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Re|Imagine: Improving the Productivity of Federally Funded University Research

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Federally funded university research provides a backbone to the US economy. But how can we improve the productivity of this research? The first step: move away from the simplistic linear model of commercialization. Second step: Embrace the new disciplines of agile strategy and ecosystems.

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Re|Imagine: Improving the Productivity of Federally Funded University Research

  1. 1. Re|Imagine Improving the productivity of federally funded university research
  2. 2. © Purdue University, 2016 i Contact Information Ed Morrison Purdue Agile Strategy Lab Discovery Park 201 West State Street West Lafayette, IN 47906 edmorrison@purdue.edu
  3. 3. ii Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Paul Zielinski and Courtney Silverthorn of the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) for their flexibility and their willingness to experiment with a new approach. We would also like to thank Jim Woodell of the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) for his continuing support of these new approaches to defining the university’s role in today’s economy. Jim took the initiative to point Paul and Courtney in our direction. Finally, we would like to express our appreciations to the participants for the time they invested in our workshops. The participants are listed in the Appendix.
  4. 4. This report presents the story of an experiment. Sometimes we can address the challenges in front of us more effectively if we reframe the problem. That’s the case with trying to figure out new ways to make federal investments in research more productive. While it was never explicitly presented to us in this fashion, the challenge of “removing the barriers to commercialization” to federally funded research on university campuses implies a sixty year old model of commercialization that limits our thinking. Ever since Vannevar Bush set the post war direction of federal research, federal policy has followed a logical, linear model of commercialization. To improve the productivity of federal investment, simply identify and remove the barriers. Indeed, the deceptively simple term “technology transfer” im- plies a hand-off, a linear flow. But what if the process of innovation -- moving new ideas into the marketplace to create and capture value -- is not linear? What if it is more like a complex adaptive system? An ecosys- tem? A network of networks? How do we think of the chal- lenge in this way? What if we focus on strengthening the start-up and innovation ecosystems surrounding universities that receive federal research dollars? Does reframing the chal- lenge open up the “solution space”? Does it change how the ac- tors in these systems think and behave? Does it lead to new, more productive collaborations? More flexible, higher lever- age policies? Does this new perspective place us on the door- step of what’s next? We believe it does. This report represents a small step in that direction. Ed Morrison Scott Hutcheson Duane Dunlap Purdue Agile Strategy Lab Antonino Ardilio Joachim Warschat Fraunhofer IAO iii Introduction
  5. 5. CHAPTER 1 Setting the Stage Design thinking teaches important les- sons, but none are more important than this one: how we think about a problem defines the boundaries we impose on the solutions we consider.
  6. 6. EXPANDING OUR “SOLUTION SPACE” 1. In mathematical optimization, a solution space refers to a set of all possible points that satisfy a problem’s constraints. 2. The emerging discipline of design thinking has adopted the term. Design thinking focuses on generating solutions. The emphasis is on designing experiments to explore a solution space. Little time is spent on defining the problem. 3. Most important, the solution space can be expanded by reframing the problem. 4. “Overcoming barriers to commercialization” is probably too narrow a definition of the problem and limits our thinking of what is possible. SECTION 1 Asking the Right Question Bernard Roth, a founding luminary of Stanford's design school, illustrates the value of asking the right question with a story. Some years ago, a student team went to Nepal to im- prove the performance of incubators for premature infants. Af- ter doing some field research, they reframed to their problem by changing their point of view. The problem was not the incu- bators, the problem was how to keep babies warm long enough for them to survive. With this altered perspective, the students developed a solution that sold for 1% of the price of a conventional incubator. The core message is simple and pow- erful. Reframing the problem, changing our point of view, helps us to find more creative and productive solutions. This lesson is crucial as we consider how to improve the pro- ductivity – the returns to the public – from federal invest- ments in research performed on university campuses. As we shall see, in the 35 years or so that this issue has circulated among policy circles in Washington, the predominant framing of the problem is been to “eliminate the barriers" to commer- cialization. This report argues that more needs to be done to shift our per- spective from “barriers" to an emerging language of "innova- tion ecosystems”. Our framing question moves from “How do we eliminate barriers to commercialization?” to “How to we work together to strengthen innovation ecosystems?” By mak- ing this shift, we open a wider range of solutions available to us. 5
  7. 7. To demonstrate the value of this shift in perspective, we've conducted three workshops in Washington focused on strengthening the innovation ecosystems surrounding univer- sities that conduct federally funded research. Our report is di- vided as follows: • The balance of this chapter provides an overview of how academic research and policy formulation has moved from a linear model of commercialization to an emerging model of "innovation ecosystems”. • Chapter 2 explores how a small team at Purdue Uni- versity has been exploring this new perspective over the past decade and has begun to implement new promising method- ologies to design and guide the complex collaborations needed to strengthen "innovation ecosystems”. We introduce our col- laboration with Fraunhofer and their innovation and technol- ogy management solutions that we are piloting with our part- ners at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. • Chapter 3 demonstrates how we designed three workshops to apply these approaches in order to build stronger connections among universities and federal agencies. We demonstrate this framework with three potentially produc- tive collaborations. • Chapter 4 explores how this approach could be scaled through more low-cost experiments. 6
