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IPCOWALA INSTITUTE OF
ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY
Study of cold starting problem in Scooty Pep+
Submitted by,
• Shah Deep (121010102011)
• Chauhan Rahul (121010102033)
• Mominsuthar Sahirmohmad (121010102044)
• Parmar Jayveersinh (121010102048)
Guided By,
Prof. Ritesh Kumar Ranjan
Asst. Professor of IIET
OUTLINE
• INTRODUCTION
• PROBLEM DEFINITION
• NEED OF PROJECT
• OBJECTIVE
• COLD STARTING
• LITERALURE SURVEY
• EXPECTED SOLUTION
• COMPONENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
• OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS
• CONCLUSION
• FUTURE SCOPE
• REFERANCE
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 2
INTRODUCTION
• An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of
fuel occurs with an oxidizer in combustion chamber that is an integral part
of working fluid flow circuit.
• Mostly IC engine works on fossil fuels like Petrol, Diesel. It also works on
natural gases like CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), LPG (Liquefied Petroleum
Gas). Mainly IC engine Classified as SI Engine (Spark Ignition Engine) and CI
Engine (Compression Ignition Engine).
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 3
INTRODUCTION
• Scooty pep+ is the vehicle of TVS Motors which
is specially design for girls and old people.
• This vehicle is light weighted vehicle and easy to
handle.
• In this vehicle it has 4-stroke 88-CC air cooled
petrol engine which generate 5.8 N-m max.
torque and 3.68 kW max. power.
• It has digital DC CDI ignition system.
• It has automatic CVT automatic transmission
system
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 4
PROBLEM DEFINATION
• This TVS Scooty Pep+ is very good Scooty in the range of 80-90 CC
engines.
• But there is some major problem is occur in this Scooter which faced
by consumer.
• Major problem is cold starting. The vehicle cannot able to start in cold
season or at when the temperature is very low.
• The other problem is occur in this Scooter is overheat.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 5
NEED OF PROJECT
• In the IC engine there are the problem of Cold Starting. In this problem Cold Start attempts to
start a vehicle’s engine when it is cold, relative to its normal Operating Temperature, often due to
normal cold weather.
• Due to cold starting problem so many problem is occur. Consumer require more effort to start the
engine.
• In addition to start the engine in cold weather it is require to supply rich mixture of charge (Air-
fuel mixture) to the cylinder. Which may increase unburnt Hydro-Carbon emission.
• Due to reach mixture emission of Carbon Monoxide due to less Oxygen presence inside the
cylinder which is toxic. The emission of NOx is increase which create environment problems.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 6
OBJECTIVE
The primary goal of this project was to develop cold start technologies for IC engine operation.
Specifically, in this project we use the SI engine which are widely use in now days for light duty
vehicles. We trying to minimize this problems in vehicles at less cost and by easy implementation.
This project contains these following major phases:
1. Conduct the cold start performance on the Scooty pep+ engine.
2. To design the system by which we can analyze the system.
3. To identify and acquire the emission.
4. Evaluate the performance, modify equipment/operating parameters and repeat if necessary.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 7
COLD STARTING
• Cold start is an attempt to start a vehicle’s engine when it is cold, relative to it
normal operating temperature.
• Cold start situation is commonplace, as weather conditions in most climates will
naturally be at lower temperature than typical operating temperature of an engine.
• In case of two wheeler vehicle, vehicle needs to start manually with the use of KICK.
• Multiple reasons for cold starting are,
• The engine compression is higher as lack of the heat make ignition more difficult
• Low temperature cause engine oil to become more viscous, making it more difficult to
circulate.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 8
PROBLEM DUE TO COLD STARTING
• Due to the cold start problem, consumer have to do more effort to
start the vehicle.
• Due to Cold starting problem it produce more toxic exhaust gases like
Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Hydro-Carbon (HC)
etc.
• It produce more hydro-carbons due to incombustible fuels.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 9
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 10
LITERATURE SURVEY
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 11
Author Definition Abstract Conclusion
Andrew Roberts,
Richard Brooks,
Philip Shipway
Internal combustion
engine cold-start
efficiency: A review of the
problem, causes and
potential solutions
• The thermal efficiency of the internal
combustion engine is significantly
lower at cold start than when the
vehicle reaches steady state
temperatures owing to sub-optimal
lubricant and component
temperatures.
