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The Annual Report of 2015 Human rights in Egypt


Published on

The Annual Report of 2015
Human rights in Egypt:
What Could Possibly Be Worse?
The Egyptian Coordination For Rights and Freedoms
Cairo 2016

Published in: Law
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The Annual Report of 2015 Human rights in Egypt

  1. 1. Harvest 2015 The Annual Report of 2015 The Egyptian coordination of Rights and Freedoms Cairo 2016 Human rights in Egypt: What Could Possibly Be Worse? The Egyptian Coordination For Rights and Freedoms Cairo 2016
  2. 2. 2 Harvest 2015 ‫فهرسة‬ ‫بطاقة‬ ‫املرصية‬ ‫الكتب‬ ‫لدار‬ ‫العامة‬ ‫الهيئة‬ ‫إعداد‬ ‫النرش‬ ‫أثناء‬ ‫فهرسة‬ ‫الفـنيـة‬ ‫الـشـئــون‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫عام‬ ‫حصاد‬ :‫العنوان‬ ‫؟‬ ‫أين‬ ‫إىل‬ ‫مرص‬ ‫يف‬ ‫اإلنسان‬ ‫حقـوق‬ 2015 ‫السـنــــــوي‬ ‫الــتـقـــريــــر‬ ‫والحريات‬ ‫للحقوق‬ ‫املرصية‬ ‫التنسيقية‬ :‫القاهرة‬ - 1‫ط‬ ‫املواطــن‬ ‫حقوق‬ ‫سلسلة‬ ‫سم‬ 24 ،‫ص‬ 212 )‫(املؤلف‬ ‫والحـريـات‬ ‫للحقـــوق‬ ‫املرصيـة‬ ‫التنسيـقية‬ The Egyptian coordination of Rights and Freedoms Prepared by: The Egyptian Coordination of Rights and Freedoms Reporting Unit Series of citizen’s rights Publisher: The Egyptian Coordination For Rights and Freedoms E-mail: Website: Proofreader: Dr. Abdul Rahman Badr Eldin Cover design and art direction: Khadija Zakaria Deposit No: 2934 for the year 2016 The Annual Report of 2015 Human Rights in Egypt: What Could Possibly Be Worse?
  3. 3. Harvest 2015 Human rights in Egypt… Where to? Contributors: The Reporting Unit of the Egyptian Coordination of Rights and Freedoms Researchers: Doaa Hussein human rights researcher Asmaa Mahmoud human rights researcher Amr Ahmed lawyer and a human rights researcher Mohammed Abu Huraira lawyer and a human rights researcher Alaa Monsef human rights lawyer and researcher Director of the Unit: Doha Ezzedine Legal Review: Mohammed Elsayed Lawyer and legal scholar Art Direction: Khadija Zakaria General Manager Ezzat Ghoniem
  4. 4. 4 Harvest 2015 Index Introduction About the Coordination Methodology Executive Summary PartI: violations of civil and political rights Chapter One: The Violations 1. Extrajudicial Killings 2. Enforced Disappearances 3. Torture 4. Arbitrary and Preventive Detention 5. Prisons 6. Collective Punishment, Siege, and the Breaking into Towns and Villages 7. Military Trials 8. Death Sentences Chapter Two: The Most Vulnerable Groups 1. Women 2. Children 3. The Disabled 4. Migrants and Refugees Chapter Three: Professionals 1. Journalists and Media Workers 2. Lawyers and Human Rights Activists 3. Academic Staff Chapter Four: Violations against Students Chapter Five: Legislation in the Absence of Parliament Part II: Violations of Economic and Social Rights 1. Suicide 2. Dismissal from Work Part III: Recommendations 5 6 8 11 17 18 23 40 50 58 87 95 101 111 112 131 139 146 151 152 166 173 196 203 212 213 217 227
  5. 5. Harvest 2015 The essential criterion for the success of all private and government foundations and organizations depends on the extent the law and the regulations concerning everyone are applied to all, without exception or discrimination. This criterion measures how the state respects the rights of its citizens. The application of law without exception or discrimination, in full respect of international human rights standards, distinguish- es between the developed countries and the underdeveloped countries. Our civilized world is measured by the commitment to upholding the rights of citizens. Yet here in Egypt, there are many unknown facts, and many victims whose cases have gone undocumented. However, the obvious fact which we would like to highlight is that there are violations, and these human rights abuses have become too numerous to be reviewed in a report in their entirety. Though this report can reflect statistics, it cannot describe the human pain that one suffers due to the violation of his rights and dignity. Those observing the situation of human rights in Egypt over the past two years can see that conditions have deteriorated. The negligence of human rights and dignity in Egypt is not derived from the collective mind of Egypt, but it is particularly derived from the negligence of the authorities themselves. The officials have forgotten that they are responsible for all Egyptians without any discrimination. The good people of Egypt, however, still reject affronts to humanity and the violation of their rights. Juridical terms such as “enforced disappearance,” “physical liquidation,” “extra-judicial killings,” and “medical negligence in prison” were not common in the general frame- work in Egypt and only jurists and academics knew about them. Now these terms have become common, proving that these crimes have reached the common people who are not associated with politics, and as a result of their perpetration hundreds of times until these acts affect the hearts of everyone. The security agencies are attempting to escape from accountability, and thus they dismiss "enforced disappearances" as merely cases of "missing" persons, and "extrajudicial killings" as their effort to "fight terrorism." There are also new terms that have entered into public discourse which were previously unheard of, even among academics. For instance, "hostage-taking" describes persons detained by the security agencies in order to force their relatives to surrender. What is worse is the negative role of the public prosecution. Public prosecutors more often reject to apply the law, and to document and prevent instances of torture, murder and forced disappearance. Additionally, public prosecutors have refused to investigate the records and reports submitted by victims’ families. In such a seemingly intransigent environment, we announced the launch of the Egyp- tian Coordination for Rights and Freedoms in the beginning of August, 2014 to be a neutral human rights organization, trying our best to stop the egregious negligence of human rights in Egypt, and to express the pain of those victims who do not otherwise have a voice to cry out against the governors. It is our hope to put an end to these con- tinued egregious violations against Egyptians. The Egyptian Coordination has continued in this role since its founding, and remains to this day. We have discovered cases of enforced disappearances, documented cases of extrajudicial killings, and issued detailed reports about cases of torture and abuse. We will continue, God willing, until the ruling power is committed to upholding the rights of citizens, and until they review their policies which violate human rights. Introduction
  6. 6. 6 Harvest 2015 Establishment: ‫ا‬EThe Egyptian Coordination of Rights and Freedoms is an Egyptian human rights orga- nization based in Cairo, founded in August of 2014. We are an independent, neutral, non-profit, non-governmental organization aiming to document violations that occur in Egypt. We publish systematically objective reports, studies and research in order: to guarantee the rights of victims; to document historical events for the historical record; and to pressure to stop violations and abuse of Egyptian citizens and all residents within the lands of Egypt in accordance with the Constitution and the law. It should be noted that the reports issued by the Coordination serve as references for many international and local human rights organizations, governmental and non-gov- ernmental organizations, as well as for a broad range of international and local Ara- bic-language news agencies. The "Egyptian Coordination of Rights and Freedoms" was established in Egypt as an independent human rights civil society organization to express the pains and concerns of Egyptian citizens after the organizers of the organization recognized systematic hu- man rights violations in Egypt, and the need within society to provide unconditional assistance to victims and their families. The first founding conference of the organization was held on the first of August, 2014, which was followed by an inaugural conference on August 18, 2014, held in the Egyptian Journalists’ Syndicate. There was broad participation of many movements and civil society organizations in Egypt, human rights activists, and extensive media coverage. Our Vision: A homeland free of human rights violations, realizing every person's natural right to live in freedom, justice, and with human dignity, and to enjoy these conditions regardless of ideology, skin color, political approach or ideals, or social status. Our Message: Support all the oppressed and defend them against the violations to which they are ex- posed. A Brief about the Coordination About the Organization The Coordination is On the Side of Humanity Egyptian Coordination for Rights and Freedoms The Struggle for the Freedom and Dignity of Egyptians
  7. 7. Harvest 2015 Objectives: 1 Establish cooperation between all parties, institutions and activists to monitor and document human rights violations. 2 Develop a culture promoting human rights work and community volunteering among youth, helping them to monitor and document human rights violations and to defend the oppressed. 3 Support and protect the most vulnerable sectors of society by asserting their rights and equality with others in the community, particularly women, children, the disabled, and ethnic and religious minorities. 4 Build an archive documenting all human rights violations in Egypt.
  8. 8. 8 Harvest 2015
  9. 9. Harvest 2015 The report tells about the violations that took place during the period from January through December of 2015, with reference to some figures and statistics about the violations which took place in the two years previous. Methodology The Time Period Terminology 1 Enforced Disappearances: kidnapping or detaining or any deprivation of any kind of liberty of any person for political reasons, followed by a refusal to acknowledge its occur- rence; or the deprivation of one’s liberty and the refusal to announce his place and not present him for prosecution within 48 hours of his detention, restricting his freedom without acknowledgement. 2 Physical Liquidation homicide that is carried out by security forces against a citizen such that he is killed by live ammunition, by throwing him from the roof of a home, or any other means of murder during detention or after. 3 Extra Judicial Killings: homicide which violates the law without a court ruling on a citizen or sev- eral citizens, whether murder, physical liquidation, medical negligence, tor- ture, disbursing demonstrations, and all other forms of homicide in viola- tion of the law. 4 4 Hostage-Taking: detention of an individual or a group of individuals to coerce someone to surrender to any security body of the Egyptian State. 5 Unfair Dismissals: dismissal from a public and private workplace due to the political position of the individual, and not as a result of a professional error 6 Torture: every act which results in severe pain and suffering, whether physical or mental, financially or morally intentionally inflicted on a person to coerce him to reveal information or to affiliate with an act or an organization, or to force others to do a specific act or to prevent him from doing something. 7 Arbitrary Arrest and Detention: the process of arresting and detaining an individual or a group of individ- uals - sometimes with judicial permission - when there is no evidence of wrongdoing.