  8. 8. NEW MODELS OF INNOVATION 1. The notion of commercialization barriers is inherently tied to a linear model of commercialization that is an inadequate description of the innovation process. 2. An alternative, emerging model sees innovation as the product of networks and collaboration. Multiple actors work together to explore innovations and experiment in new ways. 3. Creating new products and services is an iterative process of experimenting and prototyping in real world settings. 4. The resources required for successful innovation are rarely housed within a single entity. Rather, a network of actors -- embedded in an ecosystem -- drive the innovation process. SECTION 2 Moving from Barriers to Ecosystems We begin our history with the passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980. In the late 1970s, amidst growing concerns about stag- flation and the global competitiveness of the US economy, Congress began looking at how to accelerate innovation from federally funded research. In 1980, Congress enacted the Pat- ent Policy Act of 1980, also known as the Bayh-Dole Act. By changing the patent rules, Congress hoped to increase the syn- ergies between universities and business. The Bayh-Dole enabled a linear model of technology transfer that moves roughly as follows: • A university scientist makes a discovery; • Scientist discloses the invention to the university's technol- ogy transfer office (TTO) • The TTO evaluates the invention and decides whether or not the patent • The TTO files a patent application • The TTO markets the technology to firms and entrepreneurs • The TTO signs an agreement to license or acquire an equity stake in a spinoff company Bayh-Dole, although helpful, was not enough. By the mid- 1980’s a growing turbulence in the global economy pushed the business community advocate for a more focused approach in strengthening the nation's competitiveness. The rise of China, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the emergence of India, 7
  9. 9. as well as lingering pressure from com- petitors in Europe and Japan all con- tributed to a sense of urgency. The President’s Commission on Industrial Competitiveness outlined the nation's declining competitive position and ar- gued that our weakness in commercial- izing new technology contributed sig- nificantly to the problem. In an article written three years after the commission report, the chairman, John Young, former CEO of Hewlett-Packard, ex- plained: “Technology is one area where the United States has a competi- tive advantage. In fact, as a nation, it is proba- bly our greatest advan- tage… Yet, the competi- tiveness of US industry is seriously handi- capped by shortcom- ings in our ability to commercialize tech- nologies to develop both the products in the manufacturing processes that today's markets de- mand.” He went on to cite the loss of US posi- tion in semiconductors, videocassette recorders, compact disc players, and other consumer electronics. Young be- gan reframing the challenge as involv- ing a wide array of actors. He cited Stanford's Center for Integrated Sys- tems (CIS) as an exemplar. “CIS represents a special partnership that joins together private industry, aca- demia and government in an American- ized version of the cooperative spirit that is given Japanese industry and in- ternational edge. This arrangement is mutually beneficial because it pro- motes the collaboration between aca- demic and industrial communi- ties and the basic research needed to keep the United States in the forefront of tech- nology.” Young's work began the proc- ess of expanding our under- standing of commercializa- tion. The perspective gained even more traction with the publication in 1990 of Michael Porter's Competitive Advan- tage of Nations. As he summa- rized his book in a companion article in the Harvard Busi- ness Review, Porter explained how national competitiveness is grounded in company com- 8
  10. 10. petitiveness. He proposed to that under- standing company competitiveness re- quired analyzing a model of five fac- tors. It was an important effort to ex- plain that national prosperity was rooted in a complex system of interrela- tionships. By managing these factors intentionally, countries can give rise to “clusters" of internationally competi- tive industries. By the mid-1990’s the landscape was clearly shifting. In an important report, the Office of Technology Assessment declared that the debate on commer- cialization “has been hampered By an incomplete understanding of the ways in which firms develop and market new products, processes, and services in the barriers that be must overcome in the process.” The report described the linear model of innovation and commercialization, but called it “an inadequate descrip- tion of the innovation process.” The tra- ditional model only describes one path- way to innovation and “reinforces the notion that government should restrict its role to the support of basic re- search.” At the same time, a number of academ- ics began contributing to our under- standing by proposing different frame- works that might help us understand the complex nature of innovation within regional economies. While Por- ter focused on clusters, Leydesdorff and Etzkowitz proposed the idea of a “triple helix” of universities, govern- ment and business. Cooke, building off work done by Freeman in national inno- vation systems, proposed the frame- work of “regional innovation systems”. Saxenian, comparing the economic per- formance of Silicon Valley with Bos- ton’s Route 128, saw the importance of networks in explaining regional com- petitiveness. These researchers provided the founda- tion for what has followed. In the past fifteen years, additional research has explored practical approaches to de- signing and guiding the open, loosely connected networks that characterize commercialization and innovation. In 2001, Eisenhardt and Sull suggested that strategy in a world of networks was fundamentally different than tradi- tional approaches. They suggested that successful strategies in dynamic net- works emerge from following simple rules. In 2002, an important line of re- search opened to explore the connec- tion of social network analysis and in- novation. In 2003, Chesbrough intro- duced his concept of “open innova- tion”. In 2005, Seely Brown and Hagel suggested that “pull platforms” pro- vided a useful metaphor for mobilizing tangible and intangible assets needed for innovation. By 2010, the National Science Founda- tion’s Directorate of Engineering sug- gested a new policy framework focused on strengthening “innovation ecosys- tems”. The white paper bluntly states, 9 The linear model of commercializa- tion is “an inadequate description of the innovation process.” Office of Technology Assessment