• The approaches have a common theme
of attempting to reduce energy losses
so that systems and components reach
their intended operating temperature
range as soon as possible after engine
start.
• Through this review, it can be
seen that the issue of internal
combustion engine cold-start
efficiency is one that has
attracted a great deal of
attention.
• It can be seen that there are
noticeable improvements to be
had in both fuel consumption
and emissions as a direct result
of improving the cold start
performance of the internal
combustion engine.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 12
Author Definition Abstract Conclusion
Yong-shik Chong,
Jun-ha Hwang,
Jong-cheol Kim
A Study of Method to Solve
Cold-Start Problem in Fuel
Cell Electric Vehicle
• The Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)
has the problem of starting the fuel
cells in winter because of the water
that generated from the cells.
• Therefore, cold-start is hot issue of
the FCEV and the car makers are
using several methods.
• Using the inverter and traction
motor system of the vehicle, the fuel
cell stack increases the temperature
of the coolant.
• Cold-start logic for LMFC
Pilot vehicle that had a
serious problem has been
confirmed through the
infrared and vehicle tests.
• As the current is
concentrated to only one
phase of power module
because of the
characteristic of the cold-
start logic, it would be
likely to destroy the power
module with very high rate
of probability.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 13
Author Definition Abstract Conclusion
Matthew S. Reiter
Kara M. Kockelman
THE PROBLEM OF COLD
STARTS: A CLOSER LOOK
AT MOBILE SOURCE
EMISSIONS LEVELS
• Starting emissions are consistently found to
make up a high proportion of total
transportation-related methane (CH4), nitrous
oxide (N2O), and volatile organic compounds
(VOCs).
• After three to four minutes of vehicle operation,
both the engine coolant and the catalytic
converter have generally warmed, and
emissions are significantly lower.
This paper synthesizes a variety
of current knowledge about
cold start emissions for motor
vehicles. Simulations performed
using EPA’s MOVES program
suggests that, regardless of
geographic location or time of
year, CH4, N2O, and VOC
constitute a significant cost of
cold engine starts. Looking
toward the future, the same top
pollutants continue to appear,
but absolute levels of emissions
decline substantially. Other
potential sources of vehicle
power, such as electricity, are
undergoing their own sharp
reductions in pollutant
emissions. This could have
major implications for the
future of transportation.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 14
SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
1. The engine performance and emissions depend on engine speed and temperature
of surrounding.
2. When the temperature of surrounding is low then the lubricating oil becomes more
viscous and it resist the motion of engine so fuel consumption increase.
3. When we start the engine at low temperature condition the emission of unburnt
fuel (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) is higher.
4. Due to low temperature of surrounding and engine it requires rich mixture to start it
up.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 15
5. As temperature of engine increase the emission of Carbon Monoxide (CO) is decrease and
emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is increase.
6. The emission of Oxygen is decrease by increasing of temperature of engine as it convert CO to
CO2.
7. As increasing of temperature, combustion of fuel is properly occur so that emission of Hydro-
Carbon (HC) is decrease.
8. As increasing of temperature, emission of NOx is increase because Nitrogen is react with Oxygen
at high temperature.
9. Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) can be use as catalyst for effective reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and
other emission.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 16
EXPECTED SOLUTION
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 17
EXPECTED SOLUTION
•Change in Spark Intensity
•Material Coating
•Catalytic Convertor
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 18
CHANGE IN SPARK INTENSITY
• In SI engine mostly spark plug is located at the top at cylinder head.
• In normal condition when compression stroke is finish and when
spark ignites at that time firstly the part of fuel at the top of the
cylinder is ignite and then the flame is transfer to the bottom of the
cylinder.
• But in the cold condition the heat loss occurs so the required heat is
not transferred to the bottom of the cylinder and engine is not able
be to start.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 19
ELECTRODE GAP AND SPARK INTENSITY
• Electrode gap of any spark plug decide the spark magnitude. Incorrect
electrode gap can effect on engine performance.
• Engine having high compression ratio require small electrode gap.
• If the electrode gape too small, quenching of flame nucleus occurs
and range of Air-Fuel ratio is reduce for development of flame.
• So as increase the intensity of spark plug, flame is travel for long time
inside the combustion chamber and good combustion occurs.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 20
ELECTRODE GAP
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 21
Electrode gap is mostly controlled by spark plug manufacturer. Now days there is
very large selection plugs because of different engine specifications and according
to compression ratio.
