quad Wrap
Double Hit Drums
Above
Double hit Quad wrap drum
Standard triple wrap drum
Below
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
Single Hit
Triple Wrap
1 7/8” (48 mm) spacing per flight
Equals
5/8” (16 mm) spacing
Pattern Comparisons
Dou...
Advance Rate = 120 fpm
Advance Rate = 120 fpm
Drum Diameter = 46”
Drum Speed = 100 rpm
20% to 15%
less time in cut
OR 20% ...
Pattern Comparison
7/8” DHQW at 100 FPM5/8” Triple Wrap at 100 FPM
Same Speed Comparison
Single Hit Profiling Drum
• 100 fpm
• 8 hr shift/7 hr milling = 56,000 sq
yd/day
• Crew cost (operat...
The Point of Breakout
Same Texture – Very Different Production
½ spaced DHQW at 140 FPM
Full Lane 8mm (0.3”)standard at 45...
Same Texture Comparison
Single Hit Profiling Drum
• 45 fpm
• 8 hr shift/7 hr milling = 25,200 sq
yd/day
• Crew cost (opera...
Apples to Apples
½” spaced Double Hit Drum at 140
FPM
3/8” spaced Single Hit “Profiling”
Drum at 120 FPM
Micro-mill surface at 65 FPM
Production Tradeoff
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
AdvanceRate(fpm)
Milling Depth (inch)
RX-900 12'6"
RX-900 12'...
Production Tradeoff
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
AdvanceRate(fpm)
Milling Depth (inch)
RX-900 12'6"
RX-900 12'...
Amount of Tools
12’6” (3.5 m) ( Full Lane Drum)
Spacing # of Tools Cost of Drum
5/8” (16 mm) SH 268 $1340
Standard DHQW 34...
Questions?
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2015 milling

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Kyle from Roadtec gives us operational instruction for cold plane. Extremely accurate.

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2015 milling

  1. 1. Milling for Smoothness, Milling for Profit Kyle Hammon Product Manager- Mills & Stabilizers Roadtec, Inc.
  2. 2. People and Planning The first step towards achieving a smooth milling job occurs way before the construction process begins Everyone involved in the milling process contributes to the overall smoothness of the job, including: • a. Mill operators • b. Ground person • c. Truck drivers • d. Clean up.
  3. 3. Do I have what I need? Do I have all the correct safety equipment Do I have enough teeth to get through the day? Do we have a Game Plan for a Productive day? It is important to understand the job. Cutting it once and Correctly is by far the most economical way for the Company. 4X4F150
  4. 4. Choose the proper equipment
  5. 5. Where Do We Start?
  6. 6. Tracking Watch to see how the machine is tracking. You may be keeping a good line with front tracks but if your tracking is off then you will have several problems. Again the deeper you are the more this is critical. You are looking for marking in the pavement as shown below.
  7. 7. Keeping a straight line The deeper the cut the more that a straight line is important. Side loading the cutter will reduce bearing life End ring wear. If you are not paying attention you will be into the holders very quick.
  8. 8. Cross hairs in the cut Look for a cross hatch pattern in the cut. a. You should be seeing a up and down cut pattern. 10” b. If the pattern is only going in one direction then this is what you are trying to avoid. c. You may need to wipe the fines clean before you can see this pattern.
  9. 9. Cross hairs in the cut
  10. 10. 2 Types of Smoothness • Longitudinal Smoothness (Ride) – How to achieve – Factors on Ride • Surface Smoothness – How to achieve • Factors on surface texture – Drum maintenance – Speed (of what?) – Drum pattern – Impacts on Production
  11. 11. Grade & Slope Controls Endgate Averaging
  12. 12. Grade & Slope Controls Averaging System
  13. 13. Grade & Slope Controls 3D Grade System Trim Grade based on Position
  14. 14. Checking 0 Be sure you know where to check 0 This is what you want 0 is 0
  15. 15. Keep it Clean How can you mill with this. If you have this to work with you will never achieve grade. Why?
  16. 16. No really, clean up your mess Oh that Pile. Our shovel is on the water truck. The automatics will take that out…
  17. 17. Clean up your mess Clean up after you pick up. What will happen when you set back down. Instead of taking the time to clean this up I Will just guess how thick this is.
  18. 18. Speed and Slope
  19. 19. Continuous Milling There are a lot of forces generated during milling. When you stop so do the forces. Plus all of the teeth now cut in one spot, no longer spread out.
