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5G: A 2020 Vision



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5G: A 2020 Vision

  1. 1. 5G: A 2020 Vision Small Cells SIG & Radio Tech SIG event 3rd Feb 2015 Zahid Ghadialy @zahidtgV1.1.0
  2. 2. 2 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. about eXplanoTech Requirement Analysis Project Management Design, Implement. Integration & Deployment Testing Services Maintenance End to End Solutions Technology Consulting Technology Training System Integration
  3. 3. Simplified ‘Network Capacity’ equation 3 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Quantity of Spectrum (Hz) Cell Spectrum Efficiency (bps Hz-1) Number of Cellsx xΣb a n d =Network Capacity (bps)
  4. 4. Wi-Fi, 4.5G and pre-5G 4
  5. 5. • 4.5G whitepaper – published June 2014 • 19,000+ views • Download from slideshare 4.5G = LTE-A + Wi-Fi simultaneously 5 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd.
  6. 6. 6 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. 802.11ax – High Efficiency WLAN (HEW)
  7. 7. Image source: Wikipedia Total bandwidth, nearly 90 MHz 7 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. 2.4GHz ISM Band
  8. 8. Image source: RevolutionWiFi Total bandwidth, nearly 900 MHz 8 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. 5GHz Band
  9. 9. Total bandwidth, nearly 9GHz 9 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. 60GHz Band
  10. 10. 10 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Alcatel-Lucent view of 4.5G (and 5G)
  11. 11. 11 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Huawei’s vision of 4.5G Huawei to finalise '4.5G' branding by Q1, commercialise in 2016 21st November 2014: Huawei said it will finalise the name of the emerging technology between 4G and 5G, which it is currently calling 4.5G, in the first quarter of 2015 and targets launching commercial products in 2016… “But we think it’s not that important what you call it. It could be 4GX, 4G+ or 4G B.” EE exec takes swipe at 4.5G “hype” 22nd October 2014: Mansoor Hanif, director of RAN development and programmes for UK number one operator EE, said there is “a lot of confusion out there” about the industry’s latest buzz-phrase, 4.5G. … “To some people, 4.5G is the combination of 4G plus Wi-Fi aggregated, to some people it’s something like that but closer to 5G. Each partner, each vendor, each operator has their own view. Vodafone in one presentation said that 4.5G refers to carrier aggregation,” he said.
  12. 12. Pre-5G ZTE to launch 'pre-5G' base station next year 23rd December, 2014: Chinese vendor ZTE has said it plans to launch a ‘pre- 5G’ testing base station in 2015, commercial use of which will be possible in 2016, following tests and adjustment. Pre-5G technology is a concept the company first proposed at a summit in Amsterdam at a time when industry insiders said 5G technology would not be deployed in the market before 2020. 12
  13. 13. 5G
  14. 14. 5G summary from MWC 2014 14 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd.
  15. 15. • Two key mantra’s for 5G: – ABC (Always Best Connected) – ASR (Always Sufficient Rate) – to give users the perception of infinite capacity What is 5G 15
  16. 16. “The 5G litmus test for me is a new air interface and different ways to do end- to-end policy set-up than just the nine QCIs [QoS Class Identifiers] specified in LTE today. When those are combined, that will be 5G as far as I’m concerned” - Michael Peeters, CTO of Alcatel- Lucent’s wireless business unit Source: 5G Reality Check – Mobile Europe, Dec. 2014 16 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Conflicting views on 5G #1
  17. 17. “We believe OFDM, which we’ve inherited from LTE, is the best combination with MIMO. We don’t see a strong motivation at this point in time to walk away from OFDM because it has in- built flavour that can easily support a high number of antennas, as well as being cost and energy efficient, which will outweigh the little performance you gain from the other waveforms.” - Peter Merz, Head of Radio Systems, Technology and Innovation at Nokia Networks. Source: 5G Reality Check – Mobile Europe, Dec. 2014 17 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Conflicting views on 5G #2
  18. 18. “In new frequency bands, perhaps around 6GHz, we think we’ll see allocations of much wider bandwidth, perhaps hundreds of MHz, so we’re looking at some variant of access technologies, but not too unlike what we have in LTE today, yes, there might be some things we do to OFDM in higher frequencies – to optimise it for higher bandwidth and reduce latency – but we think the basic modulation scheme will be the same.” - Dr. Håkan Andersson, Head of 5G Product Strategy, Radio Business Unit, Ericsson Source: 5G Reality Check – Mobile Europe, Dec. 2014 18 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Conflicting views on 5G #3
  19. 19. ITU Requirements for IMT-Future 19 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Attribute IMT-Advanced 4G IMT-Future 5G Achievable Rates (Mbps) 1Gbps 10-50Gbps Connection Density 106-107/km2 Mobility & Coverage 350km/h 500km/h Energy Efficiency 1x 50-100x Spectral Efficiency 1x 5-15x Latency 10ms 1ms
