Ppt Ch 2


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Ppt Ch 2

  1. 2. Leadership Involves an Interaction Between the Leader, the Followers, and the Situation <ul><li>“ The crowd will follow a leader who marches twenty steps in advance; but if he is a thousand steps in front of them, they do not see and do not follow him.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Georg Brandes </li></ul>Chapter 2
  2. 3. Looking at Leadership Through Several Lenses <ul><li>Studying only leaders provides just a partial view of the leadership process. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership depends on several factors, including the situation and the followers , not just the leader’s qualities. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is more than just the kind of person the leader is or the things the leader does . </li></ul><ul><li>The clearest picture of the leadership process occurs only when you use all three lenses to understand it. </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Interactional Framework for Analyzing Leadership
  4. 5. The Interactional Framework for Analyzing Leadership (continued) <ul><li>Depicts leadership as a function of three elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A particular leadership situation scenario can be examined using each level of analysis separately. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examining interactions in the area of overlaps can lead to better understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership is the result of complex interactions among the leader, the followers, and the situation. </li></ul>
  5. 6. The Interactional Framework for Analyzing Leadership (continued) <ul><li>Leader-Member Exchange Theory describes two kinds of relationships that occur among leaders and followers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-group members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out-group members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LMX theory has broadened to include entire continuum of relationships that leaders may have with members. </li></ul><ul><li>The theory looks at the nature of the relationship between the leader and the followers. </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Leader <ul><li>Individual aspects of the leadership equation: </li></ul><ul><li>Unique personal history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective leaders differ from their followers , and from ineffective leaders on elements such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality traits, cognitive abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills, values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Another way personality can affect leadership is through temperament. </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Leader (continued) <ul><li>Leaders appointed by superiors may have less credibility and may get less loyalty. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders elected or emerging by consensus from ranks of followers are seen as more effective. </li></ul><ul><li>A leader’s experience or history in a particular organization is usually important to her or his effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>The extent of follower participation in leader’s selection may affect a leader’s legitimacy. </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Followers <ul><li>Certain aspects of followers affect the leadership process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturity levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workers who share a leader’s goals and values will be more motivated to do their work. </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Followers (continued) <ul><li>The number of followers reporting to a leader can have significant implications. </li></ul><ul><li>Other relevant variables include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follower’s trust in the leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follower’s confidence or lack thereof in leader’s interest in their well-being. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Changing Roles for Followers <ul><li>The leader-follower relationship is in a period of dynamic change . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased pressure to function with reduced resources . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend toward greater power sharing and decentralized authority in organizations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in complex problems and rapid changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Followers can become much more proactive in their stance toward organizational problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Followers can become better skilled at “ influencing upward ,” flexible and open to opportunities . </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Situation <ul><li>Leadership often makes sense only in the context of how the leader and followers interact in a given situation. </li></ul><ul><li>The situation may be the most ambiguous aspect of the leadership framework. </li></ul>“ You’ve got to give loyalty down, if you want loyalty up.” ~ Donald T. Regan, Former CEO and White House chief of staff
  12. 13. Are Good Women Leaders Hard to Find? <ul><li>Women are taking on leadership roles in greater numbers than ever before. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems still exist that constrain the opportunity for capable women to rise to the highest leadership roles in organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that there are no statistically significant differences between men’s and women’s leadership styles. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Are Good Women Leaders Hard to Find? (continued) <ul><li>Differences that were found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women had significantly lower well-being scores . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s commitment to the organizations they worked for was more guarded than that of their male counterparts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women were more likely to be willing to take career risks by going to new areas of the company where women had not been before. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Research on Second-Generation Managerial Women <ul><li>Research suggests that many women appear to be succeeding because of characteristics originally considered too feminine for effective leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to use interactive leadership , based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing others’ self-worth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief that the best performance results out of satisfaction at work and higher sense of self-worth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Style developed due to women’s socialization experiences and career paths. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. The Shift Toward More Women Leaders <ul><li>Factors that explain the shift toward more women leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women themselves have changed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership roles have changed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational practices have changed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture has changed. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Leadership and Management Revisited Leaders Managers Innovate Administer Develop Maintain Inspire Control Long-term view Short-term view Ask what and why Ask how and when Originate Initiate Challenge the status quo Accept the status quo Do the right things Do things right
  17. 18. Leader-Follower-Situation Interactions <ul><li>Leaders create environments where follower’s innovations and creative contributions are welcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders encourage growth and development in their followers beyond the scope of the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders are generally more interested in the big picture of followers’ work than managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders motivate followers through more personal and intangible factors . </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders redefine the parameters of tasks and responsibilities . </li></ul>
  18. 19. Manager-Follower-Situation Interactions <ul><li>Managers are more likely to emphasize routinization and control of follower’s behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers tend to assess followers’ performance in terms of explicit, fairly specific job descriptions . </li></ul><ul><li>Managers motivate followers more with extrinsic , even contractual consequences . </li></ul><ul><li>Managers tend to accept the definitions of situations presented to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers are likely to affect change officially , through control tactics. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Leadership and Management as Solutions to Different Kinds of Problems <ul><li>Heifetz offers that we often face challenges for which the problem-solving resources already exist. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical problems – Though complex, there are expert solutions or experts available to solve them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive problems – They can only be solved by changing the system itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptive problems involve people’s values. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive leadership: Finding solutions requires the active engagement of people’s hearts and minds, not just the leader’s . </li></ul>
  20. 21. Leadership and Management as Solutions to Different Kinds of Problems (continued) <ul><li>A challenge is wholly or mostly adaptive in nature: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When people’s hearts and minds need to change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By a process of elimination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If there is continuing conflict among people struggling with the challenge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A crisis may be a reflection of an underlying or unrecognized adaptive problem. </li></ul></ul>What’s the work? Who does the work? Technical Applying current know-how Authorities Adaptive Discovering new ways The people facing the challenge
  21. 22. A Final Word <ul><li>Fairholm offers that an organization needs two different kinds of people at the helm: good leaders and good managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Kotter suggests the development of leader-managers . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be particularly important with regard to developing the talents of younger leader–managers . </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. There is no Simple Recipe for Effective Leadership <ul><li>Leadership must always be assessed in the context of the leader, the followers, and the situation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A leader may need to respond to various followers differently in the same situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A leader may need to respond to the same follower differently in different situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers may respond to various leaders quite differently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers may respond to each other differently with different leaders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two leaders may have different perceptions of the same followers or situations. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Drawing Lessons From Experience <ul><li>The right behavior in one situation is not necessarily the right behavior in another situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Though unable to agree on the one best behavior in a given situation, agreement can exist on some clearly inappropriate behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Saying that the right behavior for a leader depends on the situation differs from saying it does not matter what the leader does. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Summary <ul><li>Leadership involves dynamic interaction between leaders and followers in a particular situation . </li></ul><ul><li>Study of leadership must include the followers and the situation . </li></ul><ul><li>The interactive nature of leader-followers-situation can help us better understand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The changing nature of the leader-follower relationship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The increasingly greater complexity of situations leaders and followers face. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good leadership can be enhanced by greater awareness of factors influencing the leadership process. </li></ul>