  11. 11. “The linear model is an oversimplification of the innovation process, and it misses many of the nu- ances involved in the non-linear, real life proc- ess.” This paper serves as a useful bridge between academics, focused on fashioning theoretical tools to guide policy, and policy makers seeking to improve the productivity of federal research. In 2013, the White House convened the Lab to Mar- ket Summit. The expert panel following the sum- mit reiterated the challenge voiced by John Young in 1988: “[I]f the U.S. is to remain globally competitive in the 21st century, it must accelerate the transla- tion of federally funded R&D into com- mercial outcomes that create economic and public value, thus maximizing the return on the public dollars invested.” The question, of course, is “How?” There are no set answers, only experi- ments on which to build. The federal government has been experimenting with different policy approaches, from the multi-agency i6 Challenge to the National Innovation Corps (I-Corps), the NIH Research Evaluation and Com- mercialization Hub (REACH) program, the National Incuba- tor Initiative for Clean Energy, and the National Network for Manufacturing Inno- vation (NNMI). APLU has launched its Innovation and Economic Prosperity (IEP) initiative to rec- ognize the strategies undertaken by univer- sities to design and guide the networks needed to accelerate innovation. The IEP program demonstrates that uni- versities are experi- menting in a wide range of activities and collaborative investments to build both the start up and innovation ecosys- tems surrounding their campuses. These experiments are teaching us how to design the networks and platforms leading to a more productive invest- ment of federal research funding. 10
  12. 12. CHAPTER 2 Taking on the How We now take you inside another experi- ment. In August 2013, Purdue and Fraun- hofer IAO began a collaboration to ex- plore this question: How could we com- bine our innovation, technology manage- ment and strategy frameworks to strengthen the innovation ecosystems sur- rounding U.S. universities?
  13. 13. WHAT IS AGILE STRATEGY? 1. Strategy enables investors to deploy scarce resources in productive ways. 2. Designing strategy in an ecosystem cannot follow conventional strategic planning methods. Traditional approaches were designed for hierarchical, command-and- control organizations. Ecosystems, by contrast, are open, loosely connected networks embedded in other networks. In an ecosystem, no one can tell anyone else what to do. 3. Strategy in open networks is inherently complex. To design effective strategies, actors must follow a collective discipline of simple rules. 4. As participants follow these rules, complex strategies emerge from continuous experimentation and adaptation. SECTION 1 Open Innovation and Agile Strategy One of the biggest challenges of moving from a linear to a network-based model of innovation involves figuring out a new approach to strategy. An effective strategy consists of two components: a destination (“ Where we going?”) and a pathway (“ How we get there?”). With conventional hierarchi- cal organizations, the responsibility of developing a strategy falls to top management. In an ecosystem, the design of strat- egy is not so clear. Meeting this challenge is crucial, if we hope to design and guide an ecosystem intentionally. If we have no replicable, scalable and sustainable approach to strategy, then we must leave the formation and operation of ecosystems to serendip- ity. Seen from the perspective of the business firm, the challenge of innovating within an ecosystem involves managing the proc- ess of open innovation. The term, coined in 2003 by Henry Chesbrough, describes how a firm identifies, links and lever- ages resources outside the firm to accelerate the innovation. Within large firms, managing this process is challenging, and there is no established process for doing so. For nearly a decade, a small group of practitioners and re- searchers at Purdue University have been experimenting with a new approach to strategy, an approach that is directly appli- cable to open innovation and innovation ecosystems. De- signed specifically for open, loosely connected networks, this approach manages the inherent complexities of ecosystem de- sign with a set of simple rules. These rules guide participants 12
  14. 14. to shared, measurable outcomes and enable them to make fre- quent adjustments along the way, as they learn by doing. This discipline, called Strategic Doing, focuses participants on deep conversations framed by engaging, strategic question about what they could do together. Participants begin to ex- plore this question by connecting their assets and defining new opportunities. They then go through a clear, concise proc- ess of establishing priorities. They identify opportunities that both have a big potential impact and are relatively easy to do. To set these priorities they fall back on a valuable, often ne- glected resource: their strategic intuition. With one opportunity on which to focus they drive their con- versation deeper to explore what a successful outcome might look like and how they would measure their success. Once they have an outcome, they next turn their attention to estab- lishing a project that can move them toward that outcome. They mark their path forward and established commitments to move their ideas and action. Finally, they establish a time to meet so they can review their progress and de- cide on next steps. This conversation takes a relatively short time to com- plete, a matter of hours. As partici- pants answer these questions they generate all the components they need for a strategy to begin implementing. By following this protocol of collaboration, partners can quickly begin building trust by working toward a shared outcome. With this process in place, universities can design and guide the development of innovating networks capable of speeding resources to the most promising ideas. To begin developing the ecosystems needed to speed commercialization of feder- ally funded research, we have borrowed an important emerg- ing idea from business strategy and product development: the concept of platforms. Universities need to design and develop their own platforms on which ecosystems can form. 13 “I’ve worked with large companies trying to do open innovation, but the Strategic Doing process is unique. This is the most clear an concise open innovation process I’ve seen.” Mark Scotland CEO, 4.0 Analytics A company participating in an open innova- tion network with Lockheed to develop Condition-Based Maintenance innovations for the Navy
