SLIDE 1Framework of tonight’s presentation: Ethics within an organizational framework is a huge, overarching topic. I’ve chosen to focus on three areas:It’s Complicated…The Relationship Between and Organization and EthicsAn Organization’s Ethical ClimateEthics and LeadershipRelationship b/w Organizations and EthicsMy jumping off point: Dr. Schnall’s “By The Sweat of Your Brow”
SLIDE 2In the final chapter – he offers a striking contrast b/w the “Jewish Ethical Impulse” and some of the current organizational trends. “the thrust of Jewish ethical impulse is highly individualist. It speaks to a complex of obligations and norms that bind people to one other, to their communities, to their history, and to the Jewish nation.” (p.197)“Accountability for sin and virtue, innocence and guilt are apportioned individually…penalties against wrongdoing are meted out in proportion to direct participation and involvement in the crime, and both penitence and restitution are highly personal.” P 197
SLIDE 3Dr. Schnall also draws a distinction b/w the traditional villains of yester year and those who perpetrate evil today. “Villains were quickly identifiable by their dress, their speech, their actions, and the color of their horses. (198)”
SLIDE 4We move from the battlefield, or the king’s throne, to the humble cubicle….“Perpetrators – well meaning, even righteous individuals who look neither like monsters nor devils but more like clerks and neighbors…rarely confront evil directly and easily purge themselves of responsibility for the deed, if they even define it as a crime.” No longer is evil neatly categorized by one heinous action. Rather – in looking at the modern corporate structure, with its endless hierarchy and divisions, we come across a new villain – the paper pusher, the bureaucrat. The individual who, with a few keystrokes, may have forever changed the fate of a family struggling with the prospect of losing their family home 1,000 miles away. He may or may not even know, or care, what he has just done.
SLIDE 5Hannah Arendt wrote a controversial series of articles documenting the Adolph Eichmann trial that took place in Israel in the early 1960’s. She coined the term that eventually became the title for her book “The Banality of Evil” – the idea was that individual cogs in a larger machine are ‘just following orders.’ While Arendt’s defense of Eichmann was certainly controversial and criticized, her larger thesis does offer applications for looking at modern organizations – Dr. Schnall described Arendt’s position that “those in league with the devil no longer spit fire or carry pitchforks.” They do not have the appearance of classic villains, More significantly, they do not VIEW themselves as villains or evildoersSeveral steps removed from ‘the field of action’No blood on their hands – not a messy action they were involved in, remain ignorant of the outcomeHierarchy – they didn’t make the decision – following orders! If I don’t follow the directive from the ‘upstairs office,’ I could lose my job!
SLIDE 6Within a large, hierarchical organization – Risk of “Bureaupathic” behavior – “Dangerous irrationalities promote actions that individuals would never consider on their own, but by the force of organizational routine, soon become standard procedure.” Problem even worse when inspired by a religious or nationalist mission – Divine Will is invoked as justification. Dr. Schnall notes that Arendt has been criticized for overlooking individual accountability and that from a Jewish perspective – responsibility remains personal even in a larger organizational framework.But how do we assign responsibility in a large organization?