  10. 10. 10 Harvest 2015 1 The Coordination relies on a special team of jurists to issue reports and studies, through monitoring and field visits and meetings with victims and their families. 2 The report also relies on published reports and data from government and official bodies, comparing the government's account with what is documented from the victims' families or witnesses in addition to official records. Further Notes 1 This report does not include the conditions in Sinai because it is impossible to monitor and document there directly. It does include those identified violations within the scope of the Arab Republic of Egypt, whether the violation was against Egyptians or foreigners, or violations against Egyptians abroad. 2 This report only circumstantially refers to the cases of deaths in the ranks of the armed forces and the police because it is impossible to communicate with their families or to document the cases accurately because of a lack of information. 3 This report does not include the conditions of Egyptians who were forced to flee Egypt as refugees to other countries due to political conditions in the country because of the difficulty of gathering information. 4 All terms used in this report have been agreed upon by the reporting unit in the Coordination based upon the legal description of the term and its government and security use. 5 The difference in the statistics that may exist from one report to another is be- cause the members of the Coordination are constantly checking, updating, and correcting their information based upon their investigations. 6 The statistics and figures presented in these reports are not final, as they are subject to the constant checking by the organization's monitoring and documenta- tion teams. Collection of information
  11. 11. Harvest 2015 The rights that are protected and the personal privileges for all citizens under the law, including the right of safety, liberty, personal security, and justice, procedural rights of the defendant, individual freedoms and political freedoms. We find that these rights that are disclosed in the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights from article 6 to article 27, confronted by a number of serious violations during 2015, such as: 1- Qualitative analysis of violations such as murder, torture, disappearance, military trial, etc. 2 -The most vulnerable groups particularly women, children, the disabled, and refu- gees. 3- Special file for professionals, specifically journalists, human rights activists, law- yers, and university staff members. 4-Violations against students. 5-Legislations enacted without a parliament. 1- Suicide 2-Occupational dismissal The third section discusses the national and international legal frameworks protect- ing human rights. Finally, the recommendations were distributed according to the competen- cies and responsibilities of each party in Egyptian society, according to the following: Executive summary The first section covers five categories of violations of civil and political rights, which are: The second section covers economic and social rights. The report focuses on just two forms of violations of the social and economic rights of Egyptians, which are - In the light of the efforts of the Egyptian Coordination for rights and freedoms to monitor the status of human rights in Egypt, we have issued the report about the human rights situation in the year 2015 entitled, “Human Rights in Egypt: What Could Possibly Be Worse?” Part I: Civil and Political Rights Based upon the efforts of the Egyptian Coordination to issue a professional human rights report, we have divided this report into three sections
  12. 12. 12 Harvest 2015 The human right to life (infringed upon by arbitrary killings and the death penalty), prohibiting torture and cruel, inhumane, or degrading treatment. The Egyptian Co- ordination monitored three categories of breaches of this right: A- Arbitrary Killing: DDuring 2015, the Egyptian Coordination monitored 335 cases of extrajudicial killings where: 7 citizens were killed by execution; 27 citizens were murdered through tor- ture; 87 citizens were murdered by medical negligence; 50 citizens were murdered during protests; and 143 citizens were killed by live ammunition or by throwing them from the rooftops or by killing them in an unknown explosive accidents; apart from 21 dead due to sectarian violence. B- Torture During 2015, 387 cases of torture were documented based on the complaints re- ceived directly from victims’ families; a total of 876 cases of torture were document- ed, including cases without verification from victims’ families. C- Death penalty We monitored 1763 cases that were referred to the Grand Mufti, including 1758 males and 5 females, of whom four defendants died in detention after referral to the Grand Mufti. During the time period of the report, 729 death sentences were issued; of whom 427 were sentenced to death and their appeal has not yet been consid- ered; 260 were sentenced to death and their appeal was granted, granting a retrial; 7 were sentenced to death, their appeal was granted with a retrial, and then they were sentenced to death for the second time; 56 were sentenced to death, and they face Safety from arrest or detention, and the right to habeas corpus, which imposes procedural controls on detention requiring informing promptly any person exposed to detention of the charges against him and presenting him promptly to a compe- tent court for trial. Many violations of this right were observed during this period including cases of arbitrary detention, enforced disappearance, and referral to military trials for civil- ians, according to the following instances: A- Arbitrary Detention: The Egyptian Coordination observed during 2015 approximately 23,000 cases of ar- bitrary detention of Egyptian citizens. Most of these citizens are under temporary detention, or have been referred to trial - military or civilian trials - in which they are not guaranteed a fair trial. (1) The Right of Physical Safetythe (2)The Right to Liberty and Security of Person
  13. 13. Harvest 2015 Freedom of movement, thought, and expression, freedom of association and assembly, the right to citizenship, and the right to privacy. A-Freedom of Movement: During this period the siege of several villages and cities was observed in various governorates of Egypt, preventing citizens from moving freely, restricting them, and arbitrarily detaining a large number of citizens. In addition to this, a large number of citizens were prevented from traveling, particularly jurists, journalists, and community figures. The number of Egyptian prisons increased from 42 to 51 after nine new prisoners were built in 2015. B- Freedom of Thought and Expression: The Coordination witnessed the following violations of Egyptians’ freedom of thought and expression, particularly targeting media workers and journalists: i-The killing of 4 journalists in different violent incidents. ii-The enforced disappearance and torture of 14 journalists. iii- One-hundred and ninety-three (193) instances of physical abuse during media and press coverage. iv- Fifty (50) cases of arbitrary detention of journalists and media workers. v- Thirty-eight (38) journalists and media workers were referred to criminal trials, whether civilian or military trials. vi- 12 television programs were prevented from airing. vii- Egyptian security and/or police raided the headquarters of 14 newspapers, satel- lite television channels, and news websites. viii- In addition to the huge intransigence in dealing with journalists and media people particularly those inside prisons. Enforced Disappearance: We observed 1840 cases of enforced disappearance of Egyptian citizens during the period of observation; approximately 366 of these cases are still regarded as enforced disappearances at the time of this report’s publication, and we will attach to the re- port a detailed list about people who are still considered cases of enforced disappear- ance based upon testimony gathered from the families of the victims. C- Referral of civilians to military trials: We observed during this period approximately 6,048 Egyptian citizens referred to military courts in 288 cases, including approximately 578 students and minors; ap- proximately 74 doctors, 181 teachers, and 30 lawyers. Approximately 163 of these cases received a ruling, wherein 18 civilian citizens were sentenced to death, more than a thousand were sentenced to life imprisonment, and thousands more were sentenced to serve prison terms ranging from seven to fifteen years. (3) Individual Freedom
  14. 14. 14 Harvest 2015 The four categories of people in the community that need particular care, and are most vulnerable to abuse are women, children, the disabled and refugees. A-Women: Women in Egypt are exposed to many violations of their rights and dignity. From July 3, 2013 to the end of 2015, up to two thousand girls and women were held in detention; about sixty (60) girls and women are still arbitrarily detained. Most women are detained in Cairo (22); there are ten (10) women detained in Damietta; there are nine (9) women detained in Al-Dakhalia; six (6) women are detained in Giza; four (4) women are detained in Al-Gharbia; three (3) women are detained in Alexandria; two (2) women are detained in Beni Suef; and one woman is detained in each province of Ismailia, Sohag, Al-Fayoum and Al-Sharqia. B- Children: The Coordination documented one thousand two-hundred forty-three (1,243) cases of violations of the rights of children under the age of eighteen. In 2015, there were approximately six-hundred and thirty (630) cases of children held in detention, sixteen (16) cases of extrajudicial killings, two-hundred and fifty (250) cases of torture, one-hundred and twenty one (121) cases of enforced disappearance, and eighty-nine (89) cases of medical negligence. C- The Disabled: We were unable to document all of the cases of disability and disabled persons inside Egyptian prisons and places of detention. The total number of those we were able to observe is 480 cases of detention, imprisonment, and court rulings against disabled persons. D- Immigrants and refugees: Officials recorded the presence of 80,000 Syrian refugees in Egypt; other sources have documented approximately 250,000 Syrian refugees. The rate of violations increased against refugees in Egypt, whereby dozens of them have been detained or subjected to enforced disappeared for different periods. Additionally, the Egyptian state has expanded the restrictions on the issuing of residence permits in Egypt, which has forced many refugees to flee Egypt by various (often dangerous) means. (4)The Most Vulnerable Groups in Society: C-Freedom of assembly and association: - The Coordination found a significant increase in the frequency of violations of the freedoms of assembly and association, whether public or private meetings, as well as instances of Egyptian security/police forces breaking into many independent me- dia institutions and severe restrictions on human rights activists and media workers, particularly in their right to form human rights organizations or independent media institutions. -
  15. 15. Harvest 2015 - As an indication of the absence of economic and social rights, we focused in this section on cases of suicide as well as arbitrary dismissal from the workplace as a clear indicator of the absence of rights of workers and employees to a dignified life and their right to a decent standard of living. A-1. Suicide: During 2015 the Egyptian Coordination documented approximately 215 cases of suicide, wherein 81% (174 cases) were males and 19% (41 cases) were females. Those in the age group of 18 to 35 years constituted 52% (115 cases) of those who committed suicide; those 36 to 60 years of age constituted 20% (42 cases) of suicide cases; 18% (40 cases) of those who committed suicide were of an unknown age; 8% (18 cases) of those who committed suicide were children under the age of 17; and there were three cases of the elderly - those over 60 years old - committing suicide. B- Arbitrary Dismissal: a- We documented the arbitrary dismissal of approximately 5,000 employees of the state administrative system from the end of 2013 until the end of 2015. b- In 2015 we documented the arbitrary dismissal from the judiciary of fifty-one (51) judges because of their political opinions. c- In 2015 we documented the arbitrary dismissal of six-hundred and seventy-one (671) journalists, writers and media workers. d- In 2015 we documented the arbitrary dismissal of forty-six (46) university profes- sors because of their political opinions. e- In 2015 we documented the arbitrary dismissal of approximately two hundred (200) teachers because of their political opinions. Egyptian Coordination of Rights and Freedoms We have documented forty-four (44) Palestinians held in detention in Egypt and four (4) cases of enforced disappearances. Part II: Economic and Social Rights
  16. 16. 16 Harvest 2015