  20. 20. 2 Types of Smoothness • Longitudinal Smoothness (Ride) – How to achieve – Factors on Ride • Surface Smoothness – How to achieve • Factors on surface texture – Drum maintenance – Speed (of what?) – Drum pattern – Impacts on Production
  21. 21. Surface Texture
  22. 22. Cutter Drum
  23. 23. Quick Change Drum Tooling Tungsten Carbide Base Cutting Tooth (Bit) Tooth Holder (Sleeve or Insert) Flighting (Pedestal)
  24. 24. Cutter Drum
  25. 25. Proper Maintenance
  26. 26. Tool Wear Characteristics At Stage 3 Tool has lost 0.365 “ [9.3 mm] of gage height 0.43 in20.15 in2 287% Increase in Surface Area
  27. 27. Production Tradeoff 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 AdvanceRate(fpm) Milling Depth (inch) RX-900 New Teeth
  28. 28. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 AdvanceRate(mpmorfpm) Milling Depth (cm or inch) RX-900 New Teeth RX-900 Stage 4 Teeth Wear Production Tradeoff
  29. 29. 90% of the holders on this drum are worn like this. New holders are 2” from seat to face New holders have been spotted in in various places. The wear shown here is not common to all the holders on the drum, some are worn more, some are worn less. This cutter does not leave a very good looking pattern.
  30. 30. Caliper set at EXACTLY 2”
  31. 31. Same holder in previous picture turned 180 degrees
  32. 32. The tooth tip should be centered on the blue line. The red line shows the misalignment of the tooling due to the face wear on the tooth holder.
  33. 33. Proper Maintenance
  34. 34. Proper Maintenance
  35. 35. Proper Maintenance
  36. 36. Tooth Pattern
  37. 37. The Math of Milling Drum RPM Forward Speed Line Spacing 0 Lacing Pattern Diameter The 4 Main Factors that Affect Surface Texture 1. Line Spacing 2. Forward Speed 3. Drum RPM 4. Lacing Pattern
  38. 38. Triple Wrap, Off Set Flighting Triple Wrap Off Set Flighting
  39. 39. Line Spacing 5/8”
  40. 40. Standard Drum 5/8” Line Spacing Profiling Drum 3/8” Line Spacing
  41. 41. Micro-Milling Pattern 0.2” Line Spacing
  42. 42. Line Spacing and Texture
  43. 43. 5/8” (16mm) Triple Wrap Lacing Pattern
  44. 44. 5/8” 5/8” ≈⅛” 5/8” (16mm) Triple Wrap Lacing Pattern
  45. 45. 5/8” (16 mm) Triple Wrap at 30 fpm
  46. 46. 2/10” (5mm) Triple Wrap Lacing Pattern
  47. 47. 2/10” (5mm) Triple Wrap Lacing Pattern 0.2” ≈1/16”
  48. 48. 2/10” (5mm) Triple Wrap Lacing Pattern
  49. 49. Amount of Tools 12’6” (3.5 m) Full Lane Drum Line Spacing # of Teeth Cost of Teeth 5/8” (16 mm) 268 $1340 3/8” (9 mm) 406 $2030 0.2” (5 mm) 770 $3850 Nearly 3 times more teeth Nearly 5 times the cost No more quick change holders
  50. 50. Production Tradeoff 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 AdvanceRate(fpm) Milling Depth (inch) RX-900 12'6"
  51. 51. Production Tradeoff 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 AdvanceRate(fpm) Milling Depth (inch) RX-900 12'6" RX-900 12'6" Micro
  52. 52. The Math of Milling Drum RPM Forward Speed Line Spacing 0 Lacing Pattern Diameter The 4 Main Factors that Affect Surface Texture 1. Line Spacing 2. Forward Speed 3. Drum RPM 4. Lacing Pattern
  53. 53. Continuous Milling There are a lot of forces generated during milling. When you stop so do the forces. Plus all of the teeth now cut in one spot, no longer spread out.
  54. 54. Forward Speed
  55. 55. “Out running the drum” Tooth Strikes Line Up in Straight Lines Tooth Strikes in One Drum Rotation Machine Speeds Up Pattern Spreads Out
  56. 56. Straight Line Pattern
  57. 57. Advance Rate = 30 fpm Drum Diameter = 46” Drum Speed = 100 rpm Advance Rate = 30 fpm Machine Advance 3.6” 0.071”
  58. 58. 30 fpm
  59. 59. Advance Rate = 60 fpm Machine Advance 7.2” 0.28” Advance Rate = 60 fpm Drum Diameter = 46” Drum Speed = 100 rpm
  60. 60. 60 fpm
  61. 61. Advance Rate = 90 fpm Machine Advance 10.8” 0.64” Advance Rate = 90 fpm Drum Diameter = 46” Drum Speed = 100 rpm
  62. 62. 90 fpm
  63. 63. Advance Rate = 120 fpm Machine Advance 14.4” 1.16” Advance Rate = 120 fpm Drum Diameter = 46” Drum Speed = 100 rpm
  64. 64. 120 fpm
  65. 65. 30 fpm vs. 120 fpm 2.3 miles in a day vs. 9.1 miles in a day
  66. 66. Sand Patch Test ASTM E965
