Juvenile corrections pp week 11


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Juvenile corrections pp week 11

  1. 1. CHAPTER THIRTEENStatic and Dynamic Security in Juvenile Corrections
  2. 2. Static and Dynamic Security• The primary mission of juvenile corrections is the long-term protection of the public and a key element of that role is ensuring a safe and secure correctional environment• There are a number of significant challenges to rehabilitating youth• There are increasing numbers of juveniles who are gang- involved and some facility officials report that over half of their population has some degree of gang affiliation• These gang-involved juveniles might actively undermine the staff authority and attempt to derail the rehabilitative efforts of the staff, using force or the threat of violence• There are a significant number of youth who have mental health problems in juvenile corrections• Recruiting and retaining juvenile correctional officers who can balance the roles of security and rehabilitation is difficult
  3. 3. Static and Dynamic Security• There are two dimensions to security: static (or physical) security and dynamic security (the activities of the staff members) – also known as active or passive security• Static (or physical/passive) security focuses upon the physical structure and layout of a facility and the use of technology to enhance the ability of the counselors and staff to supervise residents• This includes razor wire fences, riot gates, iron bars, internal and perimeter fences, and all other physical means of controlling the residents, including closed circuit television monitors• Dynamic security, on the other hand, refers to the activities of the juvenile correctional officers (JCO) and support staff in maintaining order, resolving resident-on-resident conflicts (or disruptive behaviors) before they escalate, helping them develop better problem-solving skills, assigning youth to the most appropriate facility and housing unit, and ensuring that these residents have enough meaningful activities to keep them constructively occupied.• Using this approach means that some serious or potentially violent juvenile offenders may receive out-of-home placements that are ill suited to their security needs if improperly classified• Adolescents require more structure and planned activities than their adult counterparts in order to keep them constructively occupied• Dynamic security involved doing the routine activities such as resident and cell searches, population counts, as well as following agency protocols for supervising the youth• Dynamic security is adaptable, flexible, resilient, elastic and relies less on technology and more on people
  4. 4. Static and Dynamic Security• Both dynamic and static security are interdependent because most correctional facilities cannot be operated without fences and brick and mortar buildings to house the residents• Even the most secure operations will not be effective unless the JCOs are well- trained, alert, and observant, have above average interpersonal and communication skills, high levels of integrity, are positive roles models for the youth, and follow all of the safety and security protocols and procedures• Nine elements of a healthy security system: • Clear understanding of the agency’s mission • Well-structured and well-staff headquarters • A comprehensive institution program • High-quality personnel management structure • Careful matching of the institution with a certain type of resident • The availability of appropriate equipment • The availability of programs that enhance security • The availability of information management systems to assist in security operations • The existence of a variety of security systems that act jointly to prevent violence, control contraband, and prevent escapes
  5. 5. Juvenile Correctional Officers: The Foundation of Dynamic Security• Dynamic security rests upon the talent of the facility administrators, supervisors, the JCOs, and the staff members who support the officers• Day-to-day supervision of juvenile offenders in most training schools is provided by low-paid workers without college education or in-depth training in youth development• Today’s juvenile correctional officers are likely to attend a month or more of full time academy training before working their first shift• An overriding goal is to give these officers the knowledge, skills, and abilities they need to ensure the safety and security or a facility• The Kentucky Division of Juvenile Justice (2008) provided the following training to cadets in their seven-week academy: conflict resolution, cultural diversity, behavior management, crisis prevention, physical skills, first aid/CPR, de- escalation, self awareness and team building, gang awareness, contraband and searches, human sexuality, report writing, group dynamics, safety, adolescent substance abuse, universal precautions, adolescent development, communications, and administration• Juvenile correctional officers typically serve a probationary period for the first six months or year and correctional field training officers mentor them
  6. 6. Juvenile Correctional Officers: The Foundation of Dynamic Security• The daily tasks of a JCO include: • Conducting room searches • Initiating pat downs and searches of residents • Carrying out perimeter patrols • Logging resident movement • Conducting resident counts • Confronting wards about their behavior • Leading resident self help groups • Controlling the use of tools and restricted items • Screening visitors • Monitoring, searching, and censoring incoming mail• These activities are critical at reducing the number of weapons or other contraband• Most institutions provide a minimum of 40 hours of ongoing training each year• They must remain up-to-date on use of force, changing policies, the correct use of new equipment and are in compliance with first aid and CPR certification• Most of the training is delivered in-house, but staff members will also attend annual meetings• Some juvenile officers take on specialized roles within their facilities, such as gang investigator, canine handler, or corrections emergency response team, which require additional training
  7. 7. Classification• Case managers, case workers, counselors, or JCOs are responsible for classifying inmates so they are placed in facilities that best match their needs for security• In smaller units with only one living unit, classification may be non-existent• Offenders are first classified at reception by their physical and psychological functioning and social and legal background• Their current offense, the detention or disposition length, previous criminal history, prior institutional history, age at first arrest, gang involvement, educational or employment history, family related factors, and drug or alcohol use are all used to create a classification score – the higher the score, the higher the degree of security he will be placed in• In addition to the youth’s facility assignment (external classification), they also use internal classification to determine housing unit and program participation