SLIDE 7In looking at this from an organizational standpoint, specifically within the sphere of public officials, Dennis Thompson described this as the problem of “Many Hands”In his paper titled “Moral Responsibility of Public Officials: The Problem of Many Hands”, he writes that there are 2 typical ways of ascribing responsibility to officials – hierarchical model, and collective model. The problem is that neither of these approaches really properly address the problem of many hands. Let’s examine both –
SLIDE 9 M. Thompson finds this approach lacking –Thompson - critique of weber - problem is, that's not reality! Weber's model relies upon "well defined jurisdictions and settled lines of authority", which is not the landscape Everyone's a politician! (even a bureaucrat), and elected officials can worry about details like bureaucrats!Thompson – additionally – within a hierarchical model – it’s not a bad system of governing! But ultimately, it cannot work in properly ascribing responsibility - those in top positions cannot be expected to have control over political outcomes.“Hierarchical responsibility does not coincide with moral responsibility. “
SLIDE 10Proof for this is by how willing leaders are ready to apologize and declare themselves responsible!Moreover – taking ‘full responsibility’ is looked at favorably by followers of a leader – strengthens political standing Assures them that ‘someone is in charge’ and not passing the buck, courageous Also subordinates are grateful that someone has their back – take a bullet for them Finally – accepting responsibility as the person in charge effectively blocks further inquiry into the moral responsibility of all the leaders involved, quells public debate We like apologies in our country We disdain cover ups (Martha stewart) Bay of Pigs – kennedy, Nixon
SLIDE 11Thompson then looks to an alternate model – the collective model of responsibility – 2 approaches to this modelApproach #1Basically – all of us are held responsible as individuals – the ‘collective’ casts a wide netHerbert Kaufman on red tape in gov’t: “It would not surprise me … if [public officers and employees] are merely scapegoats … We may accuse them because, intuitively, we want to divert guilt from the real cause: ourselves. No one element of the population is responsible for all red tape or even most of it … we all have a hand in it.” W.H. Walsh explains further on this concept –W.H. Walsh: Anyone that can be included in the ‘collective’ can be held individually responsible We are morally responsible for the actions of people with whom we have any ‘special relationship’ which includes all fellow citizens The role of the average citizen in responsibility is expanded greatly. On the other hand, the responsibility of public officials seems to be diminished. Public officials – limited by demands of citizens and by decisions set in motion by previous regimes, therefore actions not fully voluntary and therefore not fully responsible for their decisions. Thompson’s critique – but this approach does not account for the simple reality that some people are more involved in a particular situation than others – this group could have protested but didn’t, that group had greater resources to initiate a change but neglected to do so, a 3rd group had no connections.
SLIDE 12Approach #2 – Collective ResponsibilityOnly the collective group as a whole can be charged with wrongdoing/responsibility, not the individuals. a. “The Blast at Centralia No. 5” – mine disaster. “as one strives to fix responsibility for the disaster, again and again one is confronted, as were the miners, not with any individual but with a host of individuals fused into a vast, unapproachable, insensate organism.b. Thompson – this approach is also lacking – yes its true that the ‘institution’ can be looked at as one whole group, but there are individuals responsible for ‘creating the structural faults in the institution…or for making inadequate efforts to correct them.” So one cannot really separate the institution from the individuals involved in setting up the institution that way, with those weaknesses or vulnerabilities.
SLIDE 13Finally, Thompson offers his own framework for addressing the problem of many hands-Theory of “Personal Responsibility”2 Criteria1) the officials’ actions or omissions are a cause of the outcome, and 2) these actions or omissions are not done in ignorance or under compulsion”While these criteria seem neat and easy on paper, in applying them to reality, it is anything but!p.909-Causal Criterion (1)Thompson acknowledges the arguments of others, including John Ladd, that ‘the part played by any single official is neither necessary nor sufficient to being about an organizational decision.’ As a result, such a criteria essentially gives adequate cover to any official who wants to deflect responsibility. -Criterion 2 – Volitional responsibilityRaises the question – what does it mean that they are not done in ignorance or compulsion, that they could have done otherwise?General incapacity / insanityIgnorance – only if not negligent – if a public official does not bother to understand the nature of the process and his role, etc – that’s negligence“I had no choice” – not so simple - when a political leader says that, what does it really mean? Thompson points out that it generally does not mean that the leader had a gun to his or her head – rather, it generally means that ‘they did not choose the range of alternatives within which they made some decision.’Thompson points out that while the limitations of alternatives do not necc eliminate an officials responsibility, it is important to recognize, be it for blame or praise, what the range of choices were. Causal Criterion continuedIt’s not my job – Official in Vietnam – why should I have resigned in opposition to a certain policy? My job was western Europe! Thompson acknowledges that on the one hand, he is right – he has less responsibility than, say the officials who directly handle Vietnam. But he has more responsibility than a health official!MurkyScientists – are they responsible for the uses others make of their work? Oppenheimer to Truman in 1946 – I have blood on my handsBut then in 1954 in testimony before the US Atomic Energy Commission – “I did my job, I was not in a policy making position”Thompson himself seems ambivalent about the application of his criteria here – scientists ‘have a continuing obligation to consider and question the uses to which their contributions are put.” But blame? He does not ascribe. Advisors – the person whom they are counseling is free to accept or reject their counsel. Generally – advisor has less responsibility than the decisorBUT – if there is implicit trust in advisor – like Kennedy in Cuban missile crises – higher level of responsibility. Again – Thompson implies that there is responsibility – how much? Still murky
SLIDE 14EglaArufa“Then your elders and your judges shall go out and they shall measure to the cities which are round about him that was slain.”-Deuteronomy 21:22 pointsR.S.R. Hirsch points out that when one finds this dead body in between cities, the Torah actually calls to the highest Beis Din in the land to come and do the measuring – R’Hirsch specifies that they cannot send any delegates or lower level judges – their going out to measure is an indictment on them that, as senior level officials, a general laxity in kavodhabrios has been at best, been allowed to occur, under the watch of their subordinates, the local judges. Secondly, R’Hirsch points out that there is significance in the act of measuring itself – even if it is abundantly clear which city the body is closest to – b/c this measuring expressed “the common equal responsibility of all the subordinate courts for all such occurrences, of which just the one is called on in this special case b/c it happens to be the nearest.” “And they shall declare and say: Our hands have not shed this blood and our eyes have not seen him.”-Deuteronomy 21:7Causation – The mishna in Sota comments “Did it enter anyone’s mind that the elders of the beis din were murderers? Rather, what they mean is no man came to our hands and we allowed him to depart without food, and we did not allow him to go off without providing an escort” Recognition – omission can be a cause of outcome – responsibility
SLIDE 15We now approach the 2nd section of the presentation – we will discuss the concept of an ethical climate within an organization, what it does, and how can we assess it?We will be utilizing an article entitled: “An ethical weather report: assessing the organization’s ethical climate” by John Cullen, CarollStephans, and Bart Victor.
SLIDE 16In 1982 and again in 1986 – reports of poisoning by tainted Tylenol hit the newsstands. Within hours of hearing about the crises, McNeil Laboratories, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, voluntarily and completely withdrew the product from the market. This was in spite of the fact that the whole issue stemmed from 3rd parties tampering with the Tylenol rather than a manufacturing error. Washington Post – textbook example of a firm’s willingness to do what is right, regardless of cost. Why did they do it? “It’s the Johnson and Johnson way.”
SLIDE 17We, as individuals or organizations, are not always as direct and unambiguous in our decision making, as this Calvin and Hobbes classic relates –
SLIDE 18Organizations, like individuals, have their own set of ethics that help define their characters. Just as personal ethics guide what an individual will do when faced with moral dilemmas, corporate ethics guide what an org will do when faced with issues of conflicting valuesFor example, in the Tylenol case – consumer safety vs. short term financial gains An understanding of the corp’s ethical climate helps answer q: “what should I do?” Also address the approach: “How shall I do it?”Ethical ClimateIt helps us determineWhich issues org considers ethically pertinentWhat criteria they use to understand and resolve these issues->In the case of Tylenol – in follow up interviews with the CEO, their approach was not novel or unique – rather it came directly from their ethical mission – which ranks service to customers as its uppermost goal, followed by responsibility to workers, management, and the community (financial returns come last). This was clearly not lip service or some PR copy – this was who they were. According to Cullen, Stephens and Victor, 3 Factors Determine a Company’s Ethical ClimateEnvironment in which the firm functionsForm of the organizationCompany’s historyExample of importance of one of these factors – History Contrast b/w J and J approach to Tylenol and P and Gamble when a line of tampons was linked to a potentially fatal toxic shock syndrome. Slow response. Why? Not a bad company, on the contrary! Authors suggest that the corporate history plays a role here – P and G – consumer goods, not a pharmaceutical firm – no corporate history of dealing with life or death situations. J and J – by nature of their business – had that built in experience, could take a running start.
