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November 17 2022 Jam Bay Task Force.pdf

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November 17 2022 Jam Bay Task Force.pdf

  1. 1. Jamaica Bay Task Force Meeting November 17, 2022 John McLaughlin Managing Director, Office of Ecosystem Services, Green Infrastructure and Research Water Quality Improvements Update: Tidal Wetland and Ribbed Mussel Research
  2. 2. 2 Natural Systems
  3. 3. 3 Tidal Channel Comparison
  4. 4. 4 Monitoring Parameters
  5. 5. 5 Monitoring Configuration • The total minimum number of FIB water column samples collected and analyzed in will be as follows (8 sample points, 1 ebb and 1 flood sample in duplicate, 4 control samples): 1,296 E. coli and total coliform samples 1,296 Enterococcus samples • The maximum total number of FIB sediment samples to be collected and analyzed will be: 648 E. coli and total coliform samples 648 Enterococcus samples • Sampling frequency for TSS and nutrients will be season (May through September). Samples will be collected in triplicate for each parameter for a total of: 676 TSS samples 676 Turbidity samples 676 Ammonia samples 676 Nitrate+nitrite samples 676 Total Kjehdahl Nitrogen samples 676 Reactive phosphorus (orthophosphate) samples 676 Chlorophyll-a samples 676 dissolved organic nitrogen samples 676 dissolved organic carbon samples
  6. 6. 6 Ribbed Mussels and Pathogen Reduction ❖ DEP in coordination with the New York State Department Environmental Conservation (DEC), Cornell University Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County and Stony Brook University has evaluated the potential for using Guekensia demissa (Ribbed Mussel) for water quality improvements. ❖ Ribbed mussels are possibly unique among bivalves in also possessing the ability to filter and digest free bacteria, potentially helping to exert top-down control of harmful pathogens (Kreeger and Newell 1996, 2000). ❖ Existing research confirms that ribbed mussels have removal efficiencies of greater than 10% for particle sizes between 0.2 - 2 µm (within fecal coliform range of sizes):
  7. 7. 7 Phased Experiments ❖ Under the Jamaica Bay Long Term Control Plan (LTCP), in addition to the cost sharing ($75M) of the restoration of five marsh islands and two perimeter wetland sites within Jamaica Bay, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) also proposes to mitigate the influence of pathogens derived from combined sewer overflow (CSO) events by installing a community of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) in two Jamaica Bay tributaries. ❖ DEP conducted a literature review and an array of experiments with ribbed mussels to determine the feasibility of the project goal. The project has been broken-up into several phases beginning with a literature review (Phase I), followed by laboratory-based trials (Phase II) and mesocosm simulations (Phase III) and then a final phase of field trials (Phase IV). (Figure 1-1): ❖ • Phase I – Literature Review and Preliminary Microcosm Experiments ❖ • Phase II – Microcosm Experiments (laboratory bench-top experiments) ❖ • Phase III – Mesocosm Experiment (scaled physical model of Bergen Basin) ❖ • Phase IV – In-situ Pilot Study (deployment in Bergen Basin)
  8. 8. 8 Phase III- Mesocosm Study
  9. 9. 9 Experimental Levels Tested A total of 6 levels were tested: 720 Density, 1440 Density, Bacteria Pulse, Bacteria Step with Freshwater, Bacteria Step with Freshwater and Spatial Variation, and Unfiltered Bacteria Step with Freshwater. 720 Density: This level had a uniform distribution of 105 mesh bags, alternating in rows of 4 and 3 bags, each containing 6 to 7 RM for a total of 720 RM. Bacteria was continuously fed into the system at a concentration of 10,000 E. faecalis cells per mL. 1440 Density: This level had a uniform distribution of 105 mesh bags, alternating in rows of 4 and 3 bags, each containing 13 to 14 RM for a total of 1440 RM. Bacteria was continuously fed into the system at a concentration of 10,000 E. faecalis cells per mL. Bacteria Pulse: This level had a uniform distribution of 105 mesh bags, alternating in rows of 4 and 3 bags, each containing 6 to 7 RM for a total of 720 RM. Bacteria was continuously fed into the system at a concentration of 1,000 E. faecalis cells per mL for 60 mins before an additional dose was added increasing the concentration to 10,000 E. faecalis cells per mL. Bacteria Step with Freshwater: This level had a uniform distribution of 105 mesh bags, alternating in rows of 4 and 3 bags, each containing 6 to 7 RM for a total of 720 RM. A slug of freshwater (100L) was added into the experimental system at the influent portion of the tank (Fig. 18) at 60 min and this took approximately 22 mins. A salinity probe was placed about 12” from the in- and effluent locations with the sensor about 6” from the bottom of the tank to record how the salinity changed. Bacteria Step with Freshwater and Spatial Variation: This level did not have a uniform distribution of mesh bags however the total number of RM remained 720.The first third of the tank had alternating rows of 4 and 3 bags and the middle third of the tank contained alternating rows of 3 and 2 with each bag containing 6 to 7 RM. The final third of the tank had alternating rows of 4 and 3 bags but each contained 8 to 9 RM (Fig. 19). Bacteria and freshwater were added as described above for the Bacteria Step with Freshwater level.
  10. 10. 10 Discussion ❖ This series of experiments built upon previous work to test a more realistic setting using a significantly larger quantity of Ribbed Mussel (RM) that was exposed to a larger body of water and increased flow rate. The results from these mesocosm experiments further demonstrates the suitability of the RM for pathogen removal. ❖ The experimental system operated very well and by analyzing the data from the control tanks, the quantity of bacteria increased as expected throughout each level. This demonstrates that minimal bacteria were “lost” in the system as this was expected due to the volume of surface area and therefore the large reduction of bacteria in the experimental tanks was due to the filtration by the RM. ❖ The clearance rate for each of these experiments was similar to the results obtained in previous experiments conducted in the earlier phases.

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