  8. 8. Classification• Four components of custody classification: • Initial screening – screen youth immediately after their assignments to secure confinement; use of checklists regarding the youth’s medical and mental health needs, substance abuse history, and other information that might indicate the need to place the youth in special housing units for further assessment by medical and mental health staff. The major objective is to ensure that youth with severe mental health, medical and other management issues are identified so they can be separated • Initial classification – identifies standard risk factors for escape or institutional misconduct; places emphasis on their current offenses, prior juvenile records, success or failures on probation, and various measures of community stability (e.g. age, school attendance, family structure) • Reclassification – reassesses the youth’s initial classification and reviews the first 60 to 90 days in a facility; places more emphasis on institutional behavior and less on the youth’s prior offenses and criminal history; allows youth with positive behavior patterns to be placed in lower custody levels and thus will conserve expensive high security bed space • Program needs assessment – each youth’s need for services and treatment must be assessed more in-depth; data is used to assign a youth to a facility, housing unit, or program that provides the most appropriate and most needed services commensurate with the youth’s custody level
  9. 9. Case Management• The case management process begins shortly after juveniles are admitted to housing units• Planning for the youth’s release generally starts after the juvenile’s admission to a facility – the goal being to get the youth to focus on his release and enhancing his knowledge or skills in order to reduce his time in custody as well as the likelihood of future recidivism• Case managers assess the youth’s needs; develop a service plan with the youth, outlining and prioritizes the services that the youth requires; and monitors the youth’s progress and advocate for the youth• Treatment resources in juvenile corrections are often scarce and case managers are often hesitant to refer a youth to a treatment program if the youth is not fully committed to participating• Once case plans are established, they are sometimes neglected and they are sometimes revisited and new case plans are established that take into account the youth’s progress• The case manager is also responsible for advocating on behalf of the youth, testifying or making recommendation in court on their behalf, securing priority placements at programs with waiting lists, negotiating pro bono services for the youth, overcoming bureaucratic obstacles, and advocating for changes that impact all juvenile offenders
  10. 10. Programs and People• The most critical components of a successful, highly secure institution are the programs and the people• Not all juveniles are involved in activities that constructively occupy their time• The average stay in most places is measured in days, so there is little incentive to develop long-term rehabilitative programs• Treatment programs focus on five basic areas: (a) educational programs; (b) substance abuse treatment; (c) vocational training; (d) life skills; and (e) recreation and spiritual needs• It is often easier to get youth to participate in recreational activities than it is to engage them in more formal rehabilitative programs• Many residents have histories of failure with school systems and are sometimes resistant to classroom learning• Dynamic security is fashioned on the knowledge, skills, and abilities of the juvenile correctional officers and the staff who support them• Administrators rely upon the expertise of the officers to conduct the day- to-day supervision of offenders, and engage in activities that reduce the possibility of violence
  11. 11. Static Security: Architectural Design• Newly constructed juvenile correctional facilities have a much different look than the traditional institutions• The new generation model utilizes rooms that are arranged around the perimeter walls of the housing unit – the center unit is a multipurpose area and is used for recreation, meals, group meetings, and education• It provides more open space and enables the youth to be housed more efficiently so officers are able to supervise the juveniles more closely and staff members can engage in more effective problem-solving with the residents• These living units enhance staff-resident interaction and are associated with less disruptive behavior and fewer assaults• Windows are made using thick layers of Lexan or similar glass and this has eliminated the need for iron bars• Furnishing that were once used as weapons, such as tables or chairs, are now bolted to the floor• Fixtures such as sinks and toilets that were once constructed of porcelain are now made of stainless steel• Residents have the ability to flush their own toilets or turn on their lights but officers can turn off electricity or water to an individual room if a juvenile is disruptive• Low security youth sometimes live in dormitory settings that house a large number of residents in a relatively small space, which may contribute to misconduct• Many youth actually prefer to be housed in a single or shared room because it increases privacy and reduces the likelihood that they will be assaulted
  12. 12. Technology and Security• Closed circuit television or video has enabled JCOs to increase security, order, and safety and can be programmed to detect the types of movements associated with assaults or to warn officers if there are too many people in a room• Youth knowing that their actions are being recorded may deter some violent acts• Video surveillance also allows the officers to monitor the internal and external perimeters of the facility and this reduces the needs for perimeter patrols – freeing staff for other activities• Hand-held and walk-through metal detectors quickly check for contraband hidden in incoming mail or packages and can scan fully clothes inmates for contraband• Backscatter X-rays conduct unobtrusive searches for both hard and soft materials, enabling quicker and more efficient searches that are less intrusive• Facilities monitor a resident’s phone calls in order to reduce the flow of contraband into a facility, gang involvement, and crime and can be recorded in case of plans of illegal or disruptive activities• There are restrictions on incoming mail and packages, requiring incoming packages to come from a select list of vendors, where family members pay for these approved goods and they are sent directly to the facility without passing through unauthorized hands• Some facilities are experimenting with services that charge family members to send emails to a resident; the emails are then printed out for the residents, reducing the need to search envelopes for drugs, money, or other contraband• Moreover, since officers have electronic access to mail, they can conduct searches for words that are related to illegal activity
  13. 13. Technology and Security• Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFID) are electric label or transmitters that can be read by computers or other sensors; residents wear tamper-proof wristbands that enable officers to continuously track residents’ movements and they can also be used to confirm when youth receive medications or meals• RFIDs have been used to track controlled items in correctional facilities, such as weapons, keys, tools, or computer equipment• One problem is unauthorized cell phones in the hands of the residents, which are used to intimidate witnesses in the community, conduct unlawful activities, arrange escapes, or other institutional misconduct; gang-involved residents can also carry out their operations using these phones• Automated fingerprint readers enable staff to identify new admissions or current residents quickly and with less mess than ink fingerprinting• Automated case files allow officers to access information quickly without the need for a paper file, allowing admissions, transfers, and discharges to occur more quickly, and with fewer errors• JCOs have access to intercoms and radios, and personal alarms can be activated in emergencies• Chemical agents help officers the residents while reducing the need for physically subduing them• Pepper spray and tear gas can be used in launchers and reduces the use of physical force and injuries