Diana BruceHistory 141November 27, 2011Assignment 7:Part 1California- An Overview
War and Peace – Chapter 9 As the United States moved in the direction of becoming a global military power, especially a sea power, the military importance of California increased. In 1914 the Navy established its Pacific Fleet, supported by a growing naval presence in San Diego. The Army was expanding its presence through a series of forts and installations in the San Francisco Bay Area. In 1942, a Japanese submarine surfaced in the Santa Barbara Channel and fired 25 five inch shells across the Pacific Coast Highway into oil storage tanks. Two American cargo ships sank as well. The “White California” crusade started in the early 1900s against the states Japanese immigrants. In 1913 the legislature passed the Alien Land Act prohibiting Japanese immigrants from owning land in the state. The White California movement was racism based on envy. Japanese immigrants to California did well. After Pearl Harbor some five hundred issei (Japanese noncitizens) were in federal custody on Terminal Island in Los Angeles Harbor.
War and Peace The San Francisco Bay Area was emerging as the premier military command center and port of embarkation and supply on the Pacific Coast. By the Battle of Okinawa toward the end of the war, whole blood was reaching combat troops within 48 hours of being donated in California. By October 1942, the Hollywood Canteen was opened by film stars such as Bette Davis and John Garfield. Servicemen and women visited while they were on leave. June 1943, the Zoot Suit Riots between young servicemen and young Mexican Americans were exacerbated by Mexican American baiting by Los Angeles newspapers. With the Japanese Americans in camps, Mexican Americans became the target of racism. This was indicative of unfinished social business of the United States that would preoccupy the postwar era.
War and Peace As the draft began to diminish the male population women workers – “Rosie the Riveter”- became increasingly crucial to shipbuilding. The aircraft industry in Southern California saw the creation of an industrial culture was a great leap forward for American labor, for women, and for efficient and socially responsible management. The postwar era represented a boom that would propel California into becoming, by 1962, the most populous state in the nation. The postwar era also saw the Cold War and the Korean War. Suburban development was centered on the defense industries that were driving California’s economic engine. In the decade following the war, the University of California went from a first- rate regional university into a first-rate world university. California conceptualized itself as a higher-education utopia in which all Californians would be offered the opportunity to maximize their potential.
O Brave New World! – Chapter 10 California emerged as a society friendly to the search for utopia through science and technology. April 4, 1853 the California Academy of Sciences was established. Scientists conducted surveys of California’s environment which had long-term importance. In 1864 Lincoln signed a bill protecting the Sierra land that included the Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Big Trees. John Muir played a role in having the Yosemite Valley transferred to federal jurisdiction in 1890. The greatest mechanical invention out of California was the Pelton turbine which multiplied the power of running water six fold and the premise of hydroelectric generation of energy in unheard of amounts. The first heavier-than-air flight in history took place in California. Over the next century, aviation would shape California and California would shape aviation.
O Brave New World! The names of aviation in California- Glenn Curtiss, Allan and Malcolm Loughead (later Lockheed), John Nortthrup, Glenn Martin, Donald Douglas, T. Claude Ryan- would become brand names synonymous with flight itself. California-especially Southern California-pioneered passenger flight. By the mid-1920s four passenger airlines were offering regular scheduled service. On August 26, 1929, the gigantic Graf Zeppelin arrived in Los Angeles at Mines Field, site of the present day LAX. 150,000 visitors gathered to catch a glimpse of the blimp. Through aeronautical research at Caltech, Donald Douglas made air travel possible in the United States with the DC-3, the most serviceable aircraft in the history of aviation.
O Brave New World! George Davidson, James Lick, and Richard Samuel Floyd played key roles in establishing astronomy in California. In 1879, George Davidson built the first astronomical observatory on the West Coast. James Lick left funds for an observatory supporting the most powerful telescope on the planet. Lick chose Richard Samuel Floyd to fulfill his dream. The Lick Observatory was ready for business in 1892. In Palo Alto, Lee de Forest invented the Audion tube and sold it to American Telephone and Telegraph for $50,000. This was used as an amplifier for transcontinental phone calls. PhiloT. Farnsworth created a orthicon that allowed him to transmit a simple image through electronic means, which was the basic technology of television. By the late twentieth century Palo Alto had become the epicenter of high-tech venture capitalism, serving the Silicon Valley start-ups. By the millennium, forty percent of all biotechnology research and manufacturing in the United States was located in California.
An Imagined Place – Chapter 11 The twentieth century saw the debut of film, radio, and television; dependent upon electronic technologies developed in California. By the 1920’s the production of films in Hollywood would become an industrialized business. Starting in the mid-1930s, the takeover of Germany by National Socialism set in motion a mass emigration of talented Europeans to the United States. The émigrés internationalized the film industry. The Cold War brought Hollywood to the Un-American Activities Committee; accusing the “Hollywood Ten” of having sympathies with the Communist Party. Hollywood reached another high point of art and social commentary in the films of the period: dark dramas dealing with the issues of the time.
An Imagined Place Robinson Jeffers was one of the most noted poets in California during the 20th century. He produced an array of poems based on classical or biblical themes set in the backcountry of Big Sur. John Steinbeck used the Monterey coast often as a background for his writings. The Grapes of Wrath won Steinbeck the Nobel Prize in Literature. Two California photographers, Edward Weston and Ansel Adams brought photography to an elemental art, capturing the beauty and realism of Mexico and Yosemite. California maintained its preference for the Arts-and-Crafts shingle style of architecture. Bernard Maybeck in the Bay Area and Charles and Henry Greene in the Southland was prevalent through the first two decades of the 20th century.
An Imagined Place In the 1940s, designer Cliff May created the California Ranch style of homes. Daisy Dell, a canyon amphitheater in Hollywood led to the establishment of the Hollywood Bowl in 1922, which Lloyd Wright designed the performance shell that has emerged as one of the primary icons of Southern California. The composer Igor Stravinsky moved to Los Angeles and wrote the score to Disney’s Fantasia California turned the sports of elites to a public recreation system that included municipal pools, golf courses, and tennis courts. Many Olympic champions in the early 20th century came from California. Through sport and the arts California participated and frequently initiated the recreational and aesthetic developments of the 20th century.