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An integral insight of the efficiency of the use of fertilisers in the agricultural sector

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Presented by Ruth Pérez (FNCA Spain) at FERTINNOWA's 2nd International workshop "Meeting growers’ needs: Exchanging Technologies on Irrigation and Fertigation".
Description: Future challenges relating to greater pressure on environment, natural resources, and climate change imply that a “business as usual” model in agriculture is not a viable option. The normative answer is not being effective enough. We are already in the sixth four-year-period of application of the Directive on nitrates and the progress cannot be considered successful.

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An integral insight of the efficiency of the use of fertilisers in the agricultural sector

  1. 1. An integral insight of the efficiency of the use of fertilizers in the agricultural sector Ruth Pérez, Abel La Calle, Francesc La Roca and Joan Corominas Fundación Nueva Cultura del Agua
  2. 2. Foundation for a New Water Culture The FNCA is an Iberian (Spain and Portugal) non-profit organization composed by over 200 members from academia, research institutions, public administration, private sector, stakeholders and citizens. Ours main purpose is a movement towards a more sustainable water management and a New Water Culture. The New Water Culture promotes a new vision and understanding of the water management. We defend the integration of: Cultural Social EcologicalJuridical Economic We believe in public participation to improve the water governance
  3. 3. The DPSIR Source: Adaptation of European Commission (2008) Groundwater Protection in Europe
  4. 4. DPSIR Source: European Commission (2008) Groundwater Protection in Europe
  5. 5. DPSIR: Policies Source: European Commission (2008) Groundwater Protection in Europe
  6. 6. Fertilizer consumption by agriculture (World) Source: www.worldbank.org
  7. 7. Fertilizer consumption by agriculture (EU-28) Source: Eurostat milliontonnes
  8. 8. Vulnerable and sensitive areas in Spain http://sig.mapama.es/redes-seguimiento/
  9. 9. Groundwater contamination (Spain) “The main problem that prevents from reaching the good chemical condition is the impact of diffuse sources, exceeding in many areas the limits imposed by the quality standards of Directive 91/676” Source: MAPAMA & CEDEX 19/02/2016
  10. 10. This model is not a viable option «Future challenges relating to greater pressure on environment, natural resources, and climate change imply that a “business as usual” model in agriculture is not a viable option» Radoslava Kanianska, «Agriculture and Its Impact on Land‐Use, Environment, and Ecosystem Services» en Landscape Ecology - The Influences of Land Use and Anthropogenic Impacts of Landscape Creation, Amjad Almusaed (edi.), 2016
  11. 11. Legislation relevant to nutrients o Directive 91/676/EEC pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural • Aim: Reduce water pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural. • Instrument: Monitoring, designation of vulnerable areas, codes of good agricultural practices, and action programs o Directive 91/271/EEC urban waste-water treatment • Aim: Reduce water pollution caused by waste water discharges. • Instrument: Collection systems and appropriate treatment for waste water, and reinforced in areas sensitive to eutrophication o Directive 2000/60/EC framework for action in water policy • Aim: Achieve good status of EU waters by means of integrated RBM • Instrument: Environmental objectives, River basin management plan and Program of Measures, and integrated approach based on identified pressures o Others • Directive 2008/56/EC framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive) • Clean Air Policy Package 18/12/2013 • Circular economy: New Regulation of fertilizers 17/03/2016
  12. 12. Directive 91/676/EEC nitrates from agricultural
  13. 13. Case-law to the Nitrates Directive Date Case-law Name of the parties 29/04/1999 C-293/97 The Queen v Secretary of State for the Environment and Others 01/10/1998 C-71/97 Commission v Kingdom of Spain 25/02/1999 C-195/97 Commission v Italian Republic 13/04/2000 C-274/98 Commission v Kingdom of Spain 07/12/2000 C-69/99 Commission v United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 08/03/2001 C-266/00 Commission v Luxembourg 08/11/2001 C-127/99 Commission v Italian Republic 14/03/2002 C-161/00 Commission v Federal Republic of Germany 27/06/2002 C-258/00 Commission v French Republic 02/10/2003 C-322/00 Commission v Kingdom of the Netherlands 11/03/2004 C-396/01 Commission v Ireland 08/09/2005 C-416/02 Commission v United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 08/09/2005 C-121/03 Commission v Kingdom of Spain 22/09/2005 C-221/03 Commission v Kingdom of Belgium 31/01/2008 C-147/07 Commission v French Republic 17/06/2010 C-105 & 110/09 Terre wallonne ASBL & Inter-Environnement Wallonie ASBL v Région wallonne 29/06/2010 C-526/08 Commission v Grand Duchy of Luxemburg 28/02/2012 C-41/11 Inter-Environnement Wallonie ASBL and Terre wallonne ASBL v Région wallonne 24/10/2013 C-151/12 Commission v Kingdom of Spain 04/09/2014 C-237/12 Commission v French Republic 23/04/2015 C-149/14 Commission v Greece C-543/16 Commission v Federal Republic of Germany