  15. 15. WHY PLATFORMS? 1. Beginning in the 1990’s, as business strategy began to shift toward networks and ecosystems, the concept of platforms emerged. 2. A platform enables a business to “orchestrate” collaborations and networks that create value for markets. 3. So, for example, Apple created a platform for music sales with iTunes, Amazon created a platform for books and publishing, and Intel created a platform to accelerate the development of the personal computer. 4. Following a similar approach, universities and national labs can design platforms that will speed the commercial development of federally funded research. SECTION 2 Platforms and Ecosystems In the business world, the idea of platforms first emerged in product development in the 1980’s. Companies assembled foundation of components around which they developed multi- ple products. So, for example, auto companies like Toyota would develop a series of models on the same platform of shared components. Similarly, Microsoft developed its Office suite using a shared set of components for file sharing, text processing, and graphics. As the concept of business ecosystems developed in the 1990’s, however, the term platform took on a different mean- ing. Companies began designing platforms in order to engage partners and customers in new networks. In other words, their business strategy focused on designing and guiding their own business ecosystems using a platform business model. Ap- ple disrupted the music industry by creating a new platform, iTunes, which enabled consumers to download single music tracks and develop their own playlists. By designing the plat- form and setting the rules of operation, a company can orches- trate the networks that form on the platform. In this way, a business ecosystem emerges that provides a competitive ad- vantage to the platform owner. Universities can use the same approach to design and guide two overlapping ecosystems to accelerate the commercializa- tion of federally funded research. The first ecosystem focuses on startup companies. Here, faculty and students leverage uni- versity intellectual property from federally funded research to create spinoff companies. The second ecosystem involves ac- celerating innovation among existing companies. 14
  16. 16. In the United States, a great deal of attention focuses on accel- erating the rate of university startups and spinoff companies. In Germany, by contrast, much more attention is paid to accel- erating innovation among existing companies, small and large. Universities pursuing federally funded research can do both, but each requires a different strategy and a different set of net- works. Equally important, the assets around which networks form vary from university to university. Each set of university ecosystems will be different. Meeting the challenge of designing and guiding these ecosys- tems -- with universities as a orchestrator or “platform owner” -- is not easy. Universities are organized around academic de- partments that often block cross disciplinary collaborations. Faculty are not easily rewarded for devoting time and re- sources to innovation. The lack of faculty incentives to inno- vate represents a common “obstacle” often cited but difficult to address. The Purdue Agile Strategy Lab is addressing this challenge by developing “platforms” on which faculty are attracted to col- laborate. The platforms are “open” to participation by faculty, students and outside organizations, including companies. These platforms “slide underneath” existing organizational structures and do not disrupt existing power relationships. As a result, they are unlikely to provoke an “immune response” from power players within the existing organizations. Each platform provides a safe place where “networks of the willing” can form to explore innovation opportunities. By becoming a 15
  17. 17. platform designer, universities can ac- celerate the develop- ment of both start up and innovation ecosystems. The Purdue team has been working on this approach with Fraunhofer IAO over the past three years. In the past year, the team has collabo- rated with the New Jersey Innovation Institute to design innovation platforms to address particular opportunities, including developing an in- novation network of smaller companies working with Lock- heed Martin to address the challenge of Condition Based Main- tenance (CBM) with the Navy. (CBM represents a strategy in which maintenance is performed on heavy equipment when certain indicators show that performance is degrading or a fail- ure is imminent.) The university uses its convening power and the discipline of agile strategy to form networks quickly, generate hypotheses about how value could be created collaboratively, and design experiments to test these hypotheses. The formation of these networks takes time, but an agile strategy discipline speeds the process. Participants learn that by linking and leveraging their assets, they can gener- ate new opportunities. In the case of CBM, the Purdue-NJII team used this process uncover a promising set of compa- nies in sensors, data ana- lytics, machine learning, predictive analytics, and augmented reality. Through a series of agile strategy workshops, a new innovation network formed on the platform within six months. 16
  18. 18. CHAPTER 3 A Lab to Market Experiment What would it look like if we introduce these concepts of platforms, innovation networks and ecosystems to the ongoing Lab to Market initiative in Washington? We launched an experiment to find out.
