* Hygiene- a condition or practice conducive to the
preservation of health, as cleanliness.
* Sanitation- a state of being clean, health-promoting free
from disease-producing agents, and visible dirt.
* Hazards- any agent (biological, chemical and physical)
that has a potential of causing an adverse effect on
Plant and animal
* These organisms can affect human health,
including infection, intoxication and even
death. Infection occurs when organisms invade
the host and multiply in the body. Intoxication
occurs when bacteria produce toxins that
affect the body.
* Effective thermal processing used as a kill step (ex: cooking,
* Use of appropriate process controls:
storage temperatures (ex: cooler, freezer)
processing parameters (ex: temperature and time for cooking,
water activity during dehydration)
adequate cooling system
* Effective cleaning and sanitizing procedures (ex: SOPs)
* Use of food technologies to prevent the growth of bacteria or other
processing techniques (ex: dehydration)
* Contamination- unintentional presence of harmful
substances in food and water.
* Foodborne illness- is any illness resulting from the
consumption of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria,
viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as
chemical or natural toxins.
* HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point)- An
operational system to select and implement effective
control measures to ensure the safety of a food product.
The main objective of HACCP is safe food.
FAATOM (Food, Acid, Time, Temperature, Oxygen, and Moisture)
There are sufficient nutrients available that promote the growth of microorganisms.
Protein-rich foods, such as meat, milk, eggs and fish are most susceptible.
Foodborne pathogens require a slightly acidic pH level of 4.6-7.5, while they thrive in
conditions with a pH of 6.6-7.5. FDA regulations for acid/acidified foods require that
the food be brought to pH 4.5 or below.
Food should be removed from "the danger zone" (see below) within two hours, either
by cooling or heating. While most guidelines state two hours, a few indicate four hours
is still safe.
Foodborne pathogens grow best in temperatures between 41 °F (5 °C) to 135
Temperature °F (57 °C), a range referred to as the temperature danger zone (TDZ). They thrive in
temperatures that are between 70 °F (21 °C) to 120 °F (49 °C).
Almost all foodborne pathogens are aerobic, that is requiring oxygen to grow. Some
pathogens, such as clostridium botulinum, the source of botulism, are anaerobic and
do not require oxygen to grow.
Water is essential for the growth foodborne pathogens, water activity (aw) is a measure
of the water available for use and is measured on a scale of 0 to 1.0. Foodborne
pathogens grow best in foods that have aw between 1.0 and 0.86. FDA regulations for
canned foods require aw of 0.85 or below.
* Present a Clean Glass
* Storing Garnishes Safely
* Prepare Garnishes Properly
* Store Food in Food Safe Containers
* Keep Fruit Flies Away
• Clean spills immediately
• Commit to thorough cleanings at the end of the night
• Store liquor, juices and garnishes with lids if possible
* Monitor for Safe Temperatures
* Color-code chemicals and tools.
* Staff Hygiene
* Cleaning and Sanitizing
* Always be clean, tidy and diplomatic.
* Always rinse/wash bar equipment like cocktail shakers and strainers
after use, even between drinks.
* Always wash and dry your hands frequently, especially after contact with
citrus fruit/juices. This helps prevent hand dermititis.
* Look after your hands, especially your fingernails, as these are always in
view. Keep fingernails short, and if using nail polish, use neutral colors.
* Don't smoke or drink while working behind a bar, it is considered
unsanitary and in many countries is also illegal.
* Don't allow a champagne corks to 'pop' on removal, this is of bad taste
* Handle a glass soda siphon by the plastic or metal part only. The heat of
your hand may cause the glass to shatter.
* Never fill a glass to the brim.