  14. 14. Blueprint Eutrophication due to excessive nutrient load remains a major threat to the good status of waters as nutrient enrichment is found in about 30 % of water bodies in 17 Member States. To counter these threats, there is a need to extend nitrate vulnerable zones and step up action programmes. COM (2012) 673 final
  15. 15. Main basis and supplementary measures Source: European Commission (2008) Groundwater Protection in Europe
  16. 16. The response necessary: recovery of the costs o The principle of recovery of the costs of water services, including environmental and resource costs associated with damage or negative impact on the aquatic environment should be taken into account in accordance with, in particular, the polluter- pays principle. • Whereas (38), art. 9 and annex III of Directive 2000/60/CE o The codes of good practice and action plans should be complemented by cost recovery measures. • Complementary measure that can reinforce the rest of measures o It is necessary that the damages produced by fertilizers are restored by the agent responsible o It is necessary that the damages produced by fertilizers are not assumed by other agents such as the urban supply system o Those agents benefitted by the production, retailing and use of fertilizers have shared responsabilities in its excessive use
  17. 17. Case at the Supreme Court of Spain: La Ribera del Júcar Municipality Population Area Alzira 44.518 110,5 Algemesí 27.808 41,5 Albalat de la Ribera 3.429 14,3 Benicull de Xúquer 904 3,56 Carcaixent 20.613 59,3 Corbera 3.249 20,3 Cullera 23.406 53,8 Favara 2.048 9,4 Fortaleny 991 4,6 Llaurí 1.318 13,6 Polinya de Xúquer 2.404 12,7 Riola 1.824 5,6 Sueca 28.112 92,5 160.624 441,6 Júcar River Basin District
  18. 18. Case at the Supreme Court of Spain: La Ribera del Júcar Estimation of the pressure supported by the underground water masses Figure 201. Map of nitrogen excess (kg/ha/año) applied on the terrain for each underground water mass. CHJ, Informe para la Comisión Europea sobre los artículos 5 y 6 de la Directiva Marco del Agua. Demarcación Hidrográfica del Júcar. Abril de 2005, p. 268
  19. 19. Case at the Supreme Court of Spain: La Ribera del Júcar Annual report 2014 Annual report 2015 Chemical quality of subterranean water body: 080-142 Plan de Valencia Sur
  20. 20. Case at the Supreme Court of Spain: La Ribera del Júcar o Underground water no longer presents enough quality for human consumption • Does no meet the standards on nitrates and pesticides o Measures for improving the local supply were taken • Substitute underground water for surface water, up to now, paid by the municipality o From now, the costs of the measures will be applied according to the polluter pays principle o As the pollution mainly comes from the agriculture… • Estudio de Tragsatec, S.A. and the Politechnic University of Valencia (UPV) o … costs should not be applied to those who are not responsibles • The allocation of costs of the basin Hydrological plan is annuled • Municipalities are released from covering the substitution costs ECLI: ES:TS:2017:1131
  21. 21. Conclusions o The excessive agricultural fertilization is a serious environmental problem • Trend: Increase in the consumption of fertilizers o This polluting agricultural model is unsustainable • Environmental deterioration: Specially serious in case of underground water o The normative answer is not being effective enough • We are already in the sixth four-year-period of application of the Directive on nitrates (2016-2019) and the progress cannot be considered enough o One of the necessary answer is the effective cost recovery • The polluter pays and does not get aid o It is necessary to consider this situation in the project • The efficiency is only recommended if it is sustainable. • The application of specific technologies should be jointly evaluated, considering rebound effects and the risks of the technological lock-in.
  22. 22. Thank you Ruth Pérez, Abel La Calle, Francesc La Roca and Joan Corominas Fundación Nueva Cultura del Agua
  23. 23. ANNEX III Criteria for determining best available techniques 1. the use of low-waste technology; 2. the use of less hazardous substances; 3. the furthering of recovery and recycling of substances generated and used in the process and of waste, where appropriate; 4. comparable processes, facilities or methods of operation which have been tried with success on an industrial scale; 5. technological advances and changes in scientific knowledge and understanding; 6. the nature, effects and volume of the emissions concerned; 7. the commissioning dates for new or existing installations; 8. the length of time needed to introduce the best available technique; 9. the consumption and nature of raw materials (including water) used in the process and energy efficiency; 10. the need to prevent or reduce to a minimum the overall impact of the emissions* on the environment and the risks to it; 11. the need to prevent accidents and to minimise the consequences for the environment; 12. Information published by public international organisations. ________________________ DIRECTIVE 2010/75/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL, of 24 November 2010, on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control) (Recast) * ‘emission’ means the direct or indirect release of substances, vibrations, heat or noise from individual or diffuse sources in the installation into air, water or land; Art 3. (4)

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