  19. 19. In 2015, representatives from NIST approached Purdue about conducting a workshop on the barriers to commercialization of federally funded research by universities. The Purdue team instead proposed an alternative of three workshops designed as an experiment. The purpose is to explore how we could de- velop practical initiatives to strengthen the innovation ecosys- tem surrounding universities conducting federal research. So the question guiding the design of these workshops was as fol- lows: Could we design a series of workshops that generated practi- cal initiatives to strengthen university start-up and innovation ecosystems? To test this idea, we conducted a series of three workshops in August 2015, October 2015, and February 2016. We began with the premise that there are three types of solutions that could strengthen these innovation ecosystems: • Collaborative solutions —These consist of three types of col- laboration: collaborations within universities, such as multi- disciplinary research teams tackling grand challenges; col- laborations between university and industry; and collabora- tions among federal agencies. • Administrative solutions — These are actions by federal agencies that can speed collaboration by increasing the flexi- bility and flow of information and funding within innovation ecosystems; • Legislative solutions — These are Congressional authoriza- tions of appropriations specifically designed to support col- laborations within innovation ecosystems. In the August workshop, 20 participants convened to explore solutions that they could generate. We arbitrarily divided into three teams. Using the Strategic Doing process, each team quickly generated an inventory of potential solutions that could be launched by the participants from the assets within their networks. In the October and February workshops, the teams continued to refine their work. The three initiatives they developed include: 1. Connect network of IEP universities with the Federal Lab Consortium to form opportunities for new collaborations to form. 2. Pilot an SBIR Phase 0 initiative to bridge the gap between federal research funding and Phase 1 SBIRs. 3. Promote funding alignment with NIST’s Washington- based innovation fellows initiative to serve as “innovation guides”. They would develop tools and methods to navi- gate among different federal programs to support technology-based start-ups and early stage high growth firms. They would also advise federal program managers on how to make their initiatives more open, flexible, trans- parent and collaborative. 18
  20. 20. The process demonstrated that with short bursts of time, teams of professionals from universities, university associa- tions, and government agencies could do complex thinking in a new way. In the course of three four hour workshops, the teams devel- oped creative, sophisticated ideas for productive collabora- tions, set priorities among these opportunities, and began im- plementing an action plan to develop their top priority. A deeper dive into the process Let’s take a deeper look into the opportunities that emerged from the first workshop. On August 31, 2015 a diverse group of twenty participants gathered at the office of the Association of Public and Land Grant Universities (APLU) in Washington D.C. The partici- pants completed an agile strategy workshop, guided by a team from Purdue University. The first step in this process involves identifying opportunities for linking and leveraging assets among the participants. Opportunities emerge when partici- pants link these assets across their networks. Working on three teams, the participants identified 29 poten- tial solutions including 13 that could likely be accomplished through administrative action [A], 12 that could be imple- mented through focused collaboration [C], and four that would require legislative action [L]. Each of the three teams selected one of their solutions to begin developing. They de- signed a Strategic Action Plan to begin moving forward. Each team ranked their opportunities along two dimensions: im- pact and ease of implementation. On a five point scale, they ranked the potential impact of each opportunity (1=low; 5=high). Next, they ranked the ease of implementation for each opportunity (1=low; 5=high). In this way, each team de- cided on their “Big Easy”, the opportunity that had a relatively high impact, but that was also relatively easy to do. In subse- quent workshops, the teams continued to develop their Big Easy. A more detailed assessment of each team’s activity follows. For each team, their opportunities are outlined, along with their scoring in terms of impact and ease of implementation. 19
  21. 21. Team One: Opportunities Identified Business Intelligence Web Platform Create a business intelligence web platform that can assist in finding technologies and markets, doing market analysis, and regional economic development analytics. [A] Impact: 5, Ease: 3 Industry-Inspired I/UCRC Assure that Industry/University Cooperative Research Cen- ters are truly industry inspired so that fundamental research is motivated by industry-relevant problems. [A] Impact: 4, Ease: 3 SBIR Phase Zero Program* Design a “Phase Zero” (may not actually be called that) pro- gram as a first step in the SBIR/STTR program. The program could fund teams to go through an I-Corps-like experience as a first step in the SBIR/STTR process. This could result in bet- ter Phase 1 proposals. [A] Impact: 4, Ease: 4 Venture Capital Community Integration Form a consortium of public and private funding entities that includes, not just inter-agency grants, but also inter- governmental and private sector funding that includes the ven- ture capital community. This would be a hybrid of federal grant and sponsored research. [C] Impact: 4, Ease: 4 Cluster-Based Collaborative Network Design a cluster-based collaborative network that goes beyond a firm-by-firm approach. [C] Impact: 4, Ease: 4 Innovation Academy Develop an Innovation Academy program that designs and of- fers short courses, workshops, etc. on innovation and enter- prise development. [A] Impact: 3, Ease: 5 Clear & Transparent University Policies on Tech Transfer Goals & Objectives Establish and clearly state what the goals and policies are for the university as it relates to tech transfer/communications (i.e., have a clear tech transfer policy). Often times the objec- tives of the university, as they relate to tech transfer, are un- clear and difficult, depending who you talk to. [A] Impact: 5, Ease: 4 Systematic Collaboration Among Federal Relations Officers, University Innovators, and Higher Education Associations Foster greater collaboration among federal relations officers, university innovators, and higher education associations. Fed- eral relations officers can help educate innovators about regu- latory and legislative trends – and more importantly, the inno- vators can convey obstacles to Washington, DC for advocacy and action. [C] Impact: 3, Ease: 4 20
