Project Management For The Curious


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Introduction to Project Management for those who are new or accidental PM;s

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  • Project Management For The Curious

    1. 1. Project Management for the Curious 21 st January 2009 1.10 “ An ounce of action is worth a ton of theory.” Friedrich Engels
    2. 2.
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Me – David Whelbourn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chose the career of PM (since 1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certified PMP and PRINCE2 Practitioner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex-soldier, Ex-rugby player, Ex Field Hockey Goalkeeper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex-living in the UK, Moved to NB 5 th November 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>xwave since 21 st November 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory Bits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical Bit </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. THEORY BITS Definitions Project Lifecycle PM Processes Project Planning
    5. 5. Definitions <ul><li>What is a Project? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to accomplish a unique purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributes of projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unique purpose, has start and end dates, require resources, often from various areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>should have a primary sponsor and/or customer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific budget, and involves uncertainty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What is Project Management? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The application of skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholders needs or expectations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(These needs should match the project requirements) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A systematic approach to managing projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A way to generate consistent results when you undertake new initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does a Project Manager do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has overall responsibility for project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates expectations to stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls planning, activities and resources to meet established costs, timetables and quality or deliverable goals </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Project Lifecycles <ul><li>They define an effective way to deliver products </li></ul><ul><li>They are designed to ensure consistency (learning approach) </li></ul>Ideas Benefits Business Case Requirements and initial Design/Test planning Iteration Design/ Test Plan Iteration Build/ Test Final Verification and Validation Project Management Checkpoint Checkpoint Checkpoint Checkpoint Delivery Iterations
    7. 7. Staffing across the Project Lifecycle
    8. 8. Project Management Processes
    9. 9. Initiating Process Group <ul><li>When: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At Project Start (or even before the start) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some sort of Stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RFP arriving or being discovered </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem given at the coffee machine “Dave can you …. “ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understand Why the project is being done </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan the initiation stage / bid response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create a Project Charter / Terms of Reference / Brief </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold Kick off meeting (s) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At Stage or Phase Start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger Stage Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stage Kick off meeting </li></ul></ul></ul>Chances for the project’s success are largely set in the first 20% of its time line
    10. 10. Hints & Tips on Initiating <ul><ul><li>Write down what you are going to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terms of Reference, Project Brief, Project Initiation Document </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has it been done before ( Lessons Learned Reports available? ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold a Kick Off Meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run first, gain some ground you can walk later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set expectations – no delays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not allow diary shuffling or try to minimise it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communications etiquette </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expected response times for communications </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast emails, Attachments ? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inaction is the most dangerous enemy of the PM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most late projects cannot point to a single catastrophic event </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. A Controlled Project Initiation Provides A Firm Foundation For Success!
    12. 12. Planning Process Group <ul><li>Old Saying: “Fail to Plan --- Plan to Fail” </li></ul><ul><li>* If project failure were a disease then Planning is a vaccination against project failure * </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research shows above 10% of the project’s budget is where the law of diminishing returns kick in. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How do I plan? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Stages (Management Control) they enable Review and decision points, and planning horizons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Base Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Packages </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Project Scope & Product Based Planning <ul><li>Project Scope = All the products to be delivered </li></ul><ul><li>Work Breakdown Structure? </li></ul><ul><li>Better way is Product Breakdown Structure: Plan around the products your project has to produce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progress reports, …Implementation report </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accepted Solution / Product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Together they represent total amount of necessary work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write Product Descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moved from “Process drives deliverables” to “Deliverables driving Process”. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Product Descriptions <ul><li>Define what is to be delivered </li></ul><ul><li>In sufficient detail to ensure producer understands what has to be done </li></ul><ul><li>Includes quality criteria and how it will be checked for acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Build templates for standard products plus generic technical products </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse them to speed up future projects </li></ul><ul><li>Tuned them to suit the project </li></ul>
    15. 15. Planning Process Hints & Tips <ul><li>Planning Sequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Breakdown Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management Products & Technical Products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Write their descriptions use previous standard templates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define dependencies & produce a flow diagram (network) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Post IT Notes to figure out the sequence products have to be built in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate Activities to deliver products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use verb noun style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate Effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size, effort in hours / days / months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modifiers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the Complexity & Staff capabilities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental factors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Schedule </li></ul></ul>State your planning Assumptions No one in IT can be productive for 5 days a week remember 3.5 – 4 days per week “ Establish Requirements”
    16. 16. Executing Processes <ul><li>Execute the PLAN! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Gets Given Out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pass out the work packages / product descriptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Gets Done (only on the stuff you have passed out!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chase, harass, hassle, plague and even harry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remind them of quality criteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Gets Accepted (hopefully) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality check (How Do You Know It Has Been Done Satisfactory) </li></ul></ul></ul>Thinking is easy, Action is difficult
    17. 17. Work Packages <ul><li>A Work Package is a set of information about one or more required Products, collated by the Project Manager and passed formally to the Team Manager (or Team Resource) via the Work Package Authorisation </li></ul>
    18. 18. Hints & Tips on Executing <ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s Law – The amount of time applied to perform work, expands to meet the estimate. Prove it wrong remember harry if you have too. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use work packages to manage external contractors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Quality Reviews as part of acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only work that has been authorised should be what is being done. Make the point to the team not to accept work from anyone else but you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Teams are not looking for delivery acceleration opportunities. Delivery date slips result from internal project team delays. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find ways to save work time, as saving time is usually saving money. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Controlled Progress Improves Chances of Project Success