SLIDE 19How might one assess the ethical climate of one’s organization?The authors posit that Each company has its own moral characterGroup members know what this character isThe group members can tell an outsider about their organization’s moral character in an objective way, regardless of how they feel about it. The solution – ask the people who work in your organization! This is what the authors of this article did – they drew up a questionnaireThey began by using the work of Prof Lawrence Kohlberg, who lists 3 types of ethical standards – self-interest, caring, and principle. These 3 standards are both distinct and generally incompatible – Someone who is ‘caring’ does not pay a great deal of attention to the ‘rules’ Principled people will try and rule out any impact their own feelings or others may have on doing ‘what is right.’ A self-interested person will only look at personal benefit, not others feelings or what is objectively moral.
SLIDE 20The best way to find out about an organization’s ethical climate is to ask the people who work there about it. Sample questionnaire
SLIDE 21The authors composed a chart outlining 9 different possible ethical climatesThe 3 ethical standards based on Kohlberg form the vertical axis, while the horizontal axis is made up of what the authors refer to as levels of analysis, or organizational roles, based on the work of Sociologist Robert Merton and others.For example – Merton contrasts a local vs cosmopolitan outlookWorker in a steel factory – local – looks to coworkers or immediate superior to define proper behavior on job. Accountant in a firm – concerned with (cosmopolitan) outside standards like the AICPA Example 2 Orgs with more individualist or local ethical climates not as attentive to larger social concerns as Cosmopolitan orgs areTobacco Company – may be ‘caring’ toward employees, but not necc to the consumers it sells to.
SLIDE 22In their surveys, they found 5 distinct ethical climatesInstrumental Climate – self interest and company profit boxes “In this company, people are only out for themselves” “People are expected to do anything to further the company’s interests”Caring Climate – friendship, team interest, and social responsibility boxesCompany emphasizes benevolent criteria such as interests of other employees or welfare of the work team “Our major consideration is what’s best for everyone in the company” “It is expected that you’ll always do what is right for the customer and the public”Independent Climate – personal morality boxIndividual moral judgment “in this company, people are expected to follow their own personal and moral beliefs”Rules Oriented Climate – rules and SOP boxesThis climate is in effect when internally generated principles and guidelines are used to direct decision making “Everyone is expected to stick by the company’s rules and procedures”Laws and codes climate – principled - cosmopolitan boxesThis climate occurs when company uses externally generated standards and principles in choosing actions “The first consideration is whether a decision violates any law” “the ethical code of the profession is very important”
SLIDE 23Important to recognize that there is no one best ethical climate –firms can be ethical in many waysBUT – the effectiveness of the particular ethical climate has an important role – on quality and regularity (consistency) of employees ethical choices. Ineffective climates may foster lapses in organizational control over employees actions, or lead to predictable errors in the ethical decisions that employees make. (Example p.5 – telephone co – employees said that they did not use their personal judgment at all in ethical decision making, and co said ‘good!’ for other co’s that may be awful, depends on each ethical culture)Effectiveness – key factorsGood fit b/w org’s ethical climate and its strategyEnforcing mechanism’s and decision making processes must suit the climate Example: extensive written code could be effective in rules oriented climate, but not necc in caring climate Also – distinction b/w home office and branch’s – No matter what the climate – consistency and clarity are CRUCIAL for effectivenessEmployees cannot behave as management wishes them to unless they know what management expects of themBy Tylenol case – clarity and consistency of ethical norms allowed it to take quick and effective action“Learning what the current climate is constitute the first crucial step toward making the climate as appropriate and effective as it can be.”