  17. 17. Harvest 2015 Under the pretext of fighting terrorism, all of the civil and political rights of Egyptians have been violated, their dignity has been violated, their bodies have been violated by torture and rape, freedom has been violated by arbitrary arrest and forced disappearance, and even the right to life has been violated as people are killed and blood has been shed. After killing, statements of justification are issued. The government issues any of a wide va- riety of justifications without any traces of evidence. During 2015, Egyptian Coordination of Rights & Freedom has monitored more than three hundred and thirty-five (335) cases of state-sponsored homicide. As far as those killed in the name of law and order, seven (7) Egyptians were executed, twenty-seven (27) were killed by torture, eighty-seven (87) were killed by medical negligence, fifty (50) were killed in demon- strations, one hundred and forty-three (143) were killed by direct physical extermination and twenty-one (21) were killed in other cases. First Topic: Murder Murder by the Judiciary (Execution) Chapter (1) Specific Violations First Topic: Murder a- On March 7th, 2015, a penalty of execution wasappliedtoMahmoudHassanRamadanAb- dul Nabi, an accountant, in spite of the obvious legal defects marring the issued judgment, the lack of clear evidence, the severe torture sus- tained by Mr. Ramadan to confess, and media disinformation and lies that contributed to the judgment by defamation and transmitting part of a video that is not considered as true evi- dence, supposedly showing to the public that the crime was committed. Audio recordings
  18. 18. 18 Harvest 2015 and video cassettes – items seized through lawsuits – are not considered as complete evidence. Instead, they are used to reach the truth, if possible. The said audio record- ings and video cassettes are vulnerable to tampering, deletion, addition, backward, forward, and all processes of montage. Thus, it is established that such recordings are not used as evidences in criminal lawsuits. The follower of Mr. Ramadan’s lawsuit can note how litigation procedures were unduly conducted to issue judgment and approval of execution, in addition to dismissing all the challenges and appeals submitted regarding the judgment. b- On May 18th, 2015, judgment of execu- tion was applied to six Egyptians in the law- suit known in the media as Arab Sharkas Lawsuit (Lawsuit No. 43 Criminal Military of 2014). The lawsuit is considered as sufficient evidence that the Egyptian government has paid no heed to international treaties and covenants, of which it is a signatory, pro- hibiting the trial of civilians before military courts. The execution of the six Egyptians in the Arab Sharkas Lawsuit amounts to mur- der by the Egyptian judiciary. The penalty of execution was actually applied through the military lawsuit to six innocent persons whose names and ages are as fol- lows: Muhammad Ali Affifi and Muhammad Bakri Haroun (31), Hani Mustafa Amen Amer and Abdul Rahman Sayed Rezk (18), Khalid Farag Muhammad Ali (28) and Islam Sayed Ahmad (27). As far as the fabrication of evidence to accusa- tions, three of the accused persons in the lawsuit were arrested three months before the incident of Arab Sharkas and four of them were arrested three days before the occurrence of the incident. Muhammad Ali Affifi was arrested on Novem- ber 19th, 2013; Muhammad Bakri Haroun was arrested along with his wife and sons in Zag- azig on November 28th, 2013; Hani Mustafa Amen Amer was arrested on December 16th, 2013; Abdul Rahman Sayed Rezk, the second- ary school student in the case, Farag Muham- mad Ali, Islam Sayed Ahmad and Ahmad Abu Serea were all arrested on March 16th, 2014, and the eighth person accused, Hossam Hosni Abdul Latif Saad, was arrested on March 17th, 2014, two days before the incident of in the vil- lage of Arab Sharkas occurred on March 19th All of the accused sustained enforced dis- appearance for a period of time exceeding 3 months, during which period the relatives and attorneys of the accused were not informed of their location. The accused did not receive hu- mane treatment and sustained torture, which caused many of them to suffer from bone frac- tures and injuries with the aim of forcing them to admit the accusations directed thereto. The accused in this lawsuit did not obtain approval from the military courts to summon defense witnesses. The only witness in this lawsuit was an officer in the National Security Sector.
  19. 19. Harvest 2015 TThe cruel and violent ordeal of state torture in Egypt begins as opponents of the state are stolen from their homes, thrown into prisons and police jails, and submitted to a re- gime of beating, kicking, slapping, and more severe forms of physical and sexual abuse. Torture reaches the severity of state officials cutting the tongue or ears, which often re- sults in death. The Egyptian Coordination has monitored twenty-four (24) cases of torture which led to death inside police stations and prisons in 2015. 1- Karim Hamdi On 22 February 2015, National Securi- ty forces arrested twenty-eight year old Karim Hamdi, an attorney, from his home In the Al Marg neighborhood of Cairo. Mr. Karim was taken to Mataria Police Station and summoned before the public prosecu- tion. Mr. Karim's family stated that Karim had informed the public prosecutor during an inquiry that he was subjected to severe torture inside Mataria Police Station, but the public prosecutor decided that Karim was to return to the jail. It was the last night he spent in the police station as he died from torture. The victim's family con- firmed that there were signs of torture on his neck, an incision wound on his head, a fractured nose, some of his hair was cut and there were bruises covering his body because of torture. i. Forensic Examiner’s report: The Forensic Medicine's report revealed the incident of the death of the Attorney Karim Hamdi after being tortured in Matar- ia Police Station at the hand of two officers of the National Security Sector. The said report states that the victim was suffering from bruises on the front of the neck, on the left side of the chest, and around the groin. There was an old wound in the right buttock (5 cm) and injuries on the left side of the nose and neck. According to the foregoing report No. 449 of 2015 and having conducted visual examina- tion and autopsy for the corpse of the vic- tim, Karim Hamdi Muhammad, it becomes clear that the injuries found on the corpse are vital and new as the result of his body being thrown up against a hard surface. The report indicated that the victim's corpse contains wounds on the middle of the neck and on the upper part of chest, signs of abrasion on the wrist of his right hand, a wound on the side of the wrist of the left hand, a wound in the middle of the back, a wound on the inside of the left buttock, a wound on the left leg at the middle of the knee, redness around the pubic region, evi- dence of the swelling of the penis and scro- tum, traces of surgery, surgical stitches on the right buttock, and old surgical stitches on the left side of the lower abdomen. The visual examination indicated that the victim was in the third decade of life hav- ing sharp eyesight and a slim body build, Torture to Death
  20. 20. 20 Harvest 2015 in the stage of rigor mortis interfered with the factors of keeping in the fridge, Putre- faction is not apparent yet and hypostasis with pale color as the corpse, except for the focal positions. Among the indications of torture that the corpse bore as a result of recent wounds: Excoriated reddish bruise 2 cm. by 1 cm. in the middle of nose bone, reddish bruise of 2 cm. by 1 cm. with no definite shape found on the bottom left of the lower lip; two reddish bruises 3 cm. by 7 cm. found on the lower part of the right hand having no definite shape; a reddish bruise with no definite shape found on the middle of right knee 2 cm. by 8 cm.; a reddish bruise with no definite shape found on the upper part of the right thigh extending to the bottom right of the abdomen, to the line dividing the abdomen, including the whole pubic area with dimensions of 30 cm. by 50 cm.; and reddish bruises with definite shape spread over the middle, left and right side of the chest, with the smallest of these bruises 1 cm. by 2 cm. and the biggest of these bruise 3 cm. by 5 cm. In dimension. In addition, the corpse contains a reddish bruise with definite shape found on the middle of the neck opposite to thyroid cartilage 4 cm. by 1 cm. and other reddish bruises on both sides of the line dividing the neck that each have the dimensions of 2 cm. by 1 cm. There is also severe swelling with reddish bruise found on the middle of the penis extending till the head of the penis with dimensions of about 2 cm. by 7 cm., reddish bruises with severe swelling on both sides of scrotum, along with apparent and tangible swelling in the testicles. There are reddish bruises with no definite shape spread on the left upper arm and forearm, the smallest bruise is 3 cm. by 1 cm. and the largest bruise is 5 cm. by 7 cm. There is an excoriated bruise covered by reddish skin found on the middle of the left knee 10 cm. by 5 cm. and another similar bruise found on the line dividing the back that is 3 cm. by 1 cm. Upon inspection of the soft issues and muscles of the face and neck, it has be- come clear that there has been a significant collapse of the soft issues and muscles of both sides of the neck and soft tissues of the face, in addition to fracture of the nasal bone and the right hyoid bone surrounded by bloody lacerations. The inspection indi- cated also that other facial bones, cervical vertebrae and laryngeal cartilages are free of fractures and that the wall of esophagus and trachea is intact and the cavity thereof free of foreign objects. Having inspected the soft issues and chest muscles, it has become clear that there a significant collapse of the muscles of the right and left side of the chest along with the visual bruises, in addition to the exis- tence of fractures of the chest ribs on the right side. It is worth mentioning that the court has sentenced these National Security officers to five years. The grounds of judgment must be noted as they have special significance of how mat- ters are managed in Egypt. II.Grounds of Judgment: sThe court has confirmed in the grounds of its judgment that the facts of the lawsuit, as per the submitted documents and conduct- ed inquiries, can be summed up that the victim, Karim Hamdi Muhammad Ibrahim, the accused in felony No. 3763 of 2015, was present in Mataria Police station at dawn of February 23, 2015, and summoned before the public prosecutor that morning as per the investigations conducted by the National Security Sector. After the victim returned to Mataria Police station, the two accused officers named Omar Mahmoud Omar Hammad and Muhammad Al Anwar Muhammaden Ahmad Muhammaden (of-
  21. 21. Harvest 2015 ficers at the National Security Sector) had interrogated the victim in one of investiga- tion rooms while blindfolded, handcuffed and alone. The above named officers beat the victim with their hands and feet on dif- ferent parts of his body intending to injure him with the aim of forcing the victim to ad- mit and reveal the names of other accused persons. This assault claimed the life of the victim due to the different traumatic and critical injuries found on the chest, abdo- men and neck, in addition to the fractures of chest ribs, damage of lungs, bruising of heart, kidney, and scrotum along with the associated hemorrhage in the cavities of the chest, abdomen and testicles which re- sulted in the victim's exposure to shock as indicated in the autopsy report. The court has concluded that according to the above facts and grounds, it becomes clear that the accused officers have commit- ted the accusation directed thereto as per the witness testimonies delivered by: Abdul Ghani Ibrahim Shaaban; First Lieutenant Ah- mad Muhammad Mahmoud Wahba; police delegate Sami Muhammad Ismail; Captain Karim Salah al-Din Buheri; Captain Moham- med Al Maadawy; Brigadier General Mah- moud Ahmad Abdullah Rabie; Lieutenant Colonel Wael Metwali; Captain Hamdi Al Saed Othman; Policeman Muhammad Za- ref Hassan; and Major Ahmad Yahia Mah- moud. Additional evidence was obtained through the inspection conducted by the public prosecutor of Mataria Police Station; the Forensic Medical report; the Chemical Labs's report; the investigations conducted by the Mataria prosecutor in lawsuit No. 3763/ 2015 Concerning the Public Prosecu- tor's interrogation of the accused, and the witness testimony provided by the forensic physician Hazem Hossam. Abdul Ghani Ibrahim Shaabi, who is under- going preventive detention in lawsuit No. 3763 of 2015 Mataria Criminal Prosecutor, was interrogated by the public prosecution and testified that he and the victim were summoned before the public prosecution after being arrested. After returning to the police station, Mr. Abdul Ghani and the victim were interrogated separately while blindfolded and handcuffed by the officers. While the officers were interrogating the victim, the witness heard the victim's voice moaning and saying ”Ok, Ok, I will admit.” In the meantime, Officer Ahmad Yahia was asleep and denied interrogating both the victim and witness as he knew his voice very well stating that the interrogation is conducted by another officer. The witness added that that he was assaulted by the two officers who beat him with their hands and feet and that after the end of interroga- tion, he was taken by Major Hussein Khayri to reveal the names of other accused per- sons and returned to the Police Station at about 4:00 AM February 24. The witness stated that he was put in the room of crimi- nal registration, at the station's department of investigation, where he found the victim exhausted and lying on the floor saying, "I feel cold." In the morning while they were preparing to be summoned before the pub- lic prosecutor, the victim's condition wors- ened and he fell down. The policemen pres- ent took the victim to the hospital, where he died. 2- Imad Al Attar Imad Imad Ahmed Mohammed Al Attar, 42 years old, was a worker from Shoubra El Khay- ma. He was arrested on January 30, 2015, was referred to the public prosecutor that remanded him into custody, and was imprisoned until he died on February 25 in the Police Department, where he was the second victim of Al-Mataria Police Department after the death of Karim Hamdi, the twenty-seven year-old lawyer, on the same day.