  22. 22. Industry-Funded Basic Research Develop university/industry partnerships to support basic re- search that is of value to industry. [C] Impact: 5, Ease: 2 Statewide/Regional Buffer Organizations Create statewide or regional buffer organizations with mis- sions focused exclusively on holis- tic economic development and technology transfer and with a board made up of government, industry, and research institu- tions. [L] Impact 4, Ease 4 Multi-Agency Proof of Concept Research Funding Program Establish a multi-agency ap- proach to supporting early proof of concept research at universi- ties to help support the innova- tion gap that often exists, prevent- ing ideas from being successful and advancing in the marketplace. [A] Impact: 4, Ease: 2 I-Corps at State Level Develop a state-level version of I-Corps to engage beyond NSF-funded PIs. Would likely require both state and federal legislative action. [L] Impact: 3, Ease: 2 Federal Agency Navigation Tool Develop a tool that serves as a concierge or guidance counselor-like service to help navigate the funding, programs, tools, and personnel from the various federal agencies. This could result in more unification among funding agencies and the ability to refer between agencies. [A] Impact: 3, Ease: 3 Industrial IGERT Training Program for Grad Students Develop an NSF/NIH training/ internship program for grad students that provides them with multidisciplin- ary research experiences working with industry problems. This could result in broader grad training and culture change. [A] Impact: 3, Ease:3 Catalogue of University Programs Develop a sharable catalogue of univer- sity tools of bite-size program and tools they have implemented about which they would be willing to take questions from other university colleagues. This would be one-page data sheets rather than large slide decks and longer documents. [C] Impact: 2, Ease 4 21
  23. 23. Team Two: Opportunities Identified Innovation Campaign Launch an innovation campaign to create better understand- ing of innovation and the role universities play. Looking for- ward, connect innovation to the Grand Challenges that we face in food, energy, water, climate change, and so on. Look- ing retrospectively, tell the backstory of important innova- tions that we use today. [C] Impact: 4, Ease: 3 More Flexible DOE Funding Provide more federal funding flexibility for DOE. In the 2011/ 2012 appropriations cycle, Congress placed new restrictions on how funds could be appropriated. These restrictions re- duce the ability of DOE to experiment and adapt to new inno- vation opportunities as they occur. They impose significant lag times in budgeting. DOE is not working in real time. [L] Impact: 5, Ease: 2 Network of Networks Convene a team to design a “network of networks” of organiza- tions involved in university-based innovation and economic growth. They would include university associations (APLU, ASCU), professional associations (AUTM, UEDA, ASEE) and others. This network of network will probably need a full time staff, and it could provide a more coherent way to align promo- tion and advocacy. (Example: A green network of organiza- tions involved in sustainability; this idea contributed by Jetta). [C] Impact: 4, Ease: 3 Innovation and Economic Prosperity (IEP) Network with Federal Partners* APLU has organized network of leading edge universities in- volved in economic growth (IEP universities). The network, in its third year, includes 48 universities. The mutual advantage of connecting IEP with federal agencies: 1) IEP universities have a broader network of federal professionals with whom to interact; and 2) federal professionals have a network that can use when they are seeking policy guidance. [C] Impact: 3, Ease: 5 Model IP Policies Develop model IP policies, using an emerging compilation of innovative IP policies that APLU is compiling. Connect this work with AUTM. [C] Impact: 2.5, Ease: 5 Team Three: Opportunities Identified UIDP Participation* Increase the participation of government agencies in the Uni- versity Industry Demonstration Partnership. [C] Impact: 5, Ease 5. 22
  24. 24. Funding Alignment Reorganization of funding from agencies so there is a contin- uum of mechanisms to provide support all the way to full com- mercialization. [A] Impact: 5, Ease: 3. Dedicated Funding Create new funding mechanisms for dedi- cated entities to con- nect research to inno- vation. Could be inter- agency funding. [L] Impact: 5, Ease: 2 Consistent External Messaging Create consistent mes- saging to the public about the value con- necting better re- search and industry to better respond to pub- lic skepticism. [A] Im- pact: 3, Ease: 3. Internal Messaging Create internal mes- saging about the value to of the connections between better research and industry to respond to skepticism. [A] Impact: 4, Ease: 3 Conflict of Interest Model Create a model for conflict of interest between industry and university. COGR, APLU, and AAU to could take the lead. [C] Impact: 3, Ease 1. Inter-Agency SBIR Find a way to test an inter- agency SBIR program. [C] Impact: 2.5, Ease 4. Expansion of Entrepreneur in Residence Expand the role of the Entre- preneurship in Residence program to take advantage of cross-agency possibilities. [A] Impact: 2, Ease: 5. Peer-Review of Commer- cialization Build into the peer-review process the consideration of commercialization factors (not just SBIR). [A] Impact: 2, Ease: 3. 23
  25. 25. 26
  26. 26. CHAPTER 4 Insights and Next Steps We started with a simple idea. Rather than convene another workshop on “bar- riers to commercialization” why not re- frame the challenge and introduce some new approaches to designing and guiding platforms, innovation networks, and uni- versity ecosystems? This approach gener- ated some useful insights and practical initiatives. The next step involves follow- ing up on this work and designing a more ambitious set of experiments.