MATERIAL COATING
• If we will coat the piston by that material which have less thermal
conductivity then the heat loss will be reduce.
• Material coating is only done in upper surface of piston so the heat
generated by the combustion process cannot easily transfer to the
transmission which are located under piston (crank shaft, CVT,
automatic transmission) and we can reduce the heat loss.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 22
BENEFITS OF MATERIAL COATING
• Maximum resistance to wear.
• By coating different parts, life of piston increases.
• Maintenance of different coated parts will decrease and lower
operating costs.
• Some materials like ceramic material made possible to resolve the
problem of highly wear and tear problem and it is practically
applicable and increase the life of piston rings and other sliding
elements.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 23
SELECTION OF COATING MATERIAL
Material AlSi Steel NiCrAl Oil Ring Compression Ring
Thermal Conductivity (W/moC) 155 79 161 25-42 46-59
Thermal Expansion (1/oC) 21 122 12 10-13 10
Density (kg/m3) 2700 7870 7870 7300 7200
Specific Heat (J/kgoC) 960 500 764
Poisson’s ratio 0.3 0.3 0.27 0.29 0.3
Young’s Modulus (GPa) 90 200 90 160-135 110-140
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 24
Mainly selection of coating material is based on their properties, so for selecting the coating
material we should have their detail properties. For reducing the heat loss we should
complete knowledge of their thermal conductivity of coating material and metals.
(Thermal Conductivity ‘k’ – It is the property of material to conduct the heat)
THERMAL BERRIER COATING
To eliminate the heat loss of engine it require thermal barrier coating (TBC) with the main function is to
thermally insulating of components. Greater fuel efficiency can be achieve when engines works at high
temperature. TBC is design to improve the thermal efficiency of any engine without increasing the surface
temperature of the components.
Advantages of TBC:
• Resistance to high temperature
• Low heat conductivity which reduce heat loss
• High chemical stability
• High hardness value
• Resistance to wear
• Low heat conduction coefficient
• High compression strength
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 25
MATERIAL FOR TBC
• Materials which have low
thermal conductivity are
preferred for Thermal Barrier
coating.
• The main purpose of Titanium
Oxide is to get coated for the
different machine parts.
• Its thermal conductivity is lower
near to negligible.
• So it reduce the heat loss from
any machine.
Properties Minimum
Value (SI)
Maximum
Value (SI)
Units (SI)
Atomic Volume 0.0057 0.07 m/kmol
Density 3.97 4.05 Mg/m3
Energy Content 100 150 MJ/kg
Bulk Modulus 209.1 21801 GPa
Compressive Strength 660 3675 MPa
Thermal Conductivity 4.8 11.8 W/mK
Hardness 9330 10290 MPa
Poisson’s Ratio 0.27 0.29
Tensile Strength 333.3 367.5 MPa
Maximum Service
Temperature
1840 1910 K
Melting Point 2103 2123 K
Specific Heat 683 697 J/kgK
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 26
COATED PISTON
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 27
We coat the piston by Titanium Oxide of 300 micron (0.3mm).
CATALYTIC CONVERTOR
• From the exhaust of vehicles so many combustion products like CO, CO2,
NOx, HC etc. emitted from engine due to improper combustion. These
exhaust products have damaging effect on pure quality of air, environment
and human health which makes strict norms of pollution emission.
• A catalytic converter is a device for controlling vehicle emission which
converts harmful products of combustion to less toxic substances by way of
catalyzed chemical reactions.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 28
CATALYTIC CONVERTOR CONT……
• Most recent vehicles that run through petrol or diesel are fitted
with a three way catalytic converter, are named so because
mainly it converts three basic pollutants in automobile exhaust
emission system.
• By an oxidizing process it converts unburned Hydro-Carbons (HC)
and Carbon Monoxide (CO) to Carbon Dioxide (CO2)and water
vapor, and by reduction process it converts Nitrogen Oxides
(NOx) to produce CO2, Nitrogen (N2), and water (H2O).
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 29
CATALYTIC CONVERTOR WORKING
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 30
CATALYTIC CONVERTOR WORKING CONT….