  22. 22. 22 Harvest 2015 i.Forensic Report: The forensic report showed the death of the victim was caused by electric shocking of the scrotum, testicles, penis and left foot. Dr. Elham Awad, responsible for the post- mortem examination of the victim’s body, confirmed that the victim, Imad Ahmed Mo- hammed Al-Attar, 42 years old, was brutally tortured by electrocution in sensitive places on the body. However, the forensic report did not condemn the security officers for killing the victim. Nevertheless, the report pointed out that the victim was tortured by electrocution for several weeks and on var- ious occasions since his arrest on January 30 until the date of his death on February 25. The report confirms that the victim was tortured to death by security officers in the Police Department. c. Dr. Tareq Khalil Tareq Khalil was a leader in the Muslim Brotherhood in Suez. He was tortured to death by the Egyptian State Security In- vestigations Service at the Investigative Bureau in Lazoghli Square, Cairo, on June 19, 2015, according to the testimo- ny of Islam Khalil, who was with him at the same location. His family knows that his body was found in the morgue at Ze- inhom by way of an undisclosed person. Dr. Tareq Khalil, a businessman with several charitable activities, was killed after torture by security forces after his enforced disappearance three weeks pri- or. He was subjected to enforced disap- pearance when he was arrested while he was transferring Dr. Mohammed Saad Aliwa, a member of the guidance office of the Muslim Brotherhood, to a hospital in Cairo to help him. d.Mustafa Ibrahim According to the head of the Forensic Medical Authority, Mustafa Ibrahim was the third person who died in the Al-Ma- taria Police Department during the same week in which Karim Hamdi and Imad Al-Attar died. Mustafa Mahmoud, 21 years old, was a student in the faculty of Information Systems. He died on Febru- ary 22, 2015. He was detained in a painful position for eight hours, "hanging from his shoulder," before being taken to the hospital, where he died. During November of 2015, the Egyptian Coordination observed over the course of less than a week four instances of exces- sive violence by police against citizens in the governorates of Luxor, Qaliubiya, Is- mailia and October. These excesses were representative of torture and humiliation, and resulted in the death of three people. e.Amr Said Abu Shanab The family of Amr Said Abu Shanab ac- cused the officers of Shebin Al-Qanatir Police Department of torturing their son to death. They based their accusations on evidence of torture on the body of the victim. The Ministry of Interior opened an investigation into the incident. Family members' statements were taken as well as the accused, who included the assis- tant detective in the Police Department.
  23. 23. Harvest 2015 A lawyer representing Amr Abu Shanab’s family accused the officers of beating his client with hoses and the butt of a rifle during an interrogation regarding a case of theft. Police officers fabricated a drug case against the victim, and beat him se- verely, resulting in the victim suffering se- vere hemorrhage while in custody more than once. Amr Abu Shanab continued to ask for help but no one responded, resulting in his death while in custody after continued torture. f-Dr. Afifi Hosni In Ismailia, an officer of Ismailia First Po- lice Department, stormed the pharmacy of Mohammed Ibrahim and hit Dr. Afifi Hos- ni, a veterinarian who was working as an insured pharmacy assistant. Dr. Afifi Hosni entered the pharmacy of Reem Ahmed, Mohammed Ibrahim’s wife, and was fol- lowed by the officer. The police officer then took him to the Police Department and at- tacked him again, resulting in his death. g-Talaat Shabib Talaat Shabib, 47 years old, died in Luxor Police Department. Officers of the Luxor Police Department arrested the victim while he was in a café at Al- Awwamiyya, and took him to the Police Department. After an hour, his family was surprised by the news of Talaat Shabib’s dead body to Luxor International Hospital. There were effects of torture on his body according to a report issued by the hospital. 3-The Cold-blooded Murder of Medical Neglect in Prison mad In Egypt, there are thousands of prisoners suffering from pain and disease amid deliberate life-threatening medical neglect because of the abstention of the security sector to allow med- icine and treatment for imprisoned patients. Patients are also not referred to specialist doctors for medical examination, diagnosis, and treatment as we reported previously. Deliberate medical neglect resulted in homicide of more than eighty-six (86) prisoners during the past two years according to what has been monitored. This is the tip of the iceberg of violations against political detainees and criminal prisoners in all Egyptian prisons without exception, and especially Al-Aqrab, Wadi Natrun, Tora and Burj Al-Ar- ab prisons. This is in addition to the central security camps which have become prisons without any formal declaration. Police Departments too have become sites of mass incarceration in the Arab Republic of Egypt. In the context of these cases, we observed that the prison service under the authority of the Ministry of Interior prevented medicines, treatment, and any form of health care for detainees until they die. A former officer of Al-Aqrab prison, as one example, has stated exactly such, that Al-Aqrab prison is "made to kill prisoners." a.Examples of Medical Neglect i. Khaled Mohammed Said Khaled Mohammed Said, 48 years old, died on 3/22/2015 while detained in pub- lic prison of Beni Suef because of medical neglect. He was suffering from cardiohep- atomegaly stomach ulcer, and prison au- thorities refused to allow for treatment or transfer him to a hospital, resulting in his death. ii. Abdel Muti Ali Khalil Abdel Muti Ali Khalil, 54 years old, died on 4/21/2015 inside Algharbiniat prison at
  24. 24. 24 Harvest 2015 Borg El Arab. He was suffering from diabe- tes, high blood pressure and hepatitis C. The treatment was prevented, resulting in his death. iii-Farid Ismail Abdel Halim Farid Ismail Abdel Halim, 58 years old, was a pharmacist and a member of the former parliament. He died on 5/132015 inside Manial University Hospital (Qasr Al-Aini). He was detained at Tora maximum-security prison (Al-Aqrab- “The Scorpion”). He died due to medical neglect, where treatment was prevented for a year and a half. He was suffering from liver disease and diabetes. He suffered a complete coma because of a clot in the brain and the disruption of the functions of his liver, two weeks before his death. The prison authority refused his treatment, resulting in his death. iv- Essam Derbala Essam Derbala, the head of the Shura Council of the Islamic Community (Aljama'a al Islamia), 58 years old, died 8/9/2015 while being transferred from his cell in Aqrab prison to the hospi- tal. According to a statement released by the Ministry of Interior, Derbala was suffering from a high temperature, low blood pressure, and a high blood sugar. While being transferred to the hospital for medical care, he bled from his nose and suffered circulatory and respiratory collapse, resulting in his death. v-Ahmed Mohamed Abdulhameed Ablulnaga Ahmed Mohamed Abdulhameed Ablulna- ga, who was serving a four year sentence in Wadi Alnatrun prison, was reportedly suffering from liver disease. After re- peatedly asking for help, he was trans- ferred to the Liver Medical Institute, and while returning back to the prison, he passed away. vi-Essam Samir Essam Samir, who was from "Tant Aljazeera" village in Toukh- Qaliobya governorate, died due to the medical negligence he faced in- side the prison, as well as the torture he suf- fered at the hands of the security forces. He was detained, though he had recently had a splenectomy surgery. He also suffered from cirrhosis of the liver as well as heart dis- ease. He was charged of possessing explo- sive materials, though these materials were "nitrate and urea," which are used as com- mon fertilizers. According to eyewitnesses, Essam Samir had received these fertilizers from the agricultural association in Toukh. His lawyer said that he was attending the trial sessions by being carried by his fellow detainees, due to his health condition. The courts refused to acknowledge his medical reports until he passed away. vii-Mohamed Alfilahdji Mohamed Alfilahdji, 58 years old, was arrest- ed in August 26, 2013, from his workplace in Damietta educational directorate. He was transferred to Tanta hospital. Tests showed that he suffered from stones in his left kid- ney and inflammation of the gall bladder. He passed away the morning of 5/25/2015 due to lack of necessary medical care and the in- transigence of the prison administration to allow the entry of medicine. It was also noted that Aqrab prison is on the top of detention facilities where deaths oc- curred, then the New Vally prison, Burj Al Arab, Gamasa prisons. According to reports, there were 28 deaths in Al Aqrab, 23 deaths in Toura, 12 in Mansoura public prison, 11 in Meet Slel, 6 in Burj Al Arab, 10 in the New Vally, 5 in Gamasa, 4 in Menia, and 4 in Abu Zaabal. (77 medical negligence + 20 tor- ture).
