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Ppt chapter 6

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Jails: Way Stations Along the Justice HighwayMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Key Terms Jails – Local (or combined with State) operated correctional facilities that confine people before or after conviction.  Inmates sentenced to jail usually have a sentence of one year or less. Total Admission - The total number of people admitted to jail each year. Average Daily Population (ADP) - The sum of the number of inmates in a jail or prison each day for a year, divided by the total number of days in the year. 6-2
  3. 3. Jails in History King Henry ordered the first jail built in 1166 John Howard’s Four Jail Reforms  Secure and sanitary structures  Jail inspections  Elimination of fees  Emphasis on reforming prisoners The first jail in America was the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia 1773  Housed offenders with no regard to sex, age, or offense 6-3
  4. 4. American Jails in the 20th Century Detain people awaiting arraignment or trial Confine offenders serving short sentences Serve as surrogate mental hospitals Frequently detain people with drug or alcohol dependency The homeless, street people, some with extremely poor physical health including many with HIV, AIDS, and tuberculosis (TB) Rabble management 6-4
  5. 5. Architecture and Inmate Management  First-Generation Jails  Jail with multiple-occupancy cells or dormitories that line corridors arranged like spokes  Inmate supervision is intermittent; staff must patrol the corridors to observe inmates in their cells  Officers often do not enter the housing units unless there is a problem 6-5
  6. 6. Architecture and Inmate Management Second-generation jails  Emerged in the 1960s to replace old, run-down linear jails and improve visual surveillance  Staff remain in a secure control booth surrounded by inmate housed areas called pods and surveillance is remote  Verbal interaction between staff and inmates even less frequent than in linear jails  Property destruction minimized through continued use of steel and cement 6-6
  7. 7. Architecture and Inmate Management  Third-generation jails  Direct-supervision jails  Inmates are housed in small groups staffed 24 hours a day by specially trained officers  Officers interact with inmates to help change behavior  Bars and metal doors are absent 6-7
  8. 8. Architecture and Inmate Management  Fourth-Generation Jails  Incorporates natural light into the dayroom; “borrowed light”  Brings program services, staff, volunteers, and visitors to the housing unit 6-8
  9. 9. Jails Many of the nation’s 3,365 locally operated jails are old, overcrowded, poorly funded, inadequately staffed by underpaid and poorly trained employees, and given low priority in local budgets. 6-9
  10. 10. Jail Inmates In June 2011, local jail authorities housed or supervised 837,833 offenders The number decreased for the first time since the federal government began its annual survey of jails in 1982 when the jail population was 223,551. Growth in the U.S. jail population has been slowing since 2005. 6-10
  11. 11. Jail Inmates Thirty-eight percent of the jail inmates are not yet convicted, 87.8 percent are male, 42.5 percent are white, 39.2 percent are black, and 16.2 are Hispanic. 6-11
  12. 12. Characteristics of Jail inmates • 80 percent earned less than $2,000 a month before they were locked up. • 75 percent who had mental health problems also had co-occurring substance abuse or dependency issues; • 68 percent had not seen a health-care provider since incarceration; • 64 percent suffered from some form of mental illness; • 55 percent of females had been sexually or physically abused; • 50 percent grew up in homes without both parents; • 46 percent were not taking their medication at the time of arrest; • 44 percent had less than a high school education; • 40 percent had a criminal history; 6-12
  13. 13. Women in Jail The number of women in jail has more than quadrupled over the past 25 years  In 1985 there were 19,000 women in jail  In mid-2006 there were 100,572 women in jail The typical female jail inmate is poor, a high school dropout with one to three children, and belongs to a racial minority Two-thirds of women in jail are mothers with children under the age of 18 6-13
  14. 14. Mental Illness At midyear 2007, almost two-thirds (64 percent) of all jail inmates had a mental health problem compared to about 11 percent of the general population. 6-14
  15. 15. Juveniles in Jail Cities and states may detain juvenile offenders up to 12 hours in an adult jail before a court appearance. In 1995, 76% of the 7,800 juveniles confined in the nation’s jails were held as adults.  Currently, 81% of 5,847 juveniles are housed as adults. 6-15
  16. 16. Jail Staff An estimated 297,600 people work in the nation’s jails Women comprise one-third of all jail employees  One-fourth of all corrections officers 66% of all jail corrections officers are white, 24% are black, 8% are Hispanic, and 2% are of other races Problems of jail staff: substandard pay; low job prestige; high turnover; and inadequate systems for recruitment, selection, and training 6-16
  17. 17. Privatization A contract process that shifts public functions, responsibilities, and capital assets, in whole or in part, from the public sector to the private sector Jails can be privatized in one of three ways: 1. Private management 2. Private sector development 3. Private services provision 6-17
  18. 18. Jail Issues The jail managers cited inmate mental health as their top concern and recommended that the government give jails more support in that area. 6-18
  19. 19. Educational and Vocational Programs National studies show that more than 40 percent of all jail inmates have less than a ninth-grade education. Studies show that inmates who earn their GEDs while incarcerated are far less likely to return to crime. 6-19
  20. 20. Religious Programs Getting into trouble and turning to religion is supported by the coping literature Inmates actively involved with Bible studies commit less institutional infractions and are less likely to be rearrested 6-20
  21. 21. Benefits of Jail Chaplaincy Jail chaplains believe that the cycle of crime can only be broken one life at a time Chaplains can help jail staff with their emotional and family problems Chaplains are in a unique position to mediate and moderate tensions and conflicts between inmates and staff The public perceives ministering to the disadvantaged as legitimate Chaplains can help inmates confront the truth about themselves 6-21
  22. 22. Accreditation Process by which correctional facilities and agencies can measure themselves against nationally adopted standards and through which they can receive formal recognition and accredited status JAIL ACCREDITATION: Formal approval of a jail by the American Correctional Association (ACA) and the Commission on Accreditation Only 131 of the nation’s 3,365 jails are ACA-accredited 6-22
  23. 23. Reasons to have ACA Accreditation Protect health and safety of staff and inmates Defense against lawsuits over conditions of incarceration Preparing for accreditation leads to self- evaluation Professional recognition and status, greater appreciation by the community, and a sense of pride in the achievement and in the hard work that went into it 6-23
  24. 24. Workforce Development Jail staff need strong communication skills, knowledge of the psychology of behavior, multicultural sophistication, ethnic and racial tolerance, human management expertise, endurance, and fitness ACA’s national Commission on Correctional Certification and online Corrections Academy recognize jail staff as qualified correctional practitioners 6-24
  25. 25. Evidence-Based Practices Evidence-based practices based on recommendations from National Institute of Drug Abuse are in place in more than half of all jails, but have still not been rigorously evaluated. These include: Comprehensive treatment methods Engagement with community agencies Use of positive incentives Standardized substance abuse assessment tools 6-25