  67. 67. Indiana Glass Bead Test (ITM 812) http://www.in.gov/indot/div/mt/itm/pubs/812_testing.pdf
  68. 68. The Math of Milling Drum RPM Forward Speed Line Spacing 0 Lacing Pattern Diameter The 4 Main Factors that Affect Surface Texture 1. Line Spacing 2. Forward Speed 3. Drum RPM 4. Lacing Pattern
  69. 69. Drum Speed RX-900 Drum Speeds Engine Speed Top Sheave Bottom Sheave Gear Ratios Diameter (in) Diameter (in) 20:1 24:1 2100rpm 16 14 120rpm 100rpm 2100rpm 16 15 112rpm 93rpm 2100rpm 14 15 98rpm 82rpm 2100rpm 14 16 92rpm 77rpm
  70. 70. Machine Advance 12.0” Advance Rate = 120 fpm Drum Diameter = 46” Drum Speed = 120 rpm Advance Rate = 120 fpm Machine Advance 14.4” 1.16” Advance Rate = 120 fpm Drum Diameter = 46” Drum Speed = 100 rpm 0.796”
  71. 71. Advance Rate = 120 fpm 1.16” 0.796” Machine Advance 12.0” Advance Rate = 120 fpm Drum Diameter = 46” Drum Speed = 120 rpm Machine Advance 14.4” Advance Rate = 120 fpm Drum Diameter = 46” Drum Speed = 100 rpm
  72. 72. The Math of Milling Drum RPM Forward Speed Line Spacing 0 Lacing Pattern Diameter The 4 Main Factors that Affect Surface Texture 1. Line Spacing 2. Forward Speed 3. Drum RPM 4. Lacing Pattern
  73. 73. Triple Wrap, Off Set Flighting Triple Wrap Off Set Flighting
  74. 74. Drum Lacings Scroll Start Comparisons Triple Wrap Double Hit Quad Wrap
  75. 75. Double Hit Drums Above Double hit Quad wrap drum Standard triple wrap drum Below
  76. 76. 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 Single Hit Triple Wrap 1 7/8” (48 mm) spacing per flight Equals 5/8” (16 mm) spacing Pattern Comparisons Double Hit Quad Wrap 1 ¼” (32 mm) spacing per flight Equals 5/8” (16 mm) spacing
  77. 77. Advance Rate = 120 fpm Advance Rate = 120 fpm Drum Diameter = 46” Drum Speed = 100 rpm 20% to 15% less time in cut OR 20% less Tooth Consumption
  78. 78. Pattern Comparison 7/8” DHQW at 100 FPM5/8” Triple Wrap at 100 FPM
  79. 79. Same Speed Comparison Single Hit Profiling Drum • 100 fpm • 8 hr shift/7 hr milling = 56,000 sq yd/day • Crew cost (operator and ground man) = $720 for the day • Let’s say 250 Teeth per day • @ $5 per Tooth = $1250 • Fuel Usage = 25 gph – 200 gal/day – $700 @ $3.50 /gal $0.05 per sq yd Double Hit Profiling Drum • 100 fpm • 8 hr shift/7 hr milling = 56,000 sq yd/day • Crew cost (operator and ground man) = $720 for the day • 20% less Teeth = 200 • @ $5 per Tooth = $1000 • Fuel Usage = 25 gph – 200 gal/day – $700 @ $3.50 /gal $0.04 per sq yd From sand patch tests course milled surface can use 4 times more material to fill than a fine milled surface This relates to about 25 tons per lane mile
  80. 80. The Point of Breakout Same Texture – Very Different Production ½ spaced DHQW at 140 FPM Full Lane 8mm (0.3”)standard at 45 FPM
  81. 81. Same Texture Comparison Single Hit Profiling Drum • 45 fpm • 8 hr shift/7 hr milling = 25,200 sq yd/day • Crew cost (operator and ground man) = $720 for the day • Let’s say 160 Teeth for the day • @ $5 per Tooth = $800 • Fuel Usage = 20 gph – 160 gal/day – $560 @ $3.50 /gal $0.08 per sq yd Double Hit Profiling Drum • 140 fpm ≈ 3 X production • 8 hr shift/7 hr milling = 78,400 sq yd/day • Crew cost (operator and ground man) = $720 for the day • 20% less = 497 w/ production gain • @ $5 per Tooth = $2485 • Fuel Usage = 25 gph – 200 gal/day – $700 @ $3.50 /gal $0.03 per sq yd
  82. 82. Apples to Apples ½” spaced Double Hit Drum at 140 FPM 3/8” spaced Single Hit “Profiling” Drum at 120 FPM
  83. 83. Micro-mill surface at 65 FPM
  84. 84. Production Tradeoff 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 AdvanceRate(fpm) Milling Depth (inch) RX-900 12'6" RX-900 12'6" Micro
  85. 85. Production Tradeoff 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 AdvanceRate(fpm) Milling Depth (inch) RX-900 12'6" RX-900 12'6" Standard DHQW RX-900 12'6" Fine DHQW RX-900 12'6" Micro
  86. 86. Amount of Tools 12’6” (3.5 m) ( Full Lane Drum) Spacing # of Tools Cost of Drum 5/8” (16 mm) SH 268 $1340 Standard DHQW 343 $1715 Profile DHQW 440 $2200 0.2” (5 mm) SH 770 $3850 Fewer teeth Less cost Still quick change holders
  87. 87. Questions?

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