  25. 25. Harvest 2015 4-Murdering demonstrators The Egyptian Coordination documented the murder of more than fifty (50) demonstra- tors during 2015. Twenty (20) people were killed, including a policeman, and dozens were wounded when Egyptian troops were intercepting demonstrations in Cairo, Behi- ra and Alexandria governorates. These twenty were killed in demonstrations in several Egyptian governorates commemorating the fourth anniversary of the January 25th rev- olution. The activist Shimaa Al Sabagh was one of them. Six Egyptians were also killed after Eid Al Fitr prayer. The commemoration of the fourth anniversary of the January 25th revolution in Mataria province in Cairo witnessed violent clashes between demon- strators and security forces that led to the security forces assaulting the demonstrators. As a result, twelve (12) were killed, including a child, as well as dozens of injured. Inves- tigations and forensic reports revealed that they died as a result of a gunshots in the face, chest, head and abdomen; according to human rights specialists, this constitutes premeditated murder. Many others were killed in separate events. a-Shimaa Al Sabagh and Sondus Abu Bakr: Two Victims of the Same Assassin The killings of demonstrators began with Sondus Abu Bakr, a 17 year-old girl at the time. She died out of a gunshot to the head and neck by security forces during the dispersal of demonstrations denounc- ing the regime in 1/23/2015 in Alexandria. A media blackout followed Sondus’ execu- tion, as is usual when protesters are killed. The next day, 1/24/2015, during the cel- ebration of the fourth anniversary of the January 25th revolution, Shimaa Al Sa- bagh, a member of the Socialist Party, faced the same fate. She was shot from close-range by cartridges causing her death, in a scene that was filmed. Her pic- ture while bleeding raised a controversy and dissent. The Ministry of Interior de- nied at first that the assassin was one of its members, and accused Zuhdy Alshamy, the deputy chairman of the Socialist Party. But the forensic report later proved that the murder occurred as a result of the cartridge gunshot by special police forces. Yassin Mohamed Hatem, the accused po- lice officer, was sentenced to 15 years in prison. b-Hussam Alaqabawy AHassam was a first year student in the fac- ulty of law at Cairo University, 19 years old. He was dressed in a white robe, leaving his house to perform Eid Al Fitr prayer in Na- hia village at "Eissa shehata" mosque in the village that's in Kerdasa territory. After the prayer he had a selfie picture with his friends before participating in the demonstrations. He died due to cartridge gunshots in his neck after the security forces attacked the demon- strations.
  26. 26. 26 Harvest 2015 5- Physical Liquidation Since the beginning of 2015, the Egyptian security authorities began to pursue a se- rious approach violating all constitutions and charters of human rights as the ruling regime in Egypt resorted to field physical liquidation against its opponents in a new way that is similar to the ways followed by criminal gangs. What is worse is that the state official authorities did not hesitate to use the expression of "liquidation" as ninety-eight (98) cases of physical liquida- tion were documented, whether by open- ing live fire upon arrest or throwing oppo- nents from the balconies of their houses. a-Examples of Liquidation i-The first cases of liquidation occurred on the fourth anniversary of the January 25 Revolution while arresting Maqtal Omar Shaalan and Raed Saad in Buhaira Gov- ernorate, and Hamdi Al Hendi in Hamdi Damietta Governorate declaring that the above named persons were involved in terrorist attacks. The same thing repeated
  27. 27. Harvest 2015 on the next day, January 26, as Bilal Osa- ma Al Arabi was murdered in Port Said. ii-In March, Sayed Shaarawy was killed in Nahia. Ahmad Gabr was killed in Alexan- dria, and Sohayb Abdul Karim and Jihad Abu Alroos were killed in Al Sharqiya Gov- ernorate. In addition, Hosam Badr Mar- zouk, Mohsen Muhammad Attia, Hanfi Abdul Azim, and Reda Abdul Salam Mu- hammad were killed in Beni Suef Gover- norate on April 28. Islam Attila and two others were killed in Helwan in May. iii- On June 30, Muhammad Sami, Kha- lid Mahmoud, and Muhammad Al Sebae were killed by bombing one of their cars after they were arrested in a demonstra- tion in October 6 City. iv-In July, 2015, another incident oc- curred in an apartment in October 6 City. The police killed nine leaders of the Mus- lim Brotherhood, who were members of the committee dedicated to providing relief to families of the ill, incarcerated, and deceased, according to their families. The Ministry of Interior stated that they opened fired on its forces, but the Muslim Brotherhood confirmed that they were unarmed and that they were killed in cold blood after they were taken into custody and fingerprinted. The above accident occurred on Wednes- day, July 1, 2015, in an apartment in Oc- tober 6 City. The leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood had met to discuss their charity work. The committee's members were unarmed and traces of ink were found on their fin- gers after they were killed, which means that they were put in custody and their fingerprints were taken by security forces before their liquidation. The nine members were killed in cold blood in the apartment without facing any accusations or putting them before trial. The authorities planted machine guns beside the members' corpses to in- dicate that they were killed after attacking security forces with automatic weapons. The nine victims were: Jamal Khalifa, an official of the Muslim Brotherhood's ad- ministrative office in Menoufia Governor- ate; Abdul Fatah Muhammad Ibrahim, an official of the committee to support the families of the martyrs and injured; Nasser Al Hafi, a previous member of the Egyptian parliament; Taher Ahmad Ismail, an official of the Legal Committee and an official of the Muslim Brotherhood's of- fice in Qalubia Governorate; Hesham Zaki Khafagi, Osama Ahmad Al Husseini, Hes- ham Wadh, Moatasem Ahmad Al Egeezi, Khalid Mahmoud, Muhammad Al Sebae, Muhammad Sami and Gomaa Abu Al Azm. v- On July 5, Muhammad Abdul Aati Al Feky, of Meleg Village in Menoufia Gover- norate, was killed at the hands of security forces during arrest. vi- On August 6, Nagdi Basiouni of Ayat City, Giza Governorate, was killed at the hand of security forces as they broke into his home at dawn and killed him without resistance. vii- In Fayoum Governorate, the security forces killed five political opponents. The Ministry of Interior claimed that the vic- tims were accused of killing a child named Jessy, the daughter of Major Sheref Sami, an officer in the Deportation Department of the Fayoum prosecutor’s office. The vic- tims were: Rabie Morad, a teacher; Abdul Nasser Elwani, an accountant; Abdul Aziz Heba, a teacher; Abdul Salam Hateta, a
  28. 28. 28 Harvest 2015 teacher; and Ayman Salah, a teacher. The victims were all friends from Fayoum. When they were meeting in a home, the security forces broke into the house and killed them. viii- Security forces have also killed nine (9) people in a security crackdown in Oseem City, Giza Governorate, without declaring their names. The Giza Security Director- ate claimed that the victims were found on cultivated land planning to attack the army and Giza Police, and that both par- ties opened fire on each other. ix-Four young men were killed in an apart- ment located in Agmi City on Wednesday, September 30. A statement released by the Ministry of Interior indicated that the four men were members of the Muslim Brotherhood, and they were involved in the murder of the Rabie Muhammad As- four, a policeman. The persons accused of killing the above-named policeman were currently detained after they were arrest- ed several months previous. Eyewitnesses stated that the four victims were from Al Dalangat City, Buhaira Gov- ernorate. While they were in an apart- ment in Al Ajmi City, the security forces organized a security cordon around the building. The security forces then broke into the apartment, and the sound of fir- ing live ammunition was heard an hour and a half after the break-in. The security forces then took the victims' corpses with them. x-The Murder of Mexican Tourists In September of 2015, the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs declared that two Mexicans were killed while six more were injured during a trip to Egypt. The in- jured, following a meeting with Jorge Alvarez Fuentes, the head of the Mexican mission to Egypt, said that they had stopped for a meal in Bahariya Oasis when they were targeted and then attacked by airplanes and helicopters. The Egyptian Ministry of Interior declared that twelve persons were killed and ten were injured “by mistake,” among whom were Mexican tourists, in the Western Desert. The Mexican president, Enrique Peña Nieto, condemned the incident de- manding a thorough investigation be con- ducted by Egyptian authorities. A statement by the Ministry of Interior said, “A joint police and army force were chasing terrorist elements in the West- ern Desert area of Al-Wahat and they engaged by mistake with four four-wheel drives belonging to Mexican tourists who were present in a restricted area.” The statement added that “the incident re- sulted in the death of twelve people and the injury of ten Mexican and Egyptian citizens. The injured were moved to hospitals for treatment. A team was put together to inves- tigate the reasons and circumstances of the incident, and justifications for the Mexican convoy’s presence in the restricted area.” As usual, no actual investigations were con- ducted, no transparent statements were de- livered, and no deterring sanctions were im- posed.
  29. 29. Harvest 2015 The Sectarian Killing of Twenty-one People In February of 2015, ISIS broadcast a vid- eo showing the slaughter of Christian Egyptians. The video showed ISIS person- nel treating the prisoners in a humiliating way as they dragged them one by one.The video showed seawater dyed blood red in propaganda that is not unexpected from the organization. On that day, the National Council for Security held a meeting to discuss the execution of the hostages. The meet- ing decided to stay held to keep up with developments, and then issued a eulogy for the executed hostages. Offi- cial mourning was declared for seven days and then there was nothing fur- ther. 6-The Sectarian Killing of Twenty-one People In February of 2015, ISIS broadcast a vid- eo showing the slaughter of Christian Egyptians. The video showed ISIS person- nel treating the prisoners in a humiliating way as they dragged them one by one.The video showed seawater dyed blood red in propaganda that is not unexpected from the organization. On that day, the National Council for Se- curity held a meeting to discuss the ex- ecution of the hostages. The meeting decided to stay held to keep up with de- velopments, and then issued a eulogy for the executed hostages. Official mourning was declared for seven days and then there was nothing further.