  27. 27. Here are some insights that emerge from this process. • University-based ecosystems will be improved through mul- tiple, practical collaborations. A relatively small group of participants generated a large number of practical initiatives that could strengthen the collaborations and speed the flow of resources into innovation. Many of these ideas can be im- plemented now, in the short term. • Despite a challenging political and budget environment, there are important, practical steps that can be taken to im- prove the productivity of federal investment in research and development. Federal agencies and their university part- ners can design and implement these collaborations them- selves, since they draw on assets within their own networks. • In order to move in this direction, the participants need a common strategic framework, a simple set of rules to de- sign and guide their collaborations. The workshops demon- strated that participants who had never worked together be- fore could learn the simple rules needed to design and guide complex strategies in an open, loosely connected network. • We take on complex challenges by relentless focusing on “doing the doable”. As we focus on some relatively big ideas that are relatively easy to do, important “network effects” im- prove our productivity. First, our networks grow. As they do, we gain access to more resources. We meet new people, and we uncover new assets. Second, focusing on "doing the doable” accelerates our learning. We figure out what works to improve the performance of complex systems. Finally, as we collectively work together, trust builds. Stronger bonds of trust lead to more effective networks. Our collective skills improve. We can do more complex work together faster. • Designing and guiding new collaborations to strengthen university innovation ecosystems is likely to be a high lever- age investment for the federal government. Convening agile strategy workshops is not expensive. It requires a new ap- proach in our thinking, a new set of collective skills that we can improve through practice, and a disciplined commit- ment of short bursts of time. A team from Purdue and Fraunhofer IAO have been building this “innovation ecosystem” approach for the past three years. The team is now collaborating with New Jersey Institute of Technology to pilot this approach in its NJMarketShift initia- tive, funded by the Department of Defense. Here are some practical next steps to consider. 1. Design a Lab to Market process that builds on the ideas generated from this three workshop pilot. NIST and its university partners could build on the work that has been started. This process would lead to regular workshops in Washington at a time when university representatives are in the city to attend other events. 2. Design a series of agile strategy workshops in one Fed- eral Lab Consortium region over the next six months. If results are promising, the process can be replicated and scaled to other regions. Federal research labs and re- 28
  28. 28. search universities, even those within the same U.S. re- gion, function largely as independent actors rather than as interconnected components within a regional innova- tion ecosystem. Significant inventories of new technolo- gies exist within the walls of each of these institutions; but currently there is no methodology for regional innova- tion. There is no systematic, replicable approach to ex- plore how these individual technologies might be linked and leveraged to focus on specific market opportunities and grand challenges. 3. Learn more about the Purdue-Fraunhofer approach to designing and guiding innovation ecosystems in New Jer- sey. The Purdue Agile Strategy Lab and Fraunhofer IAO have been building this “innovation ecosystem” approach for the past three years. The team is now collaborating with New Jersey Institute of Technology the pilot this ap- proach in its NJMarketShift initia- tive, funded by the Department of Defense. 4. Conduct training in agile strategy disciplines for professionals in fed- eral agencies. Moving toward the perspective of innovation ecosys- tems calls on professionals in fed- eral agencies to develop a deeper set of skills to collaborate. These skills can be taught, and the proc- ess of teaching is scalable across an agency. (In a different context, a small team from the DC Department of Employment Services is transforming that agency by teaching Strategic Doing. In months, they have trained 700 employees and launched collaborative initiatives to improve performance in five focus areas.) Innovation is a discipline, and networks can speed the flow of resources to start-up and innovating companies. These net- works can be intentionally designed and guided. But before this approach can be replicated on a broader scale, federal agencies, universities and federal labs will need to substitute old thinking about “barriers” and begin learning how to link and leverage their assets to build new networks. They will need to learn and practice the deeper, collective skills of col- laboration. The good news is that moving down this path is relatively easy and low cost. Importantly, because we are dealing with com- plex systems, we can identify leverage points through continu- ous experimentation. We can find places where 20% of our ef- fort can yield 80% of our results. Small steps can lead to big payoffs. 29
