Built Environment is the tangible impact of human beings on the landscape.
Raising Canes is an Independent Invention of Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Notice how acculturation can both ways – both the dominant culture and minority culture can take parts of each.
Big dog or small dog?
1) Language changes over time with the diffusion of other languages.
How English Diffused
Above is the British Colonies – notice the reason why English would become the dominant Lingua Franca. What kind of diffusion do you see in this?
What you should and should not do.
Intro to Culture Language Religion Popular and Folk Culture • Concepts of • Intro to • Intro to • Folk Culture Culture Language Religion • Popular • Schools of • Language • Universalizing Culture Thought families, Religions • Cultural • Cultural Languages, • Ethnic Landscapes Hearths and dialects. Religions and Identity • Cultural • Language • Spatial Impact Diffusion Barriers of Religions • Acculturation • Toponymy • Ethnocentrsm • Language and Cultural Extinction Relativism • Cultural Differences
Cultural ecology is the fieldthat studies the relationship between the natural environment and culture.
Cultural Geography: Schools of ThoughtEnvironmental Environmental Cultural Possibilism Determinism Perception Determinism Social Culture is Human culture is People develop Perception of the developed more important culture as much environment completely by the than the physical as environment. affects culture. environment. environment. Similar The environment Perception is Humans environments provides developed by the determine the produce similar possibilities for a teachings of environment. cultures. culture. culture. Technology increases the possibilities.
What school(s) of thought bestexplains the following scenarios?
Case 1A small, undiscovered community is located onthe coast of South America. The food theyconsume is fish and they spend much of theirtime sacrificing to their god Elmo – who visitswrath upon them in the form of large, windystorms that destroy their village when he isangered.
Case 2Develop your own case study thatdemonstrates both Possibilism and CulturalDeterminism. It needs to be at least foursentences long.
• A repetitive actHabit that an individual performs • A repetitive act of a group performed Custom so that it becomes a characteristic of the group. • A group’s Culture entire collection of customs.
Cultural Realm Culture Culture System Culture RegionCulture Trait Complex A single The A group of An area marked A large area attribute of a combination of interconnected by culture that marked by a culture. different culture distinguishes it number of Often not cultural traits in complexes. from other cultural confined to a distinctive Any area with regions. regions. It is set single area. ways. strong cultural apart from Common ties that bind other world values, beliefs, its people areas because behaviors, and together. of these artifacts that regions. make one place distinct.
What are the traits, complexes, and systems that make up New Orleans?
Usually relatively isolatedAnonymous hearths, Oftenanonymous dependent on sources, the environmentanonymous dates Folk Culture Usually practiced Are often by small, isolated or have homogenous multiple hearths groups in isolated areas.
Indigenous Cultures• A culture group that constitutes the original inhabitants of a territory, distinct from the dominant national culture, which is often derived from colonial occupation.Folk Culture Regions• Cultural norms traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.Subcultures• groups that share in some parts of the dominant culture but have their own distinctive values, norms, language, and/or material culture
Large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits. Largely Urban Large Scaled Based Popular Culture Based on rapid Often allowed simultaneous b/c of globalindustrialization. connections Often the product of economically more developed countries.
Contains actual information about theculture. Contains important life cycle events (birth, death, and marriage) customs.You can learn a lot about a culturesimply from their music.
A Vietnamese Folk Song While seedlings for the summer crop are no old when they are three months of age, Seedlingsfor the winter crop are certainly not young when they are one-and-a-half months old
American Folk MusicThe Northern Songs:• Ballads close to English originals. The fiddle is featured at dances, and fife-and-drum bands are popular.The Southern and Appalachian Songs:• Westward to Texas, speak of hard lives and is the roots of country music.The Western Songs:• West of the Mississippi River, reflects the experiences of cowboys, plains farmers, river people, and gold seekers.The Black Songs:• Located in the south and grew out of the slave experience.
Reflect both cultural and environmental influences Houses fromdifferent regions can be vastly Housing Often based on the resourcesdifferent even in the same Styles available environment Culture can affect styles and materials used.
Unchanged-traditional dwelling• The layout, construction, and appearance have not been significantly altered by external influences.• Examples: Some Arab towns and African villagesModified Traditional Dwelling• New building materials have been used to build these The structure layout is not altered Example: West Africa changed their thatch roofs to ironModernized Traditional Dwelling• Modifications have been made in both the building materials and the general layout of the dwelling Example: multiple bathrooms, two car garageModern Dwelling• Advanced technology is reflected in the building of these• Other reflections include upward mobility, practicality, comfort, and hygiene.• most common in the United States
WoodGrass Building and BrickBush Materials Stone
Language LanguageDivergence Convergence Spatial Interaction Two languages between speakers become one break down – because of close British/Americans spatial interaction. Language breaks This can also into dialects and cause Language then into new extinction tongues. We track languages by looking atlanguage divergence and convergence.
• Languages with a shared, but fairly distantLanguage origin. Families • Culturally Defined. • Standard Languages are recognized as theLanguages Norm • Regional Variants of a Standard Language Dialects
This is a map of various language families and branches.
Proto-Indo- European isspoken by 46% of the world’s population.
Sedentary FarmerHypothesis Sedentary Farmer Hypothesis Developed by Colin Renfew Also called the “Renfew Hypothesis”PIE Started in the Fertile Crescent Language diffused peacefully throughagricultural trade.
NomadicWarrior Thesis Kurgan Migration Developed by Marinja Gimbutas Also called the “Conquest Theory” PIE Started around Russia Says that Kurgan Warriors brought the language with them as they conquered
English is Spoken By 328 Million PeopleTwo Billion People live in a country where English is A Few It is the official the official language even if English language in 57 countriesthey cannot speak it. Facts It is the predominate language in the US and in Australia
Germanic Tribes Where did English come from?LatinOld Norse EnglishNorman French Celtic Tribes
OldEnglish Middle Modern• 450-1100AD English English
Old EnglishFæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum;Si þin nama gehalgodto becume þin ricegewurþe ðin willaon eorðan swa swa on heofonum.urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todægand forgyf us ure gyltasswa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendumand ne gelæd þu us on costnungeac alys us of yfele soþlice
Middle EnglishOure fadir that art in heuenes, halewid be thiname; thi kyndoom come to; be thi wille don inerthe as in heuene: gyue to us this dai ourebreed ouer othir substaunce; and forgyue to usoure dettis, as we forgyuen to oure gettouris;and lede us not in to temptacioun, but delyuereus fro yuel.
What are some concepts that thegrowth of the English language show us about the growth of language in general?
Differences between British and American EnglishVocabulary• Different because settlers in America encountered new objects, animals, etcetera.• New animals, for example, were given Native American Names.• As new inventions appeared they received different names.Spelling• Spelling diverged from a strong national American Identity.• Webster, an American dictionary publisher had an American agendaPronunciation• Largely explained by distance.• Pronunciation
Northern East Coast IsoglossesSouthern Midlands
Monolingual Countries Countries and Language Linguistic MultilingualFragmentation Countries
Toponyms can show us:• The History of a Place – Colonialization • Example: Most Brazilian toponyms are Portugese • Example: French toponyms in Louisiana• The Culture of a People – George Washington Bridge, Martin Luther King Blvd, Jacksonville, Florida
Descriptive •Rocky Mountains Shift Names Associative •Lancaster, •Pensacola Beach, Pennsylvania FloridaMistakes American Commemorative•Lasker, North Carolina Toponyms •New York Possession Manufactured •Truth and •Johnston City, Texas Consequences Incidents •Battle Creek, Michigan
Each Universalizing Religion Has: Branch Large and fundamental division within a religion. Denominations A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations into a single administrative body. Sects A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
Origins of Christianity• Founded upon the teachings of Yehōshua – Translated to Jesus• Christians believe that Jesus died to atone for human sins, that he was raised from the dead by God, and that his resurrection provides people with hope for salvation.
Three Forms of ChristianityRoman Catholicism• 51% of ChristianityEastern Orthodox• 11% of ChristianityProtestantism• 24% of Christianity
Why is South America 93% Catholic and North America only 40% Catholic?
RC PR EO• Pope • Federal • Elders• Mary • Mary • Mary• Clergy • Clergy • Clergy• Sacraments • Sacraments • Sacraments
Diffusion of Christianity• First diffused by relocation diffusion as believers (Missionaries) moved from place to place.• Secondly, it diffused by contagious diffusion – word of mouth between believers in the towns and nonbelievers in the countryside• Finally, it diffused by hierarchical diffusion as elite figures (the emperor) began to accept it.
Two Main BranchesSunnis• 1,140,000,000• ‘Heir’ to Islam based on community selection.Shiites• 220,000,000• ‘Heir’ to Islam chosen by Allah (Only those from the bloodline of Muhammad)Ahmadiyya• 10,000,000Druze• 450,000
How Islam Diffused• Largely brought about in the early years by conquest (Relocation/Hierarchical Diffusion)• Southwest Asia was converted through Islamic traders.• Now, largely brought about by missionaries (relocation diffusion, contagious diffusion)
Hinduism• 3rd Largest Religion in the World• Concentrated in India and Nepal• It is up to the individual to decide the best way to worship God.• Does not have a central authority.• Has many gods but the most popular (70 percent) is Vishnu. 26% adhere to the god Siva.
Confucianism• Located largely in China• Based on ethical obligations important to the Chinese.
Taoism (Daoism)• Located mainly in China.• Followers seek Tao (Dao) which means the path
Shintoism• Religion of Japan• Consider the forces of nature to be divine.• Was regarded as the state religion before WWII and the Emperor was considered to be a God.
Judaism• One third live in Israel, One third in the United States, and one third everywhere else.• First religion to espouse monotheism.
Animism• Mostly located in Africa• Finds animate qualities of all other life.• Not a specific religion but a collection of tribal religions.
Ethnic Diffusion• Ethnic religions rarely diffuse farther than their starting point.• This means that they are much more susceptible to Universalizing religions.• Many times an Ethnic religion will hybridize with universalizing religions.
Judaistic Diffusion• Judaism diffused more widely than other Ethnic religions because they were forced out of their homeland by the romans in AD.70.• This was called the diaspora.• Many Jews were forced to live in ghettos.
Cosmogony is the religiousbeliefs concerning the origins of the Universe.
Ethnic Verses Universalizing• Ethnic religious creation stories tend to deal with the physical environment and natural events, whereas universalizing religion stories often attempt to explain the mystical. Christianity Confucianism Two Opposite God Created the Forces Work in Universe Creation (Yin/Yang) God is more These interact for powerful than the balance universe Believers Believers change transform the their environment environment as less. More likely to God’s emissaries. achieve balance.
Ethnic Calendars• Ethnic religions focus on climate, seasons, and agriculture. Jewish Holidays (A Lunar Calendar) Fall Holidays Rosh Hashanah (New Year) Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) Spring: Sukkot (Final Harvest) Pesach(Passover) Shavuot(Feast of Weeks)
Ethnic CalendarsMost important day to many Ethnic Religions:The Solstice (The Shortest and Longest Days ofthe Year)
Universalizing Calendars• Usually centered around the individual founder.• Example: Christmas
• Churches (Symbolic architecture)Christianity • The Catholic Church: The Vatican • Mosques (A location for a community to gather.) Islam • Mecca, Medina • Pagodas (Contain relics of Buddha’s body or clothing.)Buddhismand Shinto • Lumbini, Nepal • Community or Home Temples (Built to one or more gods)Hinduism • The Ganges River • Seven Houses of Worship on Multiple Continents Baha’I
The Dead Christians, • Bury the dead in Cemeteries Muslims, Jews • Creates a problem with land • Wash the body with water from the Hindus Ganges • CremationZoroastrians • Exposure to the Elements
Religious Settlements• Some cities have been founded for religious reasons.• These are called utopian settlements.• The Most Important: – Salt Lake City (Mormonism)
Hierarchical Religions• A hierarchical religion has a well-defined geographic structure and organizes territory into administrative units.
Example: The Catholic Church The Pope Cardinals Archbishops (Head Provinces) Bishops (Head Diocese) Priests (Head Parishes)
Autonomous Religions• Self sufficient religions where interaction between communities is only loose cooperation of shared ideas.
Example: Islam• Islam provides the most autonomy in any universalizing religion.• The only time this is not true is when the religious territory coincides with secular states. – Examples: Iran, Saudi Arabia
Slides I Did Not Get To Make• Religious Conflict – Make sure to study up on – Northern Vs. Southern Ireland (Catholic Vs. Protestant) – The Middle East – Especially Israel Vs. Palestine – Religious Extremism