SLIDE 24We have arrived at the 3rd and final section of our organizational ethics conversation.We have spoken about the challenges of taking moral responsibility in a culture that encourages one to be a faceless cog, and we have spoke about the nature of the ethical climate and the role in plays in an organization.We now move to the role that ethics play in the area of leadership, specifically in the area of education.I am quite appreciative to Dr. Schnall for directing me to the work of Dr. Jeffrey Glanz, who is literally right in our backyard as a member of the faculty here at Azrieli.
SLIDE 25Justice and Caring: Power, Politics, and Ethics in Strategic Leadership Dr. Glanz has written a really informative paper on the role that ethics plays within the strategic leadership of a school leader.Dr. Glanz begins by alerting the reader to what he sees as a foundational problem within educational leadership – The Problem: Strategic Leadership as a whole is an area that school leaders do not pay enough attention to, and/or are not properly trained and knowledgeable in accomplishing.On top of that, the body of research and literature in the field of strategic leadership is completely lacking in any discussion on the role that ethics plays in strategically managing a school.Most of the focus of strategic leadership is on “promoting gains in student achievement” (p.67)p.67And yet, ethics are crucial!-without an ethical and moral stance, a leader will lead perfunctorily, without ‘soul’ (Bolman and Deal)-importance of having a moral / ethical stance and that being a major component of one’s leadership
SLIDE 26Dr. Glanz cites a variety of studies in the field, all coming to the unfortunately conclusion that the notion of ethics informing educational leadership is sadly lacking, and that it is something that administrators simply do not see as an important or very relevant issue:Sergiovanni (1992) – 4 sources for authority among leaders in schools – bureaucratic, personal, professional, and moral “School leaders are not as readily cognizant of moral authority as a basis for their work.” p.68“the few studies that do explore ethical dimensions indicate that school leaders are not aware of the moral or ethical aspect of their work.”“Principals denied that the challenges they faced on a daily basis were ethical in nature; instead, they attributed their work as being strategic, administrative, professional, political and/or procedural.” p.68-69study of 104 HS principals who had won principal of the year awards“Finally, principals reported that, although they made ethical choices, they had a hard time defining ‘ethics’… respondents had difficulty understanding the processes through which they made their decisions.” -Klinker and Hackmann “School leaders lack ethical literacy related to their work in school leadership” Cherrington & Cherrington“School leaders are not as readily cognizant of moral authority as a basis for their work.” –Sergiovanni & Starratt“Principals denied that the challenges they faced on a daily basis were ethical in nature; instead, they attributed their work as being strategic, administrative, professional, political and/or procedural.”-Campbell“the few studies that do explore ethical dimensions indicate that school leaders are not aware of the moral or ethical aspect of their work.” -Glanz“Finally, principals reported that, although they made ethical choices, they had a hard time defining ‘ethics’… respondents had difficulty understanding the processes through which they made their decisions.” -Klinker and Hackmann
SLIDE 27Dr. Frank Duffy – Politics and power are important aspects of effective leadership, but the interplay of ethics among them is equally important.Duffy charts the relationship b/w power, politics, and ethics on this 4 quadrant chart – each quadrant represents a different type of leader behavior. Q1 – Q4Q1 – Powerful, political but unethical behaviorsQ2 – Powerful, political and ethical behaviorsQ3 – Powerless, apolitical but unethical behaviorsQ4 – Powerless, apolitical and ethical behaviorsDuffy’s comment on the chart is very powerful in terms of clarifying why ethics must be an important consideration for strategic leadership:In my heart I know most people who move into leadership positions want to be Q2leaders. But something happens to them when they actually make the move to the administrator’s office. Somehow some of them lose their sense of moral direction, their notions of rightness and wrongness, their definitions of truth and justice, and they frequently seek expedient solutions to problems without regard to underlying ethical principles. Then, before long, they change into Q1s, Q3s, or Q4s. This presents a management development problem for school districts: how do they recruit leaders who are capable of and willing to be Q2 leaders, and how do they restructure their district’s reward system to help leaders stay within the Q2 arena? The solution to this puzzle is, I believe, important to the future of leadership for systematic school improvement. (Duffy 2003: 18–19) Nothing wrong with politics – but when it lacks and ethical lens – that’s when you get into trouble.
Schools have tremendous potential – but they can also be a source of exclusion, injustice, promoting inequality, stereotyping, etc2 areas of focus by Dr. GlanzExclusionary Attitudes – unwilling to accept inclusion modelParadigm Paralysis – this is how we have always done it
Social Justice – building an ethic of caringShift in focus of school “Although appropriate at some point in educational history, the traditional model of bureaucratic school organization in which organizational needs supersede individual interests is no longer appropriate.” -GlanzAsking - What is best for the child, not necc the institution
p.75Caring- difficult to define, but scholars have noted that it includes:a. Receiving the other’s perspectiveb. Responding appropriately to the awareness that comes from this receptionc. Remaining committed to others and the relationshipWhat do caring educators do? According to Marshall et al., they ‘frequently develop relationships that are the grounds for motivating, cajoling, and inspiring others to excellence. Generally thoughtful and sensitive, they see nuances in people’s efforts at good performance and acknowledge them; they recognize the diverse and individual qualities in people and devise individual standards of expectation, incentives, and rewards’ (1996: 282).
SLIDE 3177-78Strategic Planning4 stagesArticulation – communication about strategies, encourage wide participationBuilding – rally staff around the strategy to gain input and supportCreating – utilizing creative ways to initiate dialogue with others to motivate them to share a mental map of the futureDefining – identifying desired outcomes and designing specific strategies to achieve them BUT – must be through an ‘ethical lens’p.79However, strategic planning, above all else, is predicated most fundamentally on an articulated, well-established and accepted vision, mission and series of goals for the school that is filtered through and monitored by an ethical and moral lens. This moral lens is embodied in a collaboratively developed conceptual framework, as sampled in the above sections. The time it takes to draft such a document is time well spent. The framework need not be as elaborate or long as the one above. Most vital, rather, is that it articulates the moral vision and ethical principles that will guide the strategic initiative every step of the way.This is similar to the article by Cullen (ethical climate) that the morals and ethics guide consistency in accomplishing goals
SLIDE 32p.80next steps – RESEARCHethics only given lip service The treatment of ethics as serious study for better understanding strategy in education has been abysmally insufficient (Bowman 2008). Researchers need to examine closely the role ethics plays in strategy development. Qualitative studies are needed to help us better understand how practitioners manage the school world of power, politics, and ethical behavior in regards, in this context, to strategic leadership initiatives. Researchers need to help frame ethical frameworks or models from which practitioners can best make decisions about their school or district.
Applications for schools?
Organizational Ethics Presentation - Emerson
It’s Complicated… The Relationship Between Organizations & Ethics Dov Emerson
“The thrust of Jewish ethicalimpulse is highly .”“accountability for sin andvirtue, innocence and guilt areapportioned … bothpenitence and restitution are .”-By The Sweat of Your Brow
“Villains werequicklyidentifiable bytheir dress, theirspeech, theiractions, and thecolor of theirhorses.”-D.Schnall, By TheSweat of Your Brow
“…the ambiguousand almostindistinguishableforms of evilresident in thecorporate structuresof … organizations.” “the perpetrators may be well-meaning, even righteous individuals who look neither like monsters nor devils but more like clerks and neighbors.” -D. Schnall, By the Sweat of Your Brow
“When“Arendt posited that…those in league with thedevil no longer spit fire or carry pitchforks.”– D.Schnall, By the Sweat of Your Brow
“Dangerous irrationalities promote actions that individuals would neverconsider on their own, but by the force of organizational routine, soonbecome standard procedure … the problem is exacerbated when theenterprise has a religious or nationalist mission.”
It is difficult even in principle to identify who is morallyresponsible for political outcomes.This is what I call the problem of many hands. - Thompson
The honor of the political leader … however, lies precisely in an exclusive personal responsibility for what he does, a responsibilityThe honor of he cannot andthe civil must not rejectservant is or transfer.vested in his - Max Weberability toexecuteconscientiouslythe order ofthe superiorauthority, exactly as if theorder agreedwith his ownconviction…
“Instead of functioning within well-defined jurisdictions andsettled lines of authority … instead of respecting a cleardistinction between politics and administrations, bureaucratsexercise discretionary authority either delegated to them, orsimply assumed by them, to shape and often to make policy.” -Dennis Thompson
In any organization, the man at the top must bear theresponsibility. -Richard Nixon
“No one element of thepopulation is responsible forall red tape or even most ofit … we all have a hand in it.”-Herbert Kaufman
Collective Responsibility #2As one strives to fix responsibility … again and again one is confronted… not with any individual, but with a host of individuals fused into avast, unapproachable, insensate organism. - Stillman
Ascribing responsibility to officials as persons rather thansimply as occupants of certain offices or as members of acollectivity… - Thompson
“Then your elders and your judges shall go out and they shall measure to the cities which are round about him that was slain.” -Deuteronomy 21:2“And they shall declare and say: Ourhands have not shed this blood andour eyes have not seen him.”-Deuteronomy 21:7
“There is no onebest ethicalclimate: firms canbe ethical in manyways. However, theeffectiveness ofan ethical climatehas importantimplications forthe ethicalbehavior of theorganization.”-Cullen, Stephans,& Victor
“School leaders are not “The few studiesas readily cognizant of that do exploremoral authority as a ethical dimensionsbasis for their work.” – indicate that schoolSergiovanni & Starratt leaders are not aware of the moral or ethical aspect of their work.” -Glanz“Principals “principalsdenied that the reportedchallenges they that, althoughfaced on a they madedaily basis ethicalwere ethical in choices, theynature.” had a hard time-Campbell defining „ethics.‟” - Klinker and Hackmann
In my heart I know most people who move into leadership positions want to be Q2leaders. But something happens to them when they actually make the move to theadministrator‟s office. Somehow some of them lose their sense of moraldirection, their notions of rightness and wrongness, their definitions of truth andjustice, and they frequently seek expedient solutions to problems without regard tounderlying ethical principles.Then, before long, they change into Q1s, Q3s, or Q4s. This presents a managementdevelopment problem for school districts: how do they recruit leaders who arecapable of and willing to be Q2 leaders, and how do they restructure theirdistrict‟s reward system to help leaders stay within the Q2 arena? -Duffy
Buildingan EthicofCaring “Although appropriate at some point in educational history, the traditional model of bureaucratic school organization in which organizational needs supersede individual interests is no longer appropriate.” -Glanz
Caring educators „frequently develop relationships that are the groundsfor motivating, cajoling, and inspiring others to excellence. Generallythoughtful and sensitive, they see nuances in people‟s efforts at goodperformance and acknowledge them;they recognize the diverse and individual qualities in people and deviseindividual standards of expectation, incentives, and rewards‟ -Marshall
However, strategicplanning, above all else, ispredicated most fundamentallyon an articulated, well-established and accepted vision, missio n and series of goals for the school that is filtered Articulation through and monitored by an ethical and Building moral lens. Creating Defining
The treatment of ethics Researchers need toas serious study for examine closely thebetter understanding role ethics plays instrategy in education strategy development.has been abysmally -Glanzinsufficient -Bowman