    20. 20. Closing Processes <ul><ul><li>Stage Closure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gates between stages / phases? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons Learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance of the delivered product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Closure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procurement , purchase orders etc… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future Life (opportunity spotting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What has changed while the project has been running </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities identified during the project but out of scope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan Post Project Review? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Hints & Tips on Closing <ul><ul><li>Check if the project met the original objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm the customer acceptance of all the products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check all documentation has been completed and handed over, archived, destroyed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check there are no outstanding invoices / payments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notify the customer that you intend to close the project </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. A Controlled Project Closure Completes the Project and enhances YOUR reputation
    23. 23. Monitoring & Controlling <ul><li>Keeping an eye on everything and spinning all the plates! </li></ul><ul><li>Managing the boundaries between the stages (close & planning) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Status Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regularly – weekly / fortnightly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progress, Problems in progress i.e Things not delivered as planned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issues & Risks (coming up in the next step/stage etc) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Next Steps and Deliverables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is about communication with the stakeholders / sponsor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No surprises is the best policy – try to forewarn if there is a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Being Obsessed with the Quality Aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of having recorded decisions (VERY IMPORTANT FOR PM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality checks on work produced use a Work Package Definition! </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Summary of Theory <ul><li>Projects are temporary and are used to produce a unique solution to an opportunity or problem. </li></ul><ul><li>There should be some sort of business case for any project highlighting the expected benefits from the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management involves exploring problems / opportunities, facilitating the development of a solution, tasking it, bring the plan into action and making things happen when the events threaten to blow your ship off course. </li></ul><ul><li>Projects Have Lifecycles </li></ul><ul><li>5 PM processes (used to be IPECC now it’s I,P,E,MC,C) these processes run within the lifecycle and across the lifecycle </li></ul>
    25. 25. Keys to Success which make for happy PM’s <ul><li>A Detailed Realistic P roject Plan In Place </li></ul><ul><li>R esources Are Identified And Available </li></ul><ul><li>There is O wnership Of The Project By The Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>J ustifiable Case Confirmed </li></ul><ul><li>E xpertise Exists Within The Team And The Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>C lear Specification Of Requirements Exist </li></ul><ul><li>T op Level Support For The Project </li></ul>
    26. 27. THE PRACTICAL BIT A Project Lifecycle For ANY Project The Five Step Model
    27. 28. The Project Lifecycle A Structured Approach Five Step Method <ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initial Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Develop & Test </li></ul><ul><li>Trial </li></ul><ul><li>Release </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Project Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(this hardly ever happens) </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Five Step Model Detailed Investigation Build & Test Trial Release Initial Investigation Proposal PIR Initial Investigation Gate Detailed Investigation Gate Build & Test Gate Trial Gate Release Gate
    29. 30. The Trigger for your Project - Proposal <ul><li>Request for Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document or email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>could be verbal (write it down) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describes what you want to do and why </li></ul><ul><li>Document it formally </li></ul><ul><li>Get it reviewed by the potential stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Go / No Go (Gate) </li></ul>
    30. 31. Initial Investigation Stage (Business Study) <ul><li>Have a Quick Look </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Initiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Update or Create the Terms of Reference / Project Charter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline the Project Scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expected benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Costs / time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure of &quot;Why we are doing it&quot; </li></ul></ul>Chances for the project’s success are largely set in the first 20% of its time line
    31. 32. First Things First Terms of Reference – BOSCARI <ul><li>B ackground </li></ul><ul><li>O bjectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Timely) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S cope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Products / Business Areas Included </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products / Business Areas Excluded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C onstraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A ssumptions </li></ul><ul><li>R eporting </li></ul><ul><li>I ssues & Risks </li></ul>Chances for the project’s success are largely set in the first 20% of its time line
    32. 33. Detailed Investigation Stage <ul><li>Have a Closer Look </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasible Solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technically Feasible (Can you) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economically Feasible (Could you) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategically / Ethically Feasible (Should You) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend a Solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you/they know that it has been delivered? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go / No Go Decision Point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce a Detailed Project Plan </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Develop & Test Stage <ul><ul><li>Do It! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use work authorisation and work packages/ product descriptions to create action to deliver the products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor and control the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deliveries, internal and external communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The project uses the most resources during this stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Work to deliver the products that will deliver the benefits </li></ul></ul>I never worry about action, but only about inaction Winston Churchill
    34. 35. Trial Stage <ul><ul><li>Try it in a customer free zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model Office / Conference Room Pilot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Validate the solution / products are acceptable to the clients and functionally correct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verify that the capabilities work in a live environment including all the business processes and supporting infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Release Stage <ul><ul><li>Use It! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The rubber hits the road! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Closure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons Learned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Future Life Planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contract Closure </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 37. Post Project Evaluation <ul><ul><li>Very Rare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checking to see if the expected benefits from the project have been delivered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires identified metrics that will show the benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires baseline of current metrics before your project starts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on BENEFITS being defined and tracked (Benefit Management) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only just happening in the UK who are probably one the world leaders in Project & Programme Management </li></ul></ul>
    37. 38. Summary <ul><li>Definitions of PM and Project </li></ul><ul><li>5 Step Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial Investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed Investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop and Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember the KISS Principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep It Simple Stupid (A brutal army principle) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did We Achieve the Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Look Forward </li></ul><ul><li>future learning opportunities, Next steps (next slide) </li></ul>
    38. 39. Next Steps - <ul><li>Project Management Briefings (depends on demand?) </li></ul><ul><li>Email me for Terms of Reference and other templates (word) and this PowerPoint. </li></ul><ul><li>Some references or places for further information: </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management Institute </li></ul><ul><li>OGC (UK Office of Government Commerce) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management Institute Book of Knowledge (PMBOK) </li></ul><ul><li>PRINCE2 – Managing Successful Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Plenty of PM books, some of which are good – I would recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project Management - Dennis Lock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mythical Man Month - Frederick P. Brooks – software engineering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project Workout – Robert Buttrick </li></ul></ul></ul>