  30. 30. 30 Harvest 2015 Alexandria, Maghagha or Alawar villages, are as follows The families of the victims blamed the Egyptian authorities for not acting properly to recover their imprisoned relatives. According to a statement by St. Paul Halim, the Spokesman for the Cop- tic Orthodox Church, the names of the victims are: Majed Suleiman Shehata Twadharos Joseph Twadharos Joseph Shoukry Younan Mina Fayez Aziz Hani Abdel Massieh Saleeb Melad McCain Zaki Stephen Bishoy Kamel Cyril Bushra Fawzy Samuel Stephen Kamel Abanoub Ayad Attia Malak Ibrahim Senyot George Melad Senyot Samuel Alham walsn Sobi village, Samalout: Malak Farah Ibrahim Jabali village, Matai: Luke Nagat Al Amir Essam Badar Semsmom village, Matai: Samir Gerges Menkerios village, Matai: Sameh Salah Shaukat Dysh village, Samalout: Ezzat Bushra Nassif Menbal village Matai: Mir Jaber
  31. 31. Harvest 2015
  32. 32. 32 Harvest 2015
  33. 33. Harvest 2015 The Egyptian Coordination has determined that the phenomenon of the enforced dis- appearances in Egypt is not a transient phenomenon, but it is a methodology adhered to by the security authorities. The Egyptian security authorities conduct enforced dis- appearances in order to put pressure on political opponents in some cases and also to hide the fact that torture has become common and routine, in many cases resulting in homicide. The Egyptian Coordination of Rights and Freedoms expresses serious concerns re- garding the tragic deterioration of human rights in Egyptian. It is a cruel, unjust, and inexcusable condition in Egypt where hundreds of people are subjected to enforced disappearance every month in every governorate of the Republic, without exception, and without the knowledge of their fate. Enforced disappearance is classified under international law as a crime against humanity The Egyptian Regime’s Crime Against Humanity Second Topic 1-Statistics on Enforced Disappearance 1-The Egyptian Coordination documented the enforced disappearance of one thou- sand eight hundred and forty (1,840) Egyp- tian citizens from January of 2015 through the end of December at a growing rate through the year. Of all of the people who were subjected to enforced disappear- ance, one thousand two hundred and thir- ty-eight (1,238) cases were resolved- these individuals were found. These people were missing between forty-eight hours and one-hundred and fifty days. There are still three hundred and sixty-six (366) missing persons who certainly have not faced pros- ecution; and two-hundred and thirty-six cases (236) missing persons who may have
  34. 34. 34 Harvest 2015 faced prosecution, or they may still be missing. In January of 2015 forty-four (44) Egyptian citizens were subjected to enforced disap- pearance. The number increased to nine- ty-one (91) in February. In March, the Co- ordination documented one-hundred and sixty (160) cases of enforced disappear- ance, and in April the Coordination doc- umented two-hundred and twenty-eight (228). The rates of enforced disappear- ances continued to grow at an alarming rate, as three-hundred and ninety-three (393) people were subjected to enforced disappearance in May. In June, there were two-hundred and seventy-eight (278) peo- ple disappeared. In July of 2015 the Coordination document- ed one-hundred and three (103) cases of enforced disappearance. In August, the Co- ordination documented one-hundred and three (103) cases, and in September the Coordination monitored eighty (80) cases of enforced disappearance. The Coordina- tion documented ninety-two (92) cases in October, one-hundred and eighteen (118) cases in November, and one-hundred and fifty (150) cases in December. month 11 Cases of enforced disappearances during the Governorate Cases of enforced disappearances month 11 during the Al-Gharbia 430 Cairo 265 Al-Behira 98 Giza 204 Al-Sharqia 104 Kafr el-Sheikh 80 Alexandria 120 Bani Sweif 70 Al-Dakahlia 84 Port Said 42 Al-Qaliobia 57 Al-Menoufia 44 Damietta 39 Al-Fayoum 47 Sohag 20 Assuit 26 Suez 21 Qena 17 Al-Menia 19 North of Sinai 1 Aswan 11 Ismalia 6 Luxor 9 South of Sinai 1
  35. 35. Harvest 2015 2- Violations Related to Enforced Disappearance Enforced disappearance is a violation in itself of an individual’s right to lib- erty and due process. It is also a crime against humanity, and such a heinous crime that there is no statute of lim- itations for the prosecution of perpe- trators of enforced disappearance. Ac- cording to testimonies provided to the Coordination from the witnesses of dis- appeared persons and their families, it enforced disappearance is usually asso- ciated with two other crimes: a-Secret Detention Centers and Prisons The secret detention centers of Egypt are places that have not been estab- lished in public and officially, and are not subject to the supervision of judicial bodies as stipulated in the law and the Constitution. One example of the se- cret detention centers are the military prisons which are considered as subsid- iaries of the armed forces, such as the infamous Al Galaa camp at Al Azouly prison, which in December of 2015 re- leased about one hundred citizens who had been enforced disappeared inside it over the past two and a half years. These people were mostly from the governor- ates of Sinai. b-Torture Torture is the most heinous crime related to enforced disappearance. Security forces interrogate suspects regarding crimes they did not commit in order to force confes- sions. Torture as a means of interrogation and forced confessions violate all articles of the law, and all charters and covenants of human rights. The Coordination has obtained witness testimony of the families of the detainees who were imprisoned in Al Azouly pris- on. The people detained were victims of enforced disappearance, and when they were later released, they narrated what happened. The Coordination stresses the difficulty in mentioning the names of the victims of enforced disappearance and tor- ture due to security concerns. A relative of one of the detainees said that when her relative was taken to Al Azouly prison, he felt taken from humanity. His clothes were stripped off, and he was dumped into water and electrocuted all over his body. He was exposed to electro- cution for many consecutive days. He was also beaten until he suffered hemiplegia as a result of the beating and electrocution. The security forces continued to torture him even after he had suffered paralysis. TheprisonersinAlAzoulycouldonlydream of bathing, or changing their clothes. The wife of another detainee said: "When my husband was detained at Al Azouly prison, we did not know anything about him and we could not see him or visit him there, not once. He was completely stripped of his clothes and he was electro- cuted, beaten, insulted, and humiliated. He was strung up and hanged from one of his arms or one of his feet for days. An- other means of torture was the prevention of sleep for several days. He suffered from scabies and many other diseases while in Al Azouly prison. “We were also refused permission to give my husband food. My husband was so weak there, he was unable to stand on his own two feet. There is no ventilation in the prison, and the detainees can’t even see the sun. They disregard all life and human- ity inside of Al Azouly prison.”
  36. 36. 36 Harvest 2015 Witness Testimony of Families: Those Remaining Missing a-Mohammed Khader The Egyptian Coordination gathered the witness testimony of the mother of Mohammed Khader, a victim of en- forced disappearance. She said, “My son, Mohammed, is a student in his fi- nal year in the faculty of engineering at the University of Menoufia. He was enforced disappeared on the day of the dispersal of the sit-in in Rabaa Square, August 14, 2013. We searched for him there and in al Eman mosque, but we could not find him. The last time we communicated with him was on August 14th at 7 AM. He told his father that the Egyptian Armed Forces fired on dem- onstrators with live ammunition, and they had nothing to protect themselves. Mohammed’s phone was turned off, but then it was turned on daily at eight o’clock. The individual who answered the phone said that he found the SIM card in Rabaa Square, and then he hung up. We could not find his body among the [hundreds of] corpses and we did not find him at any of the hospitals, police stations, or prisons. We went to [Cairo’s central] Zeinhom morgue and conducted a DNA test. The result was negative for all the corpses there. We submitted a report to the Attorney Gen- eral and we wrote a record of his disap- pearance, but the security forces said that they did not have any information about him. Some of his friends told us that they saw him get hit with a bullet in Rabaa Square, and then the security forces threw a lot of tear gas, and they could not find his body after that. Up until now we do not have any informa- tion about the location of our son, and we do not know anything about him. It’s been two and a half years, and we do not know whether our son is alive or dead. b -Mohammed Al Bady Ramadan, Walid Al Bady, and Ali Hassab Allah Ahmed Mohammed Al Bady Ramadan is a thir- ty-eight year old, married with five chil- dren. He does not have any political af- filiation. He remains missing. Walid Al Bady is thirty-two years old. He is married and has two children. He remains missing since July 15, 2015. Ali Hassab Allah Ahmed is twenty-eight years old. He remains missing since July 15, 2015. The brother of Mohammed Al Bady, Walid Al Bady, and Ali Hassab Allah Ahmed told the Egyptian Coordination, “the three were detained by individuals wearing civilian clothes. The individuals came in a white microbus with an inves- tigation officer to arrest them, and since then we do not know anything about them. We submitted reports to the At- torney General and to the Office of the Presidency, but we did not receive any response.”