• In the catalytic converter, there are two different types of catalyst at
work, a reduction catalyst and an oxidation catalyst. Both types
consist of a ceramic structure coated with a metal catalyst, usually
platinum, rhodium and/or palladium.
• The reduction catalyst is the first stage of the catalytic converter. It
uses platinum and rhodium to help reduce the NOx emissions.
• The oxidation catalyst is the second stage of the catalytic converter. It
reduces the unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide by
burning (oxidizing) them. This catalyst aids the reaction of the CO and
hydrocarbons with the remaining oxygen in the exhaust gas.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 31
COMPONENTS AND
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 32
SCOOTY PEP
Cylinder Single Cylinder Engine
Stroke 4 – Stroke
Fuel Petrol
Displacement 87.8 CC
Compression Ratio 10:1:1
Bore and Stroke 51×43
Maximum Power 3.68kW at 6500 RPM
Maximum Torque 5.8 Nm at 4000 RPM
Transmission Variomatic Transmission
Ignition CDI
Clutch Pivoted Clutch Centrifugally
Operated
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 33
ROPE BELT DYNAMOMETER
The basic parts of a rope brake dynamometer are as
follows:
1. Belt
2. Pulley
3. Spring Balance
4. Frame
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 34
Diameter of Drum 150 mm
Width of drum 72 mm
Thickness of Belt 6 mm
Width of belt 65 mm
Length of belt 85 mm
Range of weight Scale 0 – 50 kg
Rated RPM 2000 RPM
WEIGHT SCALE
• We will use digital weight scale to
determine that how much load we
applied on the dynamometer.
• One end is connect with belt of
dynamometer and other is to the
stand. The range of the weight scale is
0 – 50 kg.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 35
AIR INTAKE TANK
• Air tank is device which use to supply
air to the engine as required. At front
side it has hole which suck the air
from atmosphere.
• Inside the air tank there is a device
which filtered air after sucking. At
backward side the output port is
available by which we can connect it
to the engine.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 36
FUEL CONSUMPTION MEASUREMENT
• Burette is used to measure the volumetric
fuel consumption of the engine which is
shown in Figure. The fuel flow is
measured by noting down the time taken
for 10 ml of fuel consumed by the engine.
• Burette used for the measurement has
following specifications:
• Range: 0 - 50 ml
• Least Count : 0.1 ml
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 37
MEASUREMNT OF SPEED
• For measurement of rotational
speed generally tachometer is
used. A digital tachometer having 5
digits, 10 mm LCD display and
range 10 to 99,999 RPM with
accuracy ±0.05% + 1 digit was used
for speed measurement.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 38
EXHAUST GAS ANALYZR
• It is the device that how much exhaust gases is
produced by the engine.
• With the help of exhaust gas analyzer we can
determine that how much emission is emits by the
engine.
• At different load condition we will analyze the data
and find out that at different condition how much
emission obtain and after implementation of
different solution we will analyze data and
determine that which method is use for better
results.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 39
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 40
OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 41
PARAMETERS TO BE OBSERVED
• Speed
• Time for fuel consumption
• Air Flow Rate
• Temperature of Inlet Air and Exhaust Gases
• Load on the Engine
• Exhaust gas Proportions
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 42
OBSERVATION
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 43
Name of Manufacturer: TVS Calorific value: 43600 KJ/Kg
Model: Scooty Pep+ Compression Ratio: 9:1
Type: SPARK IGNITION Spark Plug: Bosch (Copper)
Fuel Type: PETROL
Without change in SPARK INTENSITY and Without Coating
Sr.No.
Load(kg)
Temperature
Engine
R.P.M.