  20. 20. • 1-10Gbps connections to end points in the field (i.e. not theoretical maximum) • 1 millisecond end-to-end round trip delay (latency) • 1000x bandwidth per unit area • 10-100x number of connected devices • (Perception of) 99.999% availability • (Perception of) 100% coverage • 90% reduction in network energy usage • Up to ten year battery life for low power, machine- type devices Source: Understanding 5G: Perspectives on future technological advancements in mobile - GSMA Intelligence, December 2014 20 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. IMT-2020 (5G) technology requirements
  21. 21. Image Source: 5G-From Research to Standardisation - Bernard Barani European Commission, Globecom2014 21 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. 5G: Multiple inter-operable standards? Optimize for data rate Optimize for connection numbers Optimize for delay
  22. 22. • Clean -Slate • 2G • 3G • 4G • 5G? 22 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Internet of Things (IoT) – possibilities • Zigbee • 6LoWPAN • Z-Wave • Sigfox • Weightless • BLE • oneM2M • LTN • Thread • 802.11ah Non-exhaustive list
  23. 23. 5G Spectrum
  24. 24. Note: Not according to scale 24 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Spectrum Bands Summary 300MHz 1GHz 2GHz 3GHz 4GHz UHF 8GHz 12GHz 18GHz 27GHz 30GHz 40GHz SHF 75GHz 110GHz 300GHz EHF 30MHz VHF millimetre wave (mmWave / mmW)centimetre wave (cmWave) Microwaves LIEEE Bands S C X Ku K Ka V W ITU-R Bands E E 86GHz57GHz V 71-76, 81-86GHz 57-66GHz
  25. 25. Importance of Frequency Selection 2.1GHz 900MHz Higher frequency means faster decay Lower frequency means more number of users in a given cell Higher frequency gets reflected from walls and have poor penetration Lower frequency gets attenuated from walls but still penetrates 25
  26. 26. 5G needs combination of low & high freq. 26 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd.
  27. 27. Metis: Possible 5G bands 9-40GHz 27 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd.
  28. 28. Metis: Possible 5G bands 9-40GHz 28 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd.
  29. 29. Metis: Possible 5G bands 40-86GHz 29 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd.
  30. 30. Metis: Possible 5G bands 40-86GHz 30 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd.
  31. 31. NTT Docomo 5G Trials 31 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Image Source: Telecom TV See NTT Docomo press release: DOCOMO to Conduct 5G Experimental Trials with World-leading Mobile Technology Vendors, May 2014
  32. 32. Source: Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications - The Renaissance of Computing and Communications – Ted Rappaport, ICC 2014 32 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. mmWave Wavelength Visualization – 60GHz
  33. 33. Source: Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications - The Renaissance of Computing and Communications – Ted Rappaport, ICC 2014 33 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. “Zero Area” Antenna Implementation
  34. 34. Long road for 5G spectrum discussions 34 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd.
  35. 35. 5G Technologies
  36. 36. • These technologies are often lumped along with 5G but will happen anyway and will lay the foundation of 5G – SDN and NFV – Cloud RAN (C-RAN) and Remote Radio Head (RRH) – Densification of Networks/HetNet’s – Voice/Video and Messaging enhancements – New Codecs – Machine-to-Machine (M2M) enhancements – Device-to-Device (D2D) enhancements – Higher order modulations (HOMs) in downlink and uplink – Dynamic spectrum allocation/sharing techniques – Cloud, Caching and CDN 36 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Technologies independent of ‘5G’
  37. 37. • The key technologies that are being discussed for ‘5G’ are as follows (non-exhaustive list): – Centimetre & Millimetre frequencies/waves – Super wideband spectrum – New waveforms, Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) and Filter Bank Multicarrier (FBMC) – In-Band Full Duplex (IBFD) – 3D Massive MIMO and Beamforming – Cognitive radio spectrum sensing techniques – No-Edge/Edgeless cells – Smaller cells and Ultra-dense Networks (UDN). – Multi-stream aggregation (MSA) – Control/User plane spit in access network (Phantom Cell) 37 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Key ‘5G’ Technologies Under Discussion
  38. 38. China Mobile’s vision of ‘6 Pearls’ 38 Picture Source: Vision 2020 Perspective and Progress of CMCC, Dr. Chih-Lin I, 5G Huddle, Sep. 2014
  39. 39. Source: Exploring 5G: Performance Targets, Technologies & Timelines 39 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Rethinking Shannon
  40. 40. Picture Source: SK Telecom 5G whitepaper 40 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. In-Band Full Duplex (IBFD)