  37. 37. Harvest 2015 a-Anas Magdy Azzam and Azzam Magdy Azzam Anas Magdy Azzam is a graduate of the physical education faculty at Banha. Azzam Magdy Azzam is a civil engineer who graduated from the Higher Insti- tute of Technology in Kafr al Sheikh. The father of Anas and Azzam Magdy Azzam said: “False charges were issued against my two sons such as making molotov cocktails and planting bombs. ThesecurityforcesfromShebinelKoam came and inspected our home. They did not find anything like kind of weapons. They just took our laptop computers and five telephones. Then they detained my sons for forty-five days, and then re- leased them on bail. Fifteen days after their release, my sons went to the re- sort where they were detained from the apartment in Alexandria on Septem- ber 13, 2015. I was also detained on the same day at one o’clock in the morning. I was then released two days later and I returned home, but my two sons were still detained. They were presented to the prosecutor of Shebin on November 11, 2015, fifty-four days after their en- forced disappearance. They were nev- er before any investigation authority. We sent a memoranda to the Attorney General in Alexandria and Al Menou- fia, and we sent a telegraph to the State Attorney General and to the Minister of Interior. There was no serious response and there were no legal procedures for the detention of my sons. “We were surprised by the memoran- dum of the Ministry of Interior regard- ing their detention, which states that they were detained one day before the real date of their detention, 11/6/2015. “My sons were presented to the prose- cution in their summer clothes, which they had been wearing since they were detained in September. So they were not able to take a shower and put on a fresh set of clothes for two months, into November, the coldest month in Egypt. “We tried to ascertain the details of what happened over those two months. We know that they were taken from Alexandria to the Investigative Bureau in Lazoghli Square, Cairo. They were blindfolded there for fifty-two days with a large group of young people. They did not have enough food. They only had one small meal, which is not enough for a young child to make him survive. My sons lost about three-quarters of their weight at the Investigative Bureau in Lazoghli Square. “[My sons] were exposed to various types of torture: electrocution, beat- ings, humiliation, and insults. They were then deported to Shibin, and they were accused of the following charges: - Joining the Muslim Brotherhood group - Spreading the thoughts of the group, fi- nancing the group, and managing web- sites that belong to the group. There is c- Sami Mohammed Abbas al Hiti The wife of Samir Mohammed Abbas al Hiti provided witness testimony to the Egyptian Coordination. Samir al Hiti is a married forty-three year old from Al Gharbia. She said that he has been missing since January 9, 2015. She said, “We have four children, and the fourth child has nev- er seen her father. He was taken from the street after a funeral in the village. Since then, we don’t know anything about him.” 4- Witness Testimony: Those Who Have Been Found
  38. 38. 38 Harvest 2015 no evidence against them. The prosecu- tion refused to give a copy of the investi- gations to the lawyer or to the family of the detainee. My sons were threatened and forced to confess." b- Mohammed Abdel Azim Mohammed Abdel Azim is 25 years old. His mother told us that, "he was de- tained and disappeared on September 6, 2015, and was imprisoned in the Investi- gative Bureau in Lazoghli Square, Cairo, for sixty-four days. Then he was deport- ed to the National Security building of Shebin el-Kom in Tanta. There he was presented to the prosecu- tion, and it renewed his detention for another fifteen days. Mohammed was detained a state security building in Nasr City and routinely taken to the In- vestigative Bureau in Lazoghli Square. He was blindfolded and electrocuted for three days in order to force a confession from him to a crime he did not commit. Mohammed has no political affiliation. He was accused of attempting to over- throw the government, and belonging to a terrorist group. A telegram was sent to the Attorney General regarding his dis- appearance, but the police forces at the police station of Al-Tahrir refused to write a record of his disappearance. “When he was deported to Shebin el- Kom after sixty-four days, he said that he was detained before he was presented to the prosecution by only one day. This is a lie." 2- Detained Indefinitely: Cases When the State Has Neither Prosecuted Nor Sentenced the Detained a-On October 14, 2015, the Egyptian newspaper “Al Shrouk,” quoting from the Middle East News Agency, published statements of the Assistant General of the Ministry of Interior denying the occur- rence of any enforced disappearances. A
  39. 39. Harvest 2015 number of human rights authorities and lawyers responded in a joint statement, confirming that they had filed official reports on behalf of the disappeared to the judiciary and the public prosecutor. There are detailed lists of these reports. Because the judiciary and the public prosecutor refused to investigate these reports, those human rights authorities and lawyers sued them in the Court of Higher Appeals in Cairo, demanding their resignation for not doing the re- quired investigations of the complaints which were submitted by the families regarding the enforced disappearance of their children. , and between these cases, the case of adversarial, which registered with theno. 16, 17, 18 and 19 for the year 232 judiciallyin addition to another ap- peal which still perspective in front of the Court of Cassation. We, as the consortium of human rights advocates in Egypt, also resorted to the Administrative Court to prove the fact of enforced disappearances, which the College of Commissioners issued many reports about it to emphasize the respon- sibility of the state to disclose the fate of these people and these cases which is- sued the reports are the cases with the no. 24 468 for the year 69 judicial- lyand with the no. 24 465 for the year 6 9 judiciallyand with the no. 24 469 for the year 69 judicially. The case of the enforced disappearanc- es in Egypt is still an open wound, and an open case that will not be closed until the Egyptian State reveals the fate of the victims of the enforced disappearance to their families, and to the Egyptian public.
  40. 40. 40 Harvest 2015
  41. 41. Harvest 2015 Third Topic The Human Rights Committee of the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner has consistently worked to prevent the crime of torture through international conven- tions. Whereas the Egyptian State is a signatory of the Convention Against Torture, adopted by the United Nations in 1984, the Egyptian authorities are committed under international law to upholding the content of the convention. The Egyptian Coalition has documented the routine, daily violation of the Convention Against Torture by the Egyptian State authorities. The Egyptian Coordination has monitored the growing rates of torture within the pris- ons and police departments of Egypt over the past year. There is not a single detainee who, because he or she expressed his opinion, demonstrated, or even raised suspi- cion, has not been subjected to systematic torture in one way or another. What is worse than this, it was not only the detained who were subjected to torture, but we have documented instances in which their relatives were subjected to torture as well. Authorities torture family members to exert psychological pressure on detainees, or to force their families to divulge information or data about their relatives with no legal justification. This report highlights cases of systemic torture by police and army officers against cit- izens at police stations, prisons, campsites, and all police facilities. In 2015, the Egyp- tian Coordination documented a total of eight-hundred and seventy-six (876) cases of torture; the Coordination verified more than three-hundred and fifty-nine (359) of these cases through evidence and testimony provided by victims and their families. A Crime With No Statute of Limitation Torture
  42. 42. 42 Harvest 2015 Our documentation proves that the security authorities of Egypt regime of torture affects people of all walks of life in Egypt, and is not limited to any particular political affiliIation or organization. The security authorities have even tortured women and children inside Egyptian detention centers. The occupations of some of the victims of torture in Egypt in 2015 are as follows: Managing Director: 1 cases University professors: 3 cases Lawyers: 3 cases Engineers: 8 cases Professionals: 8 cases Journalists: 5 cases Doctors: 5 cases Teachers: 6 cases Pharmacists: 2 cases Accountants: 5 cases Laborers: 8 cases Entrepreneurs: 46 cases Trade workers: 2 cases University graduates: 8 cases Instances of torture in Egypt in 2015 are distributed as Governorate Cases of Torture Al Dakhalia 54 cases Aswan 45 cases Sharkia 41 cases Cairo 35 cases Giza 45 cases Alexandria 25 cases Damietta 19 cases Port Said 17 cases Qalubia 14 cases Gharbia 10 cases Fayoum 10 cases Minya 10 cases Buhaira 7 cases Qena 4 cases Assiut 3 cases Bani Suef 2 cases Suez 2 cases Other governorates 18 cases
  43. 43. Harvest 2015 Girls: 23 cases Children: 17 cases University students: 88 cases Detainees are torture at one of three stages: The First Stage: During the arrest of the detainee, wheth- er in the street or at home, the victim was beaten by the handle or the butt of a rifle, insulted, cursed, and mistreated. Every- one who was arrested in Egypt was sub- jected to this cruel and violent form of torture, and so, in 2015, 23,750 detainees were tortured in this way. Two cases were documented in which the police officers threw the suspect from the balcony of his house to the ground, re- sulting in broken bones all over his body. The Second Stage: When the police suspect was taken to the police station or a security agency, the police tortured them in the worst ways: 1-Beating him on different parts of his body: The policemen and the officers assault the detainee by punching him or by using some means to hurt him such as sticks and pieces of iron. There were one hun- dred (100) documented detainees sub- jected to this. 2-Electrocution: The detainee is shocked by electricity in different places of his body and his pri- vate parts in particular, to force him to confess things he did not commit. There are sixty-three (63) documented cases of detainees were subjected to this. 3-Hanging by the limbs: the detainee is hung from his arm or his feet, leaving him in this position from twelve hours to many days. This torture results in shoulder dislocation accom- panied by severe pain in the shoulder and feet. Approximately 20% of the vic- tims of torture were subjected to this form of torture.
  44. 44. 44 Harvest 2015 4-Hands and feet tied: the detainee's hands and feet are tied from the back, and security forces leave him tied up to a chair for long periods of time, resulting in damage to the ligaments of the hands and feet and intolerable pain. Ten percent of the victims of torture were subjected to this. 5-Scalding the detainee's limbs and face in hot water: seven percent of the victims of torture had their face and limbs burned with scalding hot water. The torture conducted by the Egyptian security agencies while detainees are held in processing has caused a great deal of pain to detainees. These actions are crimes committed by the security forces against the detainees, causing laceration in var- ious ligaments in the body, atrophy, and bruises all over the body, as well as deep and superficial wounds. The detainees’ shoulders are also dislocated as a result of the torture. The cruelest thing about all of this is that thepublicprosecutionwitnessestheseacts, seeing the detainee during processing, and chooses to ignore these crimes rather than investigate and prosecute. This means the public prosecutor an accomplice in the commission of the crime of torture, and promotes its spread. The public prosecu- tor in Egypt represents the narrative of the security agencies to the public. Thus, there can be no guarantee of the rule of law and good governance if the public prosecutor ignores facts presented before them, or if they lie and distort the truth. By allowing detainees to be routinely subjecting to tor- ture, the public prosecutor is ignoring the legal and constitutional texts and rights guaranteed to Egyptian citizens by law. The Third Stage: The stage of putting the detainee in pris- on pursuing to the public prosecution’s sentencing. Once the detainee arrives in the prison, he is assaulted by the police officers of the prison using their hands, sticks, hoses and whips. This assault is called the Al Tashrifa (Torture Party). The routine assault is the first of many sessions of torture inside the prison, in- cluding criminal neglect and depriva- tion. One hundred percent of the cases were subjected to Al Tashrifa. 1-Instances and Examples We have received complaints from detainees' relatives stating that there are 359 detainees were assaulted since the beginning of 2015, according to documenta- tion. This number does not reflect the true number of cases of torture in Egypt, and only reflects the number of complaints received by the Egyptian Coordination of Rights and Freedoms. We will present here some of the instances of systematic torture inside the deten- tion facilities as examples of violations which occurred against the detainees in the detention facilities in Egypt. a-Mostafa Al Mohammady Saad Mostafa Al Mohammady Saad is a 48 year-old lawyer from Al Santa district in Gharbia. Mostafa Al Mohammady Saad was ar- rested on February 2, 2015, while he was at the military prosecution at the tenth district of Nasr City, Cairo by National Security forces. He was beaten and tor-
  45. 45. Harvest 2015 tured by hanging him up from his hands in the National Security headquarters. He was assaulted by the police forces in the high-security Torah prison, where he was stripped of all his clothes and beaten severely. This assault led to a suspected stroke in his head. He was taken to Mani- al Hospital for treatment and was brought back to the prison before the completion of the first aid and surgery. Actions that have been taken The victim's family submitted reports to the office of the public prosecutor and sent telegrams to the public prosecutor and the Ministry of Interior but no decision was made. b - Hesham Abdul Nabi Ahmed Ibrahim Hesham Abdul Nabi Ahmed Ibrahim is a 26 year-old worker who lives in Al Ba- drashin, Giza. Hesham Abdul Nabi was arrested on February 17, 2015, when police forces in civilian and formal clothes raided his home. He was not present at the time, so they detained his father as a hostage until Hesham Abdul Nabi surrendered him- self; his father was then released. Hesh- am Abdul Nabi was then taken to Abu Al Nomrus police station and there he was assaulted, beaten and electrocuted in dif- ferent places of his body. The violations reached the limit as his tongue was cut out, and he was then taken to Al Kasr Al Einy Hospital for stitches. Then he was presented to the public prosecutor on February 27. He mentioned all the viola- tions that he suffered to the public pros- ecutor, and as a penalty for this he was deported to Al Badrashin police station to be tortured again. His tongue was cut out again. On March 26, 2015, his father wondered why his son could not speak to him during a visit to the police station. He recognized the injuries to Hesham Abdul Nabi’s tongue, so he brought a special doctor to see him. The sheriff refused to accept the doctor’s diagnosis, and he told the doctor that he will treat the victim in the police station. The sheriff denied the detainee the necessary treatment in his solitary cell in the police station. The doctor and the victim's father implored the sheriff to transfer the victim to the hospital outside the police station but it failed. His health status has deteriorated since his arrest up until now. We have all the medical documents and reports that prove this.
