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What is cultural geography


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This presentation provides a general description about the Broad theme of Cultural Geography, along with definitions on cultural geography

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What is cultural geography

  1. 1. Geog 21536 Cultural Geography
  2. 2. <ul><li>Cultural Geography is the study of </li></ul><ul><li>spatial variations among cultural groups </li></ul><ul><li>and the spatial functioning of the </li></ul><ul><li>society. It focuses on describing and </li></ul><ul><li>analyzing the ways language, religion, </li></ul><ul><li>economy, government and other cultural </li></ul><ul><li>phenomenon vary or remain constant from one </li></ul><ul><li>place to another. </li></ul>What is Cultural Geography
  3. 3. <ul><li>Evolution of culture is directly related to </li></ul><ul><li>Human evolution (Homo Sapiens) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Man,’s culture began with the man’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capacity to use and to create or produce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tools and techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australopithecus Africanus - 5 Million Years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used stone tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Fire – 2-3 Million years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools made of bones - one million years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Age of Neanderthal Man) </li></ul></ul>Evolution of Culture
  4. 4. Evolution of Culture.. Continued <ul><li>Cro- Magnon - 25000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>( A developed Culture than the previous members) </li></ul><ul><li>Their contribution to Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cave Paintings, Jewels made of sea shells </li></ul><ul><li>statues of women that emphasized pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>weapons made of bones, horn, or ivory </li></ul>
  5. 5. Neanderthal Man Australopithecus Africanus Homo Erectus Stages of Human Evolution
  6. 6. Stages of Human Evolution…… Continuation Cro Magnon Man Cro Magnon Woman Homo Sapiens
  7. 7. <ul><li>What is Meant by Culture ?....... </li></ul><ul><li>“Culture is a unique possession of </li></ul><ul><li>man. It is one of the distinguishing </li></ul><ul><li>traits of human society. Culture does </li></ul><ul><li>not exist at sub-human level. Only man </li></ul><ul><li>is born and brought up in a Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>environment” </li></ul><ul><li>“Culture is the unique quality of man that </li></ul><ul><li>separates him from the lower animals” </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Meaning of Culture…… Some Definitions “ Culture is the major way in which human beings adapt to their environments.” Cultural Geography- Serena Nanda “ Culture is the way of life of a group of people, the complex of shared concepts and patterns of learned behavior handed down from one generation to the next through the means of language and imitation.” Physical Anthropology and Archaeology – Victor Barnouw
  9. 9. Continued <ul><li>” Cumulative creation of man” </li></ul><ul><li>B. Malinowski </li></ul><ul><li>” Accumulation of thoughts,values and </li></ul><ul><li>objects ; it is the social heritage acquired by us </li></ul><ul><li>from preceeding generations through learning , as </li></ul><ul><li>distinguished from the biological heritage which is </li></ul><ul><li>passed on to us automatically through the genes </li></ul><ul><li>Graham Wallas </li></ul><ul><li>” The forms Superimposed on the physical landscape </li></ul><ul><li>by the activities of man ” </li></ul><ul><li>Carl O Sauer </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>” Culture is the complex whole that consists of all the </li></ul><ul><li>ways we think and do and everything we have as </li></ul><ul><li>members of society” </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Bierstedt </li></ul><ul><li>” the body of thoughts and knowledge , both theoritical and </li></ul><ul><li>practical, which only man can possess </li></ul><ul><li>E. V . De Robertv </li></ul><ul><li>” that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, </li></ul><ul><li>law,customand any other capabilities and habits acquired by </li></ul><ul><li>man as a member of society” </li></ul><ul><li>Edward B Tylor </li></ul><ul><li>” Culture is something adopted , used, believed,practised or </li></ul><ul><li>possessed by more than one person. It depends upon group life, </li></ul><ul><li>for its existance </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Bierstedt </li></ul>Continued
  11. 11. Characteristics of Culture <ul><li>Cult1ure is learnt </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is social </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is shared </li></ul><ul><li>Clture is transmissive </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is continuous and cumulative </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is consistant and integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is dynamic and adaptive </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is gratifying </li></ul><ul><li>Culture varies from society to society </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is superorganic ideational </li></ul>
  12. 12. Components of a Culture <ul><li>Modes of Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophies and Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Morals and Manners </li></ul><ul><li>Customs and Traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Political and Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul>
  13. 13. Components of a Culture ( Continued) <ul><li>According to Julian Huxly… </li></ul><ul><li>1. Mentifacts </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sociofacts </li></ul><ul><li>3. Artifacts </li></ul>
  14. 14. Culture Contents <ul><li>Material culture - Man made tools </li></ul><ul><li>Infra-structure </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Material Culture – ways of acting </li></ul><ul><li>feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sub Culture <ul><li>” A sub- Culture is generally taken to </li></ul><ul><li>mean a section of a national culture” </li></ul><ul><li>Duncan Mitchell </li></ul>
  16. 16. Themes in Cultural Geography <ul><li>Culture Region </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Landscape </li></ul>
  17. 17. Culture Region Formal Culture Regions Functional Culture Regions
  18. 18. What is a Formal Culture Region <ul><li>A region inhibited by people who have </li></ul><ul><li>one or more cultural traits in common </li></ul><ul><li>( Such as Language, Religion, Race, etc.) </li></ul>
  19. 19. What is a Functional Culture Region <ul><li>A region or area that function </li></ul><ul><li>as a unit politically , socially or </li></ul><ul><li>economically </li></ul>
  20. 20. What is Cultural Diffusion ? <ul><li>“ The process of diffusion involves the </li></ul><ul><li>spread of cultural elements , both </li></ul><ul><li>materials artifacts and ideas from one </li></ul><ul><li>culture to Another” </li></ul><ul><li>George Murdock </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cultural Diffusion <ul><li>Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Relocation </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul>Snowballing Effect <ul><li>Stimulus Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Contagious Diffusion </li></ul>
  22. 22. Stimulus Diffusion <ul><li>When a specific trait fails to diffuse, but the underlying </li></ul><ul><li>idea concept is accepted </li></ul>Hierarchical Diffusion <ul><li>A type of expansion diffusion , innovations spread from one </li></ul><ul><li>important person to another or from one urban center to </li></ul><ul><li>another temporarily bypassing persons of lesseimportance </li></ul><ul><li>and rural areas </li></ul>Contagious Diffusion <ul><li>The spread of cultural innovation by person to person contact, </li></ul><ul><li>moving wavelike through an area and population without </li></ul><ul><li>regard to social status </li></ul>
  23. 23. Cultural Ecology <ul><li>Ecology </li></ul>Oikos + Logia Oikologia = Teachings about habitats <ul><li>Human Ecology </li></ul>Environmental Determinism Environmental Possibilism
  24. 24. What is Cultural Ecology ? <ul><li>The study of the complex intricate relationships between the physical environment and people as culture bearing animals </li></ul>
  25. 25. Cultural Landscape <ul><li>“ Cultural Landscape” originate from </li></ul><ul><li>all human activities in a specific </li></ul><ul><li>area.” </li></ul>
  26. 26. Themes of Cultural Landscape <ul><li>Settlement Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Land Division </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul>
  27. 27. The End Thank You