Time
Required
for10cc
Fuel
Consumpti
on
(Seconds)
Exhaust Emissions
Air-
Intake
'T'/DBT
(K)
Exhaust
Gas(K)
CO(%
vol.)(P)
HC
(ppm)(
P)
CO2(%
vol.)(P)
NOx
(ppm)(
P)
1 0 308 347 3000 72.00 0.960 1170 4.4 145
2 2 308 363 2910 70.00 1.205 1154 5.1 147
3 4 308 394 2780 67.00 1.310 1139 5.9 155
4 6 308 421 2690 65.00 1.460 1117 6.7 164
5 8 308 457 2560 63.00 1.730 1098 7.3 171
6 10 309 483 2490 61.00 1.95 1083 7.9 179
Without change in SPARK INTENSITY and With Coating
1 0 307 352 3000 74.00 0.955 1120 4.8 146
2 2 307 369 2910 72.00 1.125 1087 5.3 149
3 4 308 401 2810 69.00 1.260 1054 6.1 158
4 6 308 432 2720 67.00 1.386 1023 6.9 168
5 8 307 467 2630 66.00 1.630 997 7.6 176
6 10 309 494 2520 64.00 1.83 960 8.1 185
With change in SPARK INTENSITY and Without Coating
1 0 307 357 3000 75.00 0.840 1078 5.9 151
2 2 308 371 2920 73.00 0.980 1039 6.6 159
3 4 308 403 2830 70.00 1.170 1003 7.4 168
4 6 308 436 2760 68.00 1.360 973 8.1 176
5 8 309 465 2680 67.00 1.590 924 8.7 182
6 10 309 491 2610 65.00 1.76 882 9.6 188
With change in SPARK INTENSITY and With Coating
1 0 308 358 3000 77.00 0.830 1062 6.1 154
2 2 308 373 2925 75.00 0.970 1028 6.7 162
3 4 309 406 2830 73.00 1.150 998 7.6 170
4 6 309 437 2770 72.00 1.330 960 8.3 179
5 8 308 464 2695 69.00 1.550 912 9 186
6 10 307 492 2615 67.00 1.69 875 9.8 193
With change in SPARK INTENSITY and With Coating After Using Catalytic Convertor
1 0 308 358 3000 77.00 0.805 1024 6.7 146
2 2 308 373 2925 75.00 0.935 997 7.5 151
3 4 309 406 2830 73.00 1.010 962 8.2 159
4 6 309 437 2770 72.00 1.150 920 8.9 167
5 8 308 464 2695 69.00 1.310 882 9.6 174
6 10 307 492 2615 67.00 1.46 844 10.3 182
OBSERVATION TABLE
CALCULATION
1. BRAKE POWER (B.P.):
B.P. =
2𝜋𝑁𝑇
60000
𝑘𝑊
B.P. =
2×3.14×2695×8×0.0765
60000
𝑘𝑊
= 1.69351 kW
2. POWER ADJUSTMENT FACTOR (α):
𝛼 =
𝑝
100
𝑛
×
300
𝑇
𝑚
𝛼 =
101
100
1
×
300
308
0.5
𝛼 = 0.9967968
3. CORRECTED BRAKE POWER (𝐁. 𝐏𝐜𝐨𝐫𝐫𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐞𝐝):
𝐵. 𝑃𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 =
𝐵. 𝑃𝑎𝑚𝑏𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝛼
=
1.69351
0.9967968
= 1.699 kW
5. BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (BSFC):
𝐵𝑆𝐹𝐶 =
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
=
0.386
1.699
= 0.227 kg/kWh
6. SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION ADJUSTMENT FACTOR (β):
𝛽 =
𝑘
𝛼
Where, k =Ratio of Indicated Power or Correction
Factor
𝑘 =
𝑝 𝑥 − 𝑎 × 𝜑 𝑥 × 𝑝𝑠𝑥
𝑝 𝑟 − 𝑎 × 𝜑 𝑟 × 𝑝𝑠𝑟
𝑚
×
𝑇𝑟
𝑇𝑥
𝑛
𝛽 =
0.9945625
0.9951
= 0.9952
7. CORRECTED BSFC:
𝐵𝑆𝐹𝐶 𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 =
𝐵𝑆𝐹𝐶 𝑎𝑚𝑏𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝛽
=
0.10373
0.9994
= 0.228 kg/kWh
8. BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY (ηbth):
ηbth =
𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
𝐹𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 × 𝐶𝑎𝑙𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒
%
=
1.699 ×3600 ×100
0.228 ×43600
= 36.33 %
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 44
Name of Manufacturer: TVS Calorific value: 43600 KJ/Kg
Model: Scooty Pep+ Compression Ratio: 9:1
Type: SPARK IGNITION Spark Plug: Bosch (Copper)
Fuel Type: PETROL
Without change in SPARK INTENSITY and Without Coating
Sr.No.
Load(kg)
Temperature
CorrectionFactor'k'
EngineR.P.M.