  29. 29. APPENDIX Selected References The literature on innovation networks, open innovation, inno- vation ecosystems and platforms is varied and growing. Here is a selection of references. Adner, R. & Kapoor, R., 2010. Value creation in innovation ecosystems: How the structure of technological interdepend- ence affects firm performance in new technology generations. Strategic Management Journal, 31(3), pp.306–333. Autio, E. et al., 2014. Entrepreneurial innovation: The impor- tance of context. Research Policy, 43(7), pp.1097–1108. Bercovitz, J. & Feldmann, M., 2006. Entrepreneurial Universi- ties and Technology Transfer: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Knowledge-Based Economic Development. Journal of Technology Transfer, 31, pp.175–188. Bercovitz, J. et al., 2015. Entrepreneurial orientation, technol- ogy transfer and spinoff performance of U.S. universities. Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(1), pp.994–1009. Cantner, U., Conti, E. & Meder, A., 2010. Networks and inno- vation: the role of social assets in explaining firms’ innovative capacity. European Planning Studies, 18(12), pp.1937–1956. Chandler, V. et al., 2013. Thriving in Open Innovation Ecosys- tems: Toward a Collaborative Market Orientation, Working Paper, Cambridge Service Alliance, Cambridge University. Choudary, S., Van Alstyne, M., & Parker, G., 2016. Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy and How to Make Them Work for You. Norton. Cooke, P. & Uranga, M.G., 1997. Regional innovation systems: Institutional and organisational dimensions. Research Policy, 26, pp.475–491. Freeman, C., Onofrei, M. et al., 1995. The “National System of Innovation” in historical perspective. The Cambridge Journal of Economics, 19(March 1993), pp.5–24. Gastaldi, Luca; Appio, Francesco Paolo; Martini, Antonella; Corso, M., 2015. Academics As Orchestrators of Continuous Innovation Ecosystems: Towards a Fourth Generation of Ci Initiatives. International Journal of Technology Management, 68(1/2), pp.1–20. Gawer, A. & Cusumano, M.A., 2008. How Companies Become Platform Leaders. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(2), pp.28–35. 30
  30. 30. Gawer, A. & Cusumano, M.A., 2014. Industry platforms and ecosystem innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Manage- ment, 31(3), pp.417–433. Gobble, M.M., 2014. Charting the innovation ecosystem. Re- search Technology Management, 57(4), pp.55–57. Jucevičius, G. & Grumadaitė, K., 2014. Smart Development of Innovation Ecosystem. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sci- ences, 156(April), pp.125–129. Leydesdorff, L. & Etzkowitz, H., 1996. Emergence of a triple helix of university-industry-government relations. Science and Public Policy, 23(5), pp.279–286. Klein, E. & Woodell, J., 2015. Higher Education Engagement in Economic Development : Foundations for Strategy and Practice. Association of Public in Land-grant Universities and University Economic Development Association. pp.1–28. Klein, R., de Haan, U. & Goldberg, A.I., 2010. Overcoming ob- stacles encountered on the way to commercialize university IP. Journal of Technology Transfer, 35(6), pp.671–679. Moore, J.F., 1993. Predators and Prey: A New Ecology of Com- petition. Harvard Business Review, 71(3), pp.75–86. O’Shea, R.P. et al., 2005. Entrepreneurial orientation, technol- ogy transfer and spinoff performance of U.S. universities. Re- search Policy, 34(7), pp.994–1009. Porter, M.E., 1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. Harvard Business Review, 68, pp.73–93. Porter, M.E., 1998. Clusters and the new economics of com- petitiveness. Harvard Business Review, 76, pp.77 – 90. Prince, K., Barrett, M. & Oborn, E., 2014. Dialogical strategies for orchestrating strategic innovation networks: The case of the Internet of Things. Information and Organization, 24(2), pp.106–127. Roth, B., 2015. The Achievement Habit (HarperBusiness). Saxenian, A. 1996. Regional Advantage (Harvard University Press). Schneiderman, B. 2016. The New ABC’s of Research: Achiev- ing Breakthrough Collaborations. Oxford University Press. Smith, T. et al., 2014. Joint Response to OSTP RFI for Strat- egy for American Innovation, Memorandum to the Office of Science and Technolgy Policy, Association of American Univer- sities, Association of Public and Land-grant Universities, American Council on Education, Association of University Technolgy Managers, Association of American Medical Col- leges, Council on Government Relations. US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1995. Innova- tion and Commercialization of Emerging Technologies. Young, J., 1988. Technology and competitiveness: a key to the economic future of the United States. Science (New York, 31
  31. 31. N.Y.), 241(4863), pp.313–6. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17734861 32
  32. 32. APPENDIX Participants The participants in the workshops included: • Joseph Allen, Allen Associates • Amanda Arnold, Arizona State University • Dorn Carranza, VentureWell • Duane Dunlap, Purdue University • Tim Franklin, New Jersey Innovation Institute • Ann Hammersla, NIH • Bob Hardy, Council on Government Relations • Janet Holston, Arizona State University • Rick Huebsch, University of Minnesota • Scott Hutcheson, Purdue University • Barry Johnson, National Science Foundation • Nicole Kuehl, NIST • Wiley Larsen, Arizona State University • Ed Morrison, Purdue University • Liz Nilsen, Purdue University • Kate O’Mara, NIST • Diane Palmintera, Innovation Associates • Angela Phillips Diaz, University of California, San Diego • Doug Rand, OSTP • Rebecca Ranich, Quester Corporation • Fred Rheinhart, AUTM & University of Massachusetts- Amherst • Carmel Ruffolo, Marquette University • Don Sebastian, New Jersey Innovation Institute • Jessica Sebeok, Association of American Universities • Courtney Silverthorn, NIST • Toby Smith, Association of American Universities • Tony Stanco, National Council of Entrepreneurial Tech Transfer 33
  33. 33. • Ryan Umstattd, Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy • Phil Wellerstein, VentureWell • Dave Winwood, Pennington Biomedical Research Center • Jetta Wong, Department of Energy • Jim Woodell, APLU • Marc Wynne, OSTP • Paul Zielinski, NIST 34

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