  41. 41. Ultra-Dense Networks (UDN) 41 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Ultra dense deployment Multi-hop deployment Industrial Automation Vehicle to vehicle deployment Relaying deployment Military deployment Multiple carriers Different technologies
  42. 42. Multi-Stream Aggregation (MSA) 42 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Multi-RAT Carrier Aggregation (MCA) HSPA/HSPA+ HSPA/HSPA+ HSPA/HSPA+ Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Wi-Fi LTE/LTE-A LTE/LTE-A LTE/LTE-A LTE/LTE-A TD-LTE TD-LTE TD-LTETD-LTE 5G (low freq) 5G (low freq) 5G 5G 5G 5G 5G 5G 5G
  43. 43. 5G Timelines
  44. 44. The race to be ‘first’ with 5G 44 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Huawei targets 2018 World Cup in Russia for 5G trial November 20, 2014: Huawei is getting even deeper into 5G waters, inking a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with MegaFon in Russia, with plans to demonstrate 5G in a trial during the FIFA World Cup in 2018. That's two years ahead of when commercial 5G is expected to be available… NTT Docomo names suppliers for 5G trials; targets 2020 commercial launch 08/05/14: NTT Docomo, Japan’s biggest mobile operator, announced it is working with six suppliers to conduct various “experimental trials” for 5G involving higher frequency bands than those used for existing mobile technologies. SK Telecom teams with Nokia on 5G demo slated for 2018 Jan 21, 2015: The race to be the first to demonstrate and launch 5G is heating up. The latest entrant is SK Telecom which announced today that it has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Nokia to conduct joint research and development on 5G with the ultimate goal of demonstrating the technology in 2018 and commercially launching it in 2020. Samsung aims to debut 5G at 2018 Olympics October 22, 2014: Samsung aims to launch 5G-based products in time for the 2018 Winter Olympic Games in PyeongChang. Speaking at the ITU's 5G Global Summit, Samsung head of communications research Cheun Kyung-whoon said the PyeongChang Winter Olympics and the Tokyo Summer Olympics in 2020 will be an ideal time to showcase 5G technology, the Korea Herald said.
  45. 45. Picture Source: Morgan Mullooly, Twitter 45 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Length of time between initial LTE and LTE-A Deployments
  46. 46. Road to 5G: Approximate schedule 46 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Requirements & Exploration Standardization & Prototype Trials & Commercial Deployments IMT. Vision IMT. Proposals IMT. Specifications IMT-Advanced 2018 Enhancements to IMT-Advanced for use in IMT spectrum below 6,5 GHz IMT-2020 [5G] Including new RITs that might or might not be backward compatible for use in IMT spectrum below and/or above 6,5 GHz ITU Requirements WS Rel-13 Rel-14 Rel-15 Rel-16 - Scenarios & requirements - SI* for low spectrum - Channel modeling for high spectrum - WI* for low spectrum - SI* for high spectrum - WI* for low spectrum enhancement - WI* for high spectrum Phase I Phase II Phase III Basic research work Vision building Large-scale trials Early standardization System optimization Pre-standardization * SI : Study Items WI : Work Items Metis For Guidance Only Source: Future Networks – Bernard Celli, ANFR, Digiworld 2014
  47. 47. Roadmaps to 5G 47 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd.
  48. 48. • NFV based network implementation • mmWave (or cmWave but mmWave preferable) • Massive MIMO (at least 64x64) and 3D Beamforming • Dense Small Cells network with MSA 48 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. 5G Prototype: Minimum set of features
  49. 49. 5G Target 49 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Internet of things Automotive industryMedical care Smart meters Sensors UHD video streaming Augmented reality Big data e-learning Environment Remote medicine Smart HomeRobots Enhanced mobile broadband Safety networks Interactive HD TV Shipping logistic Traffic safety control Modern agriculture Industrial applications Geolocation Social gaming Real 3D Tactile Internet Services Cloud Fiber SDN HetNetSatellite Unlicensed Cognitive radio 4G LTE LSA Small cells Massive MiMo Wi-Fi Sharing New waveform Virtualized radio Multi integrated wireless High spectrum Carrier aggregation Technologies Traffic x 1000 Density x 10 User convenience Data rates x 10 Reliability Availability Capacity End to end latency (/ 5) Seamless mobility Systems continuity Objectives Spectrum efficiency Energy efficiency Cost efficiency Security Adaptability Constraints Source: Future Networks – Bernard Celli, ANFR, Digiworld 2014 For Guidance Only
  50. 50. ‘5G’ will make this possible  50 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd.
  51. 51. I would like to thank the following people for their contributions through either online or personal discussions and guidance. In no particular order: • Dr. Shahram Niri • Elena Neira • John K. Bramfield • Dan Warren • Philip Solis • Morgan Mullooly • David Rogers • Ajit Jaokar 51 Non-confidential – Public © eXplanoTech Ltd. Acknowledgements