  46. 46. 46 Harvest 2015 Actions that have been taken The victim's family submitted reports to the office of the public prosecutor and sent telegrams to the public prosecutor and the Ministry of Interior but no deci- sion was made. c-Ismail Gomaa Aboud Khamis Ismail Gomaa Aboud Khamis is a 42 year-old teacher from Al Badrashin, Giza. Ismail Gomaa’s wife said: “Ismael was arrested on April 7, 2015, when securi- ty forces in civilian and uniform clothes kidnapped him. He was missing for 13 days. We knew that he was tortured at the place of his detention at Abu Al Nom- rous police station, where he was beaten severely all over his body, hung up, and electrocuted in order to force him to confess to things he did not commit, and which were totally unrelated to him. “On April 20, Ismail Gomaa was present- ed to the public prosecution in order to proceed with his investigation. Thus, he was presented before the prosecution af- ter he was beaten and assaulted.” Actions that have been taken The victim's family submitted reports to the office of the public prosecutor and sent telegrams to the public prosecutor and the Ministry of Interior but no deci- sion was made. Refa't Ibrahim Abu Zaid Al Sayed Sherdy Refa't Ibrahim Abu Zaid Al Sayed Sherdy is 45 years old. He works as the head of the department of manufacturing at Ce- ramica Prima, and he lives in Sadat City, Menoufia. Refa’t Ibrahim’s wife stated: “He was arrested on February 2, 2015, when security forces in civilian and uni- form clothes kidnapped him while he was coming back from his work. Then he was taken to the police station of Sadat City, and there he was assaulted. He was beat- en all over his body, and his right hand and right foot were burnt and electrocut- ed. As a result of this torture he went into a coma for four days. His family were not permitted to see him during the coma. aActions that have been taken The victim's family submitted reports to the office of the public prosecutor and sent telegrams to the public prosecutor and the Ministry of Interior but no deci- sion was made. Galal Al Din Mahmoud Galal Galal Al Din Mahmoud Galal is a 24 year- old student in the third year of the facul- ty of medicine at Mansoura University. He is the president of the Student Union at Mansoura University, and he lives in Deshmal, Dekerns, Mansoura, Dakahlia. Galal Al Din was arrested on February 1, 2015, when security forces in civilian and uniform clothes kidnapped him from a location unknown to his family. Then he was taken to the police station of the first district of Mansoura. There he was as- saulted, beaten all over his body, hung up by his feet, and electrocuted in sensitive places on his body, which caused wounds and bruises all over his body. His mother was not permitted to see him for fifteen days, during which time he was subjected to systematic torture.
  47. 47. Harvest 2015 b-Fahmy Farig Souad Marzouk We contacted the wife of Fahmy Farig Souad Marzouk, Mrs. Elham Abu Al Fo- touh, about the incident of his torture, and shesaid:"Myhusbandsuffersfromhepatis, diabetes and high blood pressure. While he was talking to us through the window of the transfer vehicle, he was beaten, in- sulted, and humiliated by the officers and the policemen. He was tied from behind in front of his family and relatives because he was talking to us. The officers weren’t sat- isfied with this until he went into a hepatic coma as a result of the assault. The officers refused Fahmy Farig aid despite the fact that they drove by a hospital. The doctor of the prison saw him in the next day. Fahmy was arrested while barefoot,his clothes were torn, and he was b e a t e n and insulted with the worst expletives in front of neighbors and relatives." c-Ramy Mohammed Hussain Hussain Abdullah Ramy Mohammed Hussain Hussain Ab- dullah is married and has three children. His sister Ghoson Mohammed Hussian Abdullah stated: "My brother is an As- sistant Lecturer at Suez Canal Univer- sity. He was arrested from a cafeteria in the university while he was preparing his master's degree. He was arrested for three days. He was subjected to various types of torture in order to tell the offi- cer the location of his brothers. Now, the four brothers are detained. My brother was electrocuted and beaten severely at Azouli prison. The traces of torture re- mained on his body for months after the torture. The left side of his body was paralyzed, and now he can neither move nor speak because of the torture and medical ne- glect. Even the doctor who demanded he be taken to the hospital for treatment was arrested too. His health status deteriorat- ed and all his tendons and nerves have stopped working. But curiously, when he was presented to prosecution and couldn't stand up in front of the prose- cutor because of the paralysis, he was im- mediately imprisoned for 45 days." d-Hussain Mohammed Hussain Ali Hussain Mohammed Hussain Ali was sentenced to life imprisonment at Borj Al Arab Prison. One of his relatives told us that: "At the beginning of his imprisonment, all of his clothes were taken and burnt. The same thing has happened to the blankets and all things in the room. Therefore, all his medica- tions were taken, so his state of health deteriorated. He was assaulted, beaten and insulted, when he first entered the prison. e-Ahmed Hafez Abdul Atty Ahmed Hafez Abdul Atty is a 28 year-old petroleum engineer and lecturer in the Faculty of engineering. His wife, Mayar Mostafa, said: “My husband Ahmed was subjected to various types of torture in Azouli and Aqrab Prisons. In Azouli Prison he was stripped of all his clothes and electrocuted and severely beaten all
  48. 48. 48 Harvest 2015 over his body. He was not allowed to take a shower for three months. Many dis- eases affected him during his incarcera- tion as a result of this. He and his mates were hanged by their feet for long days, and they were prevented from sleeping. Ahmed has spent hard days in Azouli prison. When he was transferred from Azouli prison to Aqrab prison, he said, "We came out of the graves" because they were deprived of food in Azouli Prison. Inside Azouli, three oranges were dis- tributed to twenty people. They were even eating the orange peel. I was pre- vented from seeing him for a hundred days. In Aqrab Prison, he was beaten se- verely, he was only given meager rations of foods and drinks. My husband wore the same pair of underwear for six en- tire months. He was exposed to extreme harassment. He was fired from his job, and I was prevented from receiving his salary. They took our apartment and all of the furniture inside it. "
  49. 49. Harvest 2015
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  51. 51. Harvest 2015 Fourth Topic Arbitrary detention cases soared in Egypt in 2015. In a flagrant violation of the lib- erty of Egyptians, 23,000 people were detained in the year. The right to freedom is guaranteed by all constitutions, covenants, and international conventions. These thousands of people suffer from torture, enforced disappearance, and medical negligence.They are processed through unfair trials, which dispense with all their rights and hopes of freedom and dignity. Preventive custody, and abusing it against opposition All individuals are, by default, innocent, and such innocence requires no proof. On the other hand, conviction requires conclusive and irrefutable evidence. This is based on the principle stating that conviction is a claim against the default status, innocence, and if the prosecution fails to irrefutably prove its claims, the default status applies, which is, innocence. In Egypt, however, times have changed and conviction has become the default sta- tus, even if evidence indicates the innocence of the person of interest. Public pros- ecutors have certain tendencies, or come with preconceptions against the accused referred to them. One may even say that, in some cases, there is no evidence at all, and the prosecution maintains an intransigent position and calls for detention for periods that may reach a year or two or even exceed such periods in a blatant violation of provisions of law. Preventive custody was first legalized for the benefit of investigation in certain cases. However, it should not be a punishment imposed upon suspects. Rather, public prosecution must base its decision on solid evidence that indicates that the accused has indeed committed a crime punishable by detention, provided that the case is referred to the competent authority as soon as possible. Arbitrary Arrest and Preventive Custody
  52. 52. 52 Harvest 2015 1-Joining a terrorist group intending to suspend the constitution and rule of law, and attempting to overthrow the state regime. 2-Inciting violence against army and police, and sabotaging public and private properties. Such indefinite statements used by investigative authorities when charging individuals with groundless accusations abuse the powers of public prosecution, and subsequently detain individuals for long, undefined periods. Such abuse is done without any reference to the provisions of the law. The public pros- ecutor, which is a judicial body and a subsidiary of the executive power, is re- stricting liberties of Individuals under the pretext that they threaten public security without any evidence to such accusations. Unfortunately, we are suffering from lack of evidence of the commission of any criminal act, and all the guarantees made by law for individuals are wasted by the stroke of a pen by representatives of the public prosecutor. There are many cases of violation to the law regarding preventive custody and enforced disappearance. Many in- dividuals reappear after prolonged pe- riods and are then referred to the public prosecutor. Although there are reports and telegrams that prove that the arrest was at an earlier date and that the period of detention has been exceeded, the ac- cused are still detained under the pros- ecutor’s authority to use the terms of reference of council chamber. However, it exceeded the maximum limit granted to it in the detention of the accused and ordered their detainment for 45 days. In other cases, preventive custody was annulled after the issue of a decision by a prosecutor within 24 hours or in cas- es where the accused was not referred to the council chamber within 45 days. In addition, there were cases where the accused was not referred to the penal court within five months, in a violation of Article 206 bis which stipulates that a prosecutor shall consider such cases rather than a chief prosecutor. Also, re- newal of custody period shall not be de- cided by a prosecutor, i.e., the decision maker shall not hear the defense appeal cases. Preventive custody has become an excuse for arrest, a fake ornament of legal pro- cedures, and an abuse of the Penal Code. Judicial authorities insist upon destroying liberties, ignoring provisions of law, and letting personal preconceptions control their judicial decisions. Therefore, there is a large number of people under preventive custody for undefined periods. Further, those under preventive custody often face bogus charges, where the prosecution provides no evidence, and the judiciary requires no evidence for conviction. There is a pattern for the charges made before penal courts, which may result in life sentences or execution. Such charges include: