REVIEW ARTICLE                The CABA Building Intelligence                Quotient programme                David Katz*,...
278 Katz, Skopek            the background and key features of the BiQ               Ronald Zimmer, CABA president and chi...
CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 279                FIGURE 1 BiQ chart in report (screen capture)            ...
280 Katz, Skopek            visitors to meet the IT manager and observe us       of a commercial building portfolio using ...
CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 281                (either high with a check mark or low with an X)         ...
282 Katz, Skopek                                                                                                          ...
Katz.indd 283                                                                      TABLE 1 Power highlights of buildings –...
Katz.indd 284                                                                      TABLE 3 Performance highlights of build...
Katz.indd 285                                                                      TABLE 5 Performance highlights of build...
286 Katz, Skopek                100                                                           100                 90      ...
CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 287                 100                                         92          ...
288 Katz, Skopek            INTELLIGENT BUILDING SYSTEM FEATURES                         BUILDING/FACILITY MANAGEMENT     ...
CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 289                 100                                                     ...
290 Katz, Skopek                100                          100               100            100               100       ...
CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 291                software programmes. Broadband capabilities, the         ...
292 Katz, Skopek                Drivers for real estate transformation            FIGURE 13 Cisco Connected Real Estate mo...
CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 293                                         Green                           ...
294 Katz, Skopek            FIGURE 16 Common concepts of Green Globes and BiQ            all areas of buildings, both in t...
CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 295                The corporate-wide process included conference           ...
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Intelligent Buildings

  1. 1. REVIEW ARTICLE The CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme David Katz*, Jiri Skopek Building Intelligence Quotient Consortium, Toronto, Ontario, Canada The article describes the web-based Building Intelligence Quotient (BiQ) programme, developed for the Continental Automated Buildings Association (CABA). The initial BiQ beta testing and the BiQ corporate portfolio analysis are reported. The BiQ rates building automation systems in existing large office buildings and supports the integrated design and life-cycle costing processes. It contributes to the increasing convergence of green and intelligent building programmes. Using the BiQ for rating the intelligence of building automation contributes to the knowledge of building performance and enhances intelligence within the building industry. The BiQ reflects the convergence of information technology to all building and business enterprise systems contributing to the acquisition of knowledge that can positively guide future decision making and action. Using the BiQ and comparing the BiQs across corporate portfolios provides new ways that various stakeholders can learn from actual building performance and improve decision making for the automation systems of future buildings. The BiQ can be a key part of developing individual and collective intelligence in relation to building design and operation. The BiQ report is a feedback mechanism that shows what is working and what is not. The BiQ and other CABA programmes contribute to the notion of feedback and intelligence. Keywords: automation; BiQ; building; CABA; energy management; feedback; Green Globes; intelligence; quotient; rating INTRODUCTION a web-based building automation intelligence The Continental Automated Buildings Association rating programme that uses the Green Globes (CABA) is a trade association for building web platform already in use by the Building automation that performs collaborative research Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) and and seeks to educate the industry in the benefits other organizations in Canada. of the members’ products and services. CABA The BiQ is an educational and information members, which include many world-leading programme that is governed by the IIBC BiQ companies, can join its Integrated and Intelligent advisory committee members who are also Building Council (IIBC) which focuses on the independent consultants or CABA members larger building automation, while other members representing their companies. The BiQ is equally focus on the SMART Home. The IIBC selected supportive of all CABA member intelligent a consortium of three CABA members to products, technology and protocols to avoid develop the Building Intelligence Quotient (BiQ), any conflict of interest. This article describes *Corresponding author. E-mail: Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009), 277–295 doi:10.3763/inbi.2009.SI05 © 2009 Earthscan ISSN: 1750–8975 (print), 1756–6932 (online) www.earthscanjournals.comKatz.indd 277 10/9/2009 1:32:10 PM
  2. 2. 278 Katz, Skopek the background and key features of the BiQ Ronald Zimmer, CABA president and chief and presents an analysis of the results of beta executive officer, indicates that the BiQ ‘is testing on a building portfolio. designed to paint a clear picture of your building intelligence performance against best THE BUILDING INTELLIGENCE practices for design, installation and operation’ QUOTIENT PROGRAMME that ‘gives practical advice for improvements, Over the past 20 years there has been offers resources for making the upgrades, and considerable debate about the concept of an provides additional information on relevant ‘intelligent’ building. Work has been undertaken strategies and technologies’ (Katz, 2007). The in many forums to define and quantify the BiQ tool allows property owners and managers term; the end result of these efforts is that to receive a rating of a building’s intelligence an intelligent building is not just one thing. and provides design guidance to ensure Indeed, Clements-Croome (2004), Kell (2005), that all relevant issues are considered when Wong et al. (2005) and others emphasize the making a choice of subsystems and their level multiplicity of definitions of an ‘intelligent’ of integration. Owners and developers with building. However, a consistent notion within the multiple properties can also use the tool to term intelligent building is the use of technology assess and compare the building intelligence and processes to create a building that is safer systems in their portfolio. In addition, as more and more productive for its occupants and more and more buildings are BiQ verified, point operationally efficient for its owners. Moreover, scores will be aggregated in an anonymous the result of implementing these intelligent database, enabling users to analyse how their technologies and processes are buildings that building intelligence design performs in relation cost less to operate and are worth more to their both to the median and to buildings that are occupants and owners. For building projects similar in terms of type and region. that are owner occupied, such as corporate, The assessment process is conducted government and institutions, the benefits of an completely online and thereby provides owners intelligent building provide an immediate return- and managers with the ability to keep their on-investment in terms of higher employee assessment up to date as the buildings are productivity and reduced operating expenses. For retrofitted and building intelligence changes. commercial developments, intelligent building Building intelligence results in higher building projects are expected to result in above-market value, improved comfort, security, flexibility and rents, improved retention, higher occupancy reliability while reducing costs and increasing rates and lower operating expenses. productivity. Lower costs and higher property What, then, are the technologies and processes and lease values can result in aggressive return- required to create intelligent building projects, on-investments and are clear justifications for whether new construction or retrofit? The BiQ making buildings more intelligent. determines the technological requirements to make The BiQ assessment is based on asking a building ‘smarter’ by assessing the status of the a series of questions pertaining to integrated building’s intelligent technology. The BiQ rating tool design processes, the presence and integration has three key functions. It serves as: of intelligent building subsystems, failure and emergency operations, and building support ● a means to evaluate and measure the ‘value’ and maintenance. Based on this information, of intelligent building performance; the BiQ then generates a report providing ● a design guide for the integration of building benchmark ratings as well as recommendations intelligence in new building projects; and for improvements in the following categories: ● a building automation retrofit action plan tool. communication systems; building automation; Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 278 10/9/2009 1:32:11 PM
  3. 3. CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 279 FIGURE 1 BiQ chart in report (screen capture) annunciation, security and control systems; portfolio analysis services. Firms with more than facility management applications; and building one property undergoing BiQ assessment will be structure and systems (Figure 1). able to purchase a corporate portfolio analysis in order to compare all their buildings. Undertaken VALIDATION OF BiQ by BiQ professionals, validation and analysis will In order to ensure that the responses to the allow for a more personalized, detailed on-site questionnaire that produces the BiQ are truly examination of intelligent building systems. representative of the actual building automation, The initial validation on one of the early, high CABA has also introduced a validation, training BiQ-rated facilities was performed by the BiQ and award programme to complement the BiQ authors and it showed the benefits of this feedback programme. In order to create added value loop. Whereas most of the BiQ answers provided for BiQ users, CABA is implementing this by the facility manager were correct, the building independent validation procedure similar to automation staff member we reviewed them with the many other building rating systems. For an was more knowledgeable about each system and additional fee, validation will provide BiQ users pointed out some errors in the answers. While with an individualized site visit by a professional to it lowered the BiQ rating from 81 per cent to determine whether their property actually conforms 74 per cent, the validation site visit was beneficial to the BiQ criteria they entered into the website and well received. It enabled the staff member questionnaire. BiQ professionals will also provide responsible for building automation to take the Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 279 10/9/2009 1:32:11 PM
  4. 4. 280 Katz, Skopek visitors to meet the IT manager and observe us of a commercial building portfolio using the discussing the possible areas for convergence BiQ. The portfolio study was compiled from to provide more building automation features. individual building reports generated by the BiQ Bringing down the barriers of the ‘silos’ relating online assessment software during the initial to areas of IT network security and responsibility beta testing of the programme. The purpose of contributes to possible collaboration by different the corporate portfolio analysis was to: departments to increase the intelligence of the building. To meet the demand for BiQ users, BiQ ● compare the performance of multiple buildings validations and BiQ corporate portfolio analysis, and identify some common strengths and the BiQ Consortium is developing a BiQ training weaknesses; programme with an educational institute. The ● establish meaningful performance benchmarks programme will train and certify evaluators, against which all buildings may be evaluated. giving them the skills required to undertake BiQ evaluations and assign validation scores. The BiQ portfolio summary serves to show, at Professionals seeking BiQ evaluator certification a glance: may be engineers, system integrators or technical experts in building automation. ● the achievements and weaknesses of the Validation scores from the BiQ tool will various facilities; be used by supporting associations and the ● a means to inform the decision-making industry at large to assess the intrinsic value process, by highlighting strengths, red- of a building. Once a building is assigned flagging areas that may benefit from a closer either platinum, gold or silver validation by examination, and promoting the adoption of a BiQ professional, CABA will acknowledge realistic targets for improvement; the validation by issuing a plaque to the ● to be one component of a larger analysis of building’s owners or managers. Rated the corporate building portfolio that could buildings will be eligible to win awards. serve as a national or regional benchmarking The BiQ awards programme will recognize and comparison. buildings that exhibit excellence in building intelligence integration and that rate high on Each building has been given an individual BiQ CABA’s building intelligence assessment. The report containing recommendations to improve top three BiQ validated buildings will receive a its performance. This report highlights some CABA Intelligent Building Award at an annual common areas that may be considered for awards ceremony. improvement. Implementing these measures Currently, CABA is negotiating with the would raise the benchmarks further. Appraisal Institute, the International Facility Management Association and other associations RESULTS to endorse the tool. Utility regulators can use Report data for the individual buildings was the BiQ as part of their energy management inputted online at, but and demand response incentive programmes none of the beta test data has been third-party facilitated by enhanced and more intelligent verified. Figures 2–11 show the BiQ on the building automation systems. y axis for each building noted by a letter on the x axis. The BiQ rating is a percentage based on BETA TEST OF BiQ AND CORPORATE the number of points received for ‘yes’ answers PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS out of the possible 1000 point total. Tables 1–6 are During the spring of 2006, EDC Energy and for the individual sections of the BiQ programme. Environment Canada carried out an assessment They show areas where performance is consistent Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 280 10/9/2009 1:32:11 PM
  5. 5. CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 281 (either high with a check mark or low with an X) to the trend, there is an incongruousness in the for most of the buildings in this section of the low performance of building D (a relatively new BiQ assessment. In addition, at the bottom of building) and the high performance of building G each table, the buildings are given a ranking from (a relatively old building). The features that have 1 to 13 with duplicate numbers where scores for made building G a high-performance building this section are equivalent. could be considered for some of the low-scoring buildings such as building D. BUILDING SCORES The average BiQ score for the corporate portfolio SYSTEMS OVERVIEW buildings was 56.1 per cent (Figure 2). Building F , This section identifies the key systems and the newest building to be assessed (2006) and one functions that are found in the buildings. Buildings of the largest, illustrates the scope of intelligent F and K achieved the highest scores (Figure 4). buildings’ best practices. These building operators or their support staff possess the appropriate skills for all aspects of BiQ BUILDING SCORES AND AGE configuration and maintenance tasks such as There is a meaningful relationship between the diagnosing problems, performing repairs, automatic overall scores and building ages (Figure 3). and/or manual configuration for tenant charges, Most of the newer buildings achieved relatively custom applications for specific requirements of higher scores. Naturally, the newer technologies the buildings, monitoring of operations, etc. in building automation and management applications, such as power distribution to POWER DISTRIBUTION offices, voice and data systems to offices and All office equipment requires easy access to subsystem operation in degraded mode and electricity. A well-designed building provides building automation system (BAS), are factors flexible and easy access for changing electrical that improve the building’s performance. Contrary requirements. Building F achieved the highest 100 90 81 80 69 69 70 65 60 60 57 60 Ave.: 56.1% 54 50 50 45 44 41 40 35 30 20 10 0 A B C D E F G H K L M N P FIGURE 2 BiQ overall scores Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 281 10/9/2009 1:32:12 PM
  6. 6. 282 Katz, Skopek Ages Overall scores 90 80 81 70 69 69 65 60 60 57 54 50 50 45 44 40 41 40 35 30 28 28 26 25 22 22 23 20 10 10 3 1 0 A B C D E F G K L M N P FIGURE 3 Building scores and age 100 95 98 90 85 81 77 80 73 70 70 Ave.: 71% 62 63 60 58 60 53 49 50 40 30 20 10 0 A B C D E F G H K L M N P FIGURE 4 Systems overview sub-scores performance in this regard (100 per cent) and and reference websites that provide White building E achieved the lowest score (20 per cent) Papers and further information on the specific (Figure 5). The BiQ report provides ‘opportunities features of building automation. The following for improvement’ and hyperlinks to educational items are some of the common ‘opportunities Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 282 10/9/2009 1:32:12 PM
  7. 7. Katz.indd 283 TABLE 1 Power highlights of buildings – power distribution Building Code A B C D E F G H K L M N P Building support isolated ground × × ✓ × ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ × ✓ ✓ ✓ × Building unaffected by sources of interference × × ✓ × × ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Building’s distribution power managed in secured room ✓ ✓ ✓ × × ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ UPS capable of supporting normal office operations ✓ ✓ × ✓ × ✓ × ✓ × ✓ × ✓ × Sufficient stand-by power for office × ✓ ✓ ✓ × ✓ × × × ✓ × ✓ × Building generates power even when the grid is functional × ✓ × × × ✓ × × × × × × × Building Rank 11 5 7 12 13 1 6 4 7 2 7 2 7 TABLE 2 Performance highlights of buildings – voice and data systems Building Code A B C D E F G H K L M N P Isolated technical ground ✓ ✓ × × ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ × ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Separation between power wiring and data ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Communications cabling managed in secured rooms × × × × × × × × × × × × × Power failure transfer × ✓ ✓ × × ✓ × ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Resilient external communications × ✓ ✓ × × ✓ × ✓ ✓ ✓ × ✓ ✓ Building Rank 7 11 4 13 12 1 7 6 9 1 9 4 1 Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009) CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 28310/9/2009 1:32:12 PM
  8. 8. Katz.indd 284 TABLE 3 Performance highlights of buildings – intelligent building system features Building code A B C D E F G H K L M N P Detection of intrusion at the site perimeter × ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ × ✓ × × × × × Monitoring alarms by a corporate central facility ✓ ✓ × × × ✓ × ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 284 Katz, Skopek Retention policy for archiving video recordings × ✓ ✓ ✓ × ✓ ✓ × ✓ × × ✓ ✓ Leak – moisture detection on water-handling systems × × × × × × ✓ × ✓ × × ✓ × Broadcast pre-recorded messages by central fire alarm × ✓ ✓ × ✓ × × × × × ✓ ✓ ✓ Humidity control Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009) × × ✓ ✓ × ✓ × × ✓ × × ✓ × Building Rank 11 7 5 12 9 1 3 6 2 10 13 3 8 TABLE 4 Performance highlights of buildings – building/facility management Building code A B C D E F G H K L M N P Work order reporting to/from PDA devices ✓ ✓ × × × × × × × ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Equipment runtime and maintenance alarm integration × ✓ × × × ✓ × × ✓ × ✓ × × Utility sub-metering of tenants × × × × × ✓ ✓ × ✓ × × × ✓ Water sub-metering of major uses or tenants × × × × × ✓ ✓ × ✓ × × × × Building Rank 12 6 13 9 9 1 2 11 3 5 7 7 410/9/2009 1:32:12 PM
  9. 9. Katz.indd 285 TABLE 5 Performance highlights of buildings – subsystem operation in degraded mode Building Code A B C D E F G H K L M N P HVAC ability to meet the failure/emergency operations × ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ × × ✓ ✓ Fire system ability to meet the failure/emergency operations × ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ × × ✓ ✓ Automatic/manual recon fig. after partial failure in security system × ✓ ✓ × ✓ ✓ ✓ × ✓ × ✓ ✓ ✓ Automatic/manual recon fig. after partial failure in fire system × ✓ ✓ × ✓ ✓ ✓ × ✓ × ✓ ✓ ✓ Building Rank 12 1 1 10 9 1 1 8 1 13 11 6 7 TABLE 6 Performance highlights of buildings in subsystem operation – a building automation environment Building code A B C D E F G H K L M N P Network access interaction with other systems ✓ ✓ × ✓ × ✓ × ✓ ✓ ✓ × ✓ ✓ Remote access from offsite ✓ ✓ × ✓ × ✓ ✓ × ✓ ✓ × ✓ ✓ BMS equipments ability to share a common user interface ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ × ✓ × × ✓ ✓ × ✓ ✓ BMS equipments options for user authentication ✓ ✓ × ✓ × ✓ × × ✓ ✓ × ✓ ✓ Same kind of termination equipment utilized for all cables × ✓ ✓ × × ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ × ✓ ✓ Structured cabling design based on TIA recommendation × ✓ × × × ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ × × ✓ × Building Rank 8 3 11 10 13 1 6 5 2 8 12 4 7 Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009) CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 28510/9/2009 1:32:12 PM
  10. 10. 286 Katz, Skopek 100 100 90 86 86 80 74 70 70 62 60 Ave.: 60.3% 52 52 52 52 50 42 40 36 30 20 20 10 0 A B C D E F G H K L M N P FIGURE 5 Power distribution sub-scores for improvement’ that were generated for this with 45 per cent, achieved the lowest score. This section by the BiQ reports: section evaluates the following infrastructure for these applications within the buildings: technical ● isolated ground power distribution; ground isolation, suitable separation between ● distribution power cabling managed in secured power wiring and data cabling to minimize rooms; electromagnetic interference, dedicated rooms ● UPS capability to support normal office operations; for data and telephone interconnection, passing ● protection against sources of interference; communications link from building to the common ● sufficient standby power to maintain full office carriers through a secured route, etc. (Table 2). operations; ● sufficient fuel for standby power to operate CONNECTIVITY OPTIONS for the required time frame. The volume of data being transmitted across internal and external business networks has VOICE AND DATA SYSTEMS TO OFFICES grown exponentially. Communications between Communications infrastructure is crucial to today’s the buildings and the outside world can be business operations, irrespective of the nature of achieved using many different technologies and the business. In a suitable design, systems must communications media. These links can be used be sized and designed to maintain the required to transmit voice, data and images. This section separation between voice and data cable and wiring explores the range of options available within the systems to minimize electromagnetic interference. buildings independently of the applications they Current trends are towards a convergence between may serve. Many of the options described may data, which can include telephony and computer not be needed unless the building has particular network data. Such cabling can also be used to carry needs, therefore the absence of these individual video, as in television or surveillance applications. systems should not be regarded as a weakness According to Figure 6, eight building scores are in the building’s system. The average score is above the average (81.8 per cent) and building D, 47.3 per cent (Figure 7). Building G achieved the Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 286 10/9/2009 1:32:12 PM
  11. 11. CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 287 100 92 100 100 100 92 90 85 82 82 78 78 Ave.: 81.8% 80 70 70 60 60 50 45 40 30 20 10 0 A B C D E F G H K L M N P FIGURE 6 Voice and data systems sub-scores 100 92 90 80 75 76 70 60 60 56 50 44 40 40 40 Ave.: 47.3% 40 33 30 30 30 20 10 0 0 A B C D E F G H K L M N P FIGURE 7 Connectivity options for the building sub-scores highest score (92 per cent) whereas building L ● private satellite link, micro-wave link or had a score of zero in this section. wireless link; The following are some suggestions for ● common carrier-based broadband; improving the buildings’ performance that were ● private third party-based broadband; generated for this section by the BiQ reports: ● privately owned broadband. Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 287 10/9/2009 1:32:12 PM
  12. 12. 288 Katz, Skopek INTELLIGENT BUILDING SYSTEM FEATURES BUILDING/FACILITY MANAGEMENT Intelligent systems within a building relate to APPLICATIONS electronic controls that interact with each other, An intelligent building can help those responsible for example, access control systems, lighting for operating the building to use enhanced control systems and surveillance systems. tools to manage the building. Thus, intelligent The ability of an alarm system to influence buildings are capable of reporting when lamps or the activities of the surveillance system, or HVAC filters need to be replaced. In this survey, of a fire system to influence the actions of five buildings scored greater than 43.3 per cent, the lighting control system, are examples of the average score (Figure 9). Building F achieved interaction between systems leading to ‘greater’ the highest score (85 per cent) and building C the intelligence. The following section is designed lowest score (20 per cent). The graph shows a to probe the existence and effectiveness of low level of building/facility management in most these types of systems. The average score of the buildings. The buildings’ performance in this category is 51.6 per cent (Figure 8). could be improved by integrating building/facility Building F achieved the highest score (68 per administrative and maintenance applications cent) and building M the lowest score (29 per such as these opportunities that were generated cent). The following opportunities that were for this section by the BiQ reports: generated for this section by the BiQ reports and may be considered for improvement of ● work order generation through on-line, web- the buildings: enabled user interface; ● work order processing using PDA-type ● access control technologies; devices; ● intrusion detection alarm; ● equipment runtime and maintenance alarm ● monitoring and annunciation; integration; ● building automation system; ● scheduled or predicted maintenance ● condition monitoring. requirements; 100 90 80 68 70 59 60 61 60 60 51 54 48 46 49 50 Ave.: 51.6% 45 42 40 29 30 20 10 0 A B C D E F G H K L M N P FIGURE 8 Intelligent building system features sub-scores Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 288 10/9/2009 1:32:12 PM
  13. 13. CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 289 100 85 90 78 80 74 70 60 51 50 46 41 Ave.: 43.3% 40 29 48 28 30 30 30 22 20 20 10 0 A B C D E F G H K L M N P FIGURE 9 Building/facility management sub-scores ● database recording related to fire and life ● ensure that there is automatic or manual safety apparatus, ventilation dampers, reconfiguration after partial system failure of circulating fans and filters. the HVAC, lighting, security and fire alarm equipment. SUBSYSTEM OPERATION IN DEGRADED MODE SUBSYSTEM OPERATION IN A BUILDING Previous sections of the BiQ survey have AUTOMATION ENVIRONMENT identified a number of different subsystems This section addresses the specific intelligent required to maintain the proper functioning of subsystems that operate within a building that a building. Over time, many subsystems will also has an extensive BAS. The interaction experience occasional and partial failures. Proper between these various systems, as well as the planning and testing may enable such failures requirements for each to have communications, to go unnoticed by building occupants. Thus, power and sensors, leads to duplication and for example, if the power system fails but the the possibility of repeated measurements of building remains illuminated, most occupants common parameters. An intelligent building can would not recognize the situation as a failure. reduce or eliminate such redundancies. The In terms of subsystem operation in degraded average score for the portfolio is 57.6 per cent mode, seven buildings scored above the average (Figure 11). Building F achieved the highest score (72.3 per cent) (Figure 10). Building L had score of 95 per cent whereas building E scored the lowest score (21 per cent). The following are zero. Table 6 shows how the buildings were some specific suggestions for improving the rated for the section on subsystem interaction buildings’ performance that were generated for performance opportunities. this section by the BiQ reports: INTEROPERABILITY AND ● HVAC, lighting, security and fire alarm INFORMATION EXCHANGE equipment should meet the failure and The interaction between the various subsystems can emergency operations requirements; provide interoperability to the building automation Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 289 10/9/2009 1:32:13 PM
  14. 14. 290 Katz, Skopek 100 100 100 100 100 100 90 86 79 80 68 Ave.: 72.3% 70 61 57 60 50 39 40 29 30 21 20 10 0 A B C D E F G H K L M N P FIGURE 10 Subsystem operation in degraded mode sub-scores 100 95 90 83 82 80 81 80 71 70 61 60 56 56 Ave.: 57.6% 50 44 40 30 24 16 20 10 0 0 A B C D E F G H K L M N P FIGURE 11 Subsystem operation in a building automation environment sub-scores systems and can play a major role in the overall of information and building automation systems. intelligence of a building. Both the IIBC efforts and CABA and industry leaders created oBIX (www.obix. the BiQ programme promote open, rather than org), an industry-wide initiative to define XML-based the historical closed, proprietary building automation and web services-based mechanisms for building systems. CABA members established a committee to control systems. oBIX will allow the building control work on creating a standard to allow the interoperability systems to exchange information with the enterprise Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 290 10/9/2009 1:32:13 PM
  15. 15. CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 291 software programmes. Broadband capabilities, the and construction practice. An important CABA so-called ‘fourth utility,’ are actually already in most initiative is to understand the relationship between buildings and allow for the possibility of information these two performance requirements. The exchange (Figure 12). recently released CABA Bright Green Buildings report Using information exchange and building (Moreno et al., 2008) concludes that this research intelligence provides feedback to owners, operators ‘provides documented evidence to educate and and occupants of the building. This convergence influence end-users, building owners, architects of the information technology revolution provides and contractors that a “greener building” can significantly greater energy-efficiency and demand- be achieved using intelligent technology and response capabilities using the building automation that this “greening” will provide a tangible and intelligently. Such convergence is evident when significant return on investment’. The various companies like Cisco adapt their Connected Real case studies in the report show that: ‘Ultimately, Estate model to address sustainable energy and the implementation of intelligent technologies buildings (Figure 13). will cost less than traditional technologies, because lifetime operating costs are significantly CONVERGENCE OF GREEN AND lower and labour costs are also likely to drop INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS significantly. This concept – intelligent, green Cole and Brown (2009) illustrate how the concepts and profitable – is what we call a bright green that collectively characterize an intelligent building.’ building are related to green buildings and green Figure 14 captures the overlapping and building design, illustrating considerable overlap converging issues as viewed by those participating between these two current trends in design in the research for CABA (Moreno et al., 2008). Framework for connected real estate FIGURE 12 Framework for Connected Real Estate – using broadband to exchange information Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 291 10/9/2009 1:32:13 PM
  16. 16. 292 Katz, Skopek Drivers for real estate transformation FIGURE 13 Cisco Connected Real Estate model There is growing recognition that green Credits based on productivity and building rating systems should also address manpower utilization/performance, detailed intelligent building systems and life-cycle costs cost benefit analysis submissions, of a building to demonstrate the value where environmental information management, investment is made on intelligent systems versus carbon dioxide reductions, converged those with lowest first costs. In its discussion of integration benefits, operating and building rating systems, the report suggests that: maintenance cost savings, among others, will be capable of addressing functional A more productive approach would be to efficiencies of buildings more concretely. form an alliance with other such systems This will also stimulate valuable data in the industry that comprehensively streams to be generated that can address the intelligence aspect of be further utilized for more on-going buildings. CABA’s BiQ could be a strong performance assessments of buildings. contender in this regard, being the only (Moreno et al., 2008) tool currently available that is capable of measuring operational efficiency The suggested collaboration is noted in Figure 15. generated by active intelligence in In fact there are many areas of commonality buildings. Such a collaborative effort between a green building programme such as between LEED and BiQ could potentially Green Globes and the BiQ intelligent building result in a much wider and quantifiable programmes (Figure 16). As new information scale for measuring green performance. technology and the use of the Internet permeates Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 292 10/9/2009 1:32:13 PM
  17. 17. CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 293 Green Intelligent Bright Converged Networks Air & Energy Green Data collection, Energy management measurement & verification, Reduce GHG emissions diagnostics, sensors, Improve IAQ Asset management control, monitoring, Improve energy efficiency Space utilization remote monitoring etc. Waste to energy Integrated design process Water Sustainability-easier to Integrated Controls Reduce wastewater discharge maintain and built to last HVAC, lighting, energy, Lower contaminant release Renewable energy AV, security, energy, Waste & Remediation fire & life safety, etc. Healthy and comfortable Reuse and recycle products environment (IEQ) Reduce waste disposal Infrastructure More brown fields instead of green "Green" loans Structured cabling fields Green architecture Higher resale or lease solution, wireless systems, rates unified communication system Water Management Monitoring and metering Source: Frost & Sullivan FIGURE 14 Bright Green Buildings FIGURE 15 Collaboration of building rating tools Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 293 10/9/2009 1:32:16 PM
  18. 18. 294 Katz, Skopek FIGURE 16 Common concepts of Green Globes and BiQ all areas of buildings, both in the traditional programme report provides instant feedback business enterprise software and hardware and recommendations for improvement with systems and the direct digital control building appropriate hyperlinks to websites for additional automation systems, the opportunities to use information. The BiQ validation process the information for multiple sustainable purposes improves feedback to the building staff with a increases. site visit by an independent professional for a The BiQ and the green building programmes knowledgeable review of the specific answers are complementary as they both approach the and recommendations for improvement. For issue of features and cost effectiveness. In both a corporation with many BiQ-rated buildings, new construction and existing building retrofits the portfolio summary serves to show, at a and upgrades, the programmes will help facilitate glance, the achievements and weaknesses of its an integrated design process needed to make the various facilities and can improve the decision- buildings more intelligent and sustainable. ASHRAE making process by highlighting strengths and has released the new High Performance Building red-flagging areas that may benefit from a closer Standard. Canadian Standards Association (CSA) is examination. If the BiQ assessment and portfolio developing a Sustainable Building Standard. CABA reporting were to be conducted on a regular programmes like the BiQ will contribute to these basis, it would also serve to benchmark progress intelligent building standards. as part of a cycle of continual improvement. Another benefit of the BiQ usage across CONCLUSIONS corporate portfolios is that participants working This article describes the development, key for the same firm are able to share the common features and testing of the BiQ. The BiQ experience of participating in this rating process. Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 294 10/9/2009 1:32:19 PM
  19. 19. CABA Building Intelligence Quotient programme 295 The corporate-wide process included conference Katz, D., 2007, ‘CABA unveils enhanced Building Intelligence calls to review the BiQ questions, the issue Quotient’, iHomes and Buildings 4(2). Available at: http://caba. of client confidentiality of information and suggestions for improvement on the survey [accessed June 2009]. forms. These calls produced additional benefits Kell, A.R., 2009, The Global Development of Intelligent and Green as the participants, while working for the same Buildings. I&G Systems, Watford. Available at: www.igsystems. global corporation, were located all over North America and most did not know each other. The Moreno, J., Khaund, K. and Hari, G., 2008, Bright Green Buildings, BiQ portfolio process provided the opportunity for Convergence of Green and Intelligent Buildings, research by Frost them to discuss building automation problems, and Sullivan, CABA, client expectations, building automation service Wong, J.K.W., Li, H. and Wang, S.W., 2005, ‘Intelligent building providers, and proprietary versus open protocol research: A review’, Automation in Construction 14, 143–159. alternatives with others in their corporation and profession. This dialogue and exchange BIBLIOGRAPHY on the building automation performance and Cisco Inc, 2009, Connected Real Estate executive briefing improvement opportunities begins to illustrate presentation, Green Buildings and Smart Buildings USB Drive the value and benefits of benchmarking and provided at Realcomm, Chicago, Il, 23 June. Many Cisco papers feedback to increase intelligence in buildings. on intelligent buildings at index.html. REFERENCES Sinclair, K., Many papers on intelligent buildings at Automated Clements-Croome, D., 2004, ‘Intelligent buildings’, in D. Clements- Buildings website, Croome (ed), Intelligent Buildings: Design Management and Sinopoli, J., 2007, Smart Buildings Handbook, A Handbook for the Operation, London, Thomas Telford, 3–24. Design and Operation of Building Technology Systems. Many papers Cole, R.J. and Brown, Z., 2009, ‘Reconciling human and automated on Smart Buildings at intelligence in the provision of occupant comfort’, Intelligent Skopek, J., 2007, BiQ – Sample Portfolio Summary, ECD Energy and Buildings International 1(1), 39–55. Environment Canada Ltd. Intelligent Buildings International 1 (2009)Katz.indd 295 10/9/2009 1:32:20 PM