Ppt chapter 5


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Ppt chapter 5

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Intermediate Sanctions: Between Probation and IncarcerationMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Intermediate Sanctions New punishment options developed to fill the gap between traditional probation and traditional jail or prison sentences and to better match the severity of punishment to the seriousness of the crime. 5-2
  3. 3. Where and When Intermediate Sanctions Occur Front-end Programs: Punishment options for initial sentences more restrictive than traditional probation but less restrictive than jail or prison. Back-end Programs: Sanctions that move offenders from higher levels of control to lower ones for the final phase of their sentence. Trap-door/Side-door Programs : Emergency release options for special docket offenders, generally used to relieve prison overcrowding. Net-widening: Increasing the number of offenders sentenced to a higher level of restriction. It results in sentencing offenders to more restrictive sanctions than their offenses and characteristics warrant. 5-3
  4. 4. Net-widening Net-widening: Increasing the number of offenders sentenced to a higher level of restriction. It results in sentencing offenders to more restrictive sanctions than their offenses and characteristics warrant. By applying an additional sanction of, for example, community service, many minor law violators may have an undue burden added to their punishment. 5-4
  5. 5. Value Of Intermediate Sanctions Provide a means for offenders who are not dangerous to repay their victims and their communities Promote rehabilitation and reintegration of the offender into the community These things can be done at relatively low cost 5-5
  6. 6. Continued The National Council on Crime and Delinquency estimates that if only 80 percent of the nation’s incarcerated non- serious, nonsexual offender population were given intermediate sanctions, the United States could save $9.7 billion. 5-6
  7. 7. Average Annual Cost Of Correctional Options Boot camp $32,119 per year per participant Prison $28,646 per year per participant Jail $27,237 per year per participant Halfway house $18,000 per year per participant Day reporting $10,585 per year per participant Intensive parole supervision 8,318 per year per participant Remote-location monitoring $5,400 per year per participant Drug court $4,333 per year per participant Parole $3,402 per year per participant Intensive probation supervision $3,274 per year per participant Community service $2,759 per year per participant Probation $1,278 per year per participant House arrest $402 per year per participant 5-7
  8. 8. Types Of Intermediate Sanctions Intensive Supervision Probation (ISP) - Control of offenders in the community under strict conditions, by means of frequent reporting to a probation officer whose caseload is generally limited to 30 offenders.  Probably more than 254,000 people on ISP currently  Protect the community and deter the offender breaking the law  Thought to be more appropriate for high-risk offenders 5-8
  9. 9. Types of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued Drug Courts - A special court empowered to treat, sanction, and reward drug offenders with punishment more restrictive than regular probation but less severe than incarceration.  The nation’s first drug court was developed in Miami by Judge Herbert M. Klein in 1989.  Compared with other courts, drug courts are much less punitive and more healing and restorative in nature.  Three primary goals:  Reduce recidivism  Reduce substance abuse among participants  Rehabilitate participants 5-9
  10. 10. Drug Courts According to the National Association of Drug Court Professionals, we need drug courts because two-thirds of all adult arrestees and over half of juvenile arrestees test positive for illicit drugs at arrest. The national recidivism rate for drug offenses is nearly 67 percent. The first estimate of recidivism among a nationally representative sample of drug court graduates found that after one-year 83.6 percent had not been rearrested. After two years 72.5 percent had not been rearrested. 5-10
  11. 11. Types of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued Fines -Financial penalties used as a criminal sanction  One of the oldest forms of punishment  Minor misdemeanors, traffic offenses, and ordinance violations  Day fine – a financial penalty scaled both to the defendant’s ability to pay and the seriousness of the crime  Used heavily in Northern and Western Europe  Little research on effectiveness in reducing recidivism 5-11
  12. 12. Types Of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued Community Service - A sentence to serve a specified number of hours working in unpaid positions with nonprofit or tax supported agencies  Began in 1966 in Alameda County, California  Interchangeable with incarceration 5-12
  13. 13. Types Of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued Day Reporting Centers - A community correctional center to which an offender frequently reports to file a daily schedule with a supervision officer, showing how each hour will be spent  First developed in Great Britain in 1972  Hampden County (Springfield, Massachusetts) Sheriffs Department opened first DRC in U.S. in 1986 5-13
  14. 14. Types Of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued Remote-location monitoring - Technologies, including GPS and EM that probation and parole officers use to monitor remotely the location of offenders  In 1997, Florida was first state to use GPS to monitor sex offenders  Dr. Kathrine Johnson: “GPS technology allows offenders to be monitored as closely, some would say more closely, as they would be in prison, at a substantial cost savings to the public.” 5-14
  15. 15. Types Of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued Residential Community Centers - A medium-security correctional setting that resident offenders are permitted to leave regularly—unaccompanied by staff—for work, for educational or vocational programs, or for treatment in the community.  Also referred to as halfway houses  Estimates place more than 1,000 RCCs involving 30,000 adult residents are in operation 5-15
  16. 16. Types Of Intermediate Sanctions - Continued Boot Camps - A short institutional term of confinement that includes a physical regimen designed to develop self-discipline, respect for authority, responsibility, and a sense of accomplishment.  First adult programs opened in Oklahoma and Georgia  Target young first-time offenders who have been convicted of nonviolent crimes  Use of correctional boot camps is on the decline 5-16
  17. 17. Community Corrections A philosophy of correctional treatment that embraces  decentralization of authority from state to local levels  citizen participation in program planning, design, implementation, and evaluation  redefinition of the population of offenders for whom incarceration is most appropriate  emphasis on rehabilitation through community programs 5-17
  18. 18. Community Corrections Community corrections recognizes the importance of partnership with the community in responding to crime. 5-18
  19. 19. Community Corrections Acts 1. 36 states have passed community corrections acts. 2. State laws that give economic grants to local communities to establish community corrections goals and policies and to develop and operate community corrections programs. 3. The most common goal is to expand choices of sanctions for individuals. 5-19