DrumRadius+
(ThicknessofBelt/4)in
m
BrakePower(KW)(P)
PowerAdjustment
factor(α)
CorrectedBrakePower
(KW)
Fuel Consumption
BrakeThermalEfficiency
(%)(P)
Exhaust Emissions
Air-Intake'T'/DBT
(K)
ExhaustGas(K)
TimeRequiredfor10
ccFuelConsumption
(Seconds)
FuelConsumption
Rate(Kg/h)
BrakeSpecificFuel
Consumption
(Kg/KWh)(P)
SpecificFuel
Consumption
AdjustmentFactor
(β)
CorrectedBrake
SpecificFuel
Consumption
(Kg/KWh)
CO(%vol.)(P)
HC(ppm)(P)
CO2(%vol.)(P)
NOx(ppm)(P)
1 0 308 347 0.994565215 3000 0.0765 0.00000 0.9967968 0.000 72.00 0.370 0.000 0.9978 0.000 0.00 0.960 1170 4.4 145
2 2 308 363 0.994565215 2910 0.0765 0.45715 0.9967968 0.459 70.00 0.381 0.830 0.9978 0.832 9.95 1.205 1154 5.1 147
3 4 308 394 0.992959631 2780 0.0765 0.87346 0.9967968 0.876 67.00 0.398 0.454 0.9962 0.456 18.20 1.310 1139 5.9 155
4 6 308 421 0.992959631 2690 0.0765 1.26778 0.9967968 1.272 65.00 0.410 0.322 0.9962 0.323 25.62 1.460 1117 6.7 164
5 8 308 457 0.992008279 2560 0.0765 1.60868 0.9967968 1.614 63.00 0.423 0.262 0.9952 0.263 31.51 1.730 1098 7.3 171
6 10 309 483 0.992008279 2490 0.0765 1.95586 0.9951826 1.965 61.00 0.437 0.222 1.0020 0.222 37.16 1.95 1083 7.9 179
Without change in SPARK INTENSITY and With Coating
1 0 307 352 0.994565215 3000 0.0765 0.00000 0.9984189 0.000 74.00 0.360 0.000 0.9961 0.000 0.00 0.955 1120 4.8 146
2 2 307 369 0.994565215 2910 0.0765 0.45715 0.9984189 0.458 72.00 0.370 0.808 0.9961 0.811 10.22 1.125 1087 5.3 149
3 4 308 401 0.992959631 2810 0.0765 0.88289 0.9967968 0.886 69.00 0.386 0.436 0.9962 0.438 18.94 1.260 1054 6.1 158
4 6 308 432 0.992959631 2720 0.0765 1.28191 0.9967968 1.286 67.00 0.398 0.309 0.9962 0.310 26.71 1.386 1023 6.9 168
5 8 307 467 0.992008279 2630 0.0765 1.65266 0.9984189 1.655 66.00 0.404 0.244 0.9936 0.245 33.86 1.630 997 7.6 176
6 10 309 494 0.992008279 2520 0.0765 1.97943 0.9951826 1.989 64.00 0.416 0.209 1.0020 0.209 39.45 1.83 960 8.1 185
With change in SPARK INTENSITY and Without Coating
1 0 307 357 0.994565215 3000 0.0765 0.00000 0.9984189 0.000 75.00 0.355 0.000 0.9961 0.000 0.00 0.840 1078 5.9 151
2 2 308 371 0.994565215 2920 0.0765 0.45872 0.9967968 0.460 73.00 0.365 0.793 0.9978 0.795 10.41 0.980 1039 6.6 159
3 4 308 403 0.992959631 2830 0.0765 0.88917 0.9967968 0.892 70.00 0.381 0.427 0.9962 0.428 19.35 1.170 1003 7.4 168
4 6 308 436 0.992959631 2760 0.0765 1.30077 0.9967968 1.305 68.00 0.392 0.300 0.9962 0.301 27.50 1.360 973 8.1 176
5 8 309 465 0.992008279 2680 0.0765 1.68408 0.9951826 1.692 67.00 0.398 0.235 0.9968 0.236 35.14 1.590 924 8.7 182
6 10 309 491 0.992008279 2610 0.0765 2.05012 0.9951826 2.060 65.00 0.410 0.199 1.0020 0.199 41.50 1.76 882 9.6 188
With change in SPARK INTENSITY and With Coating
1 0 308 358 0.994565215 3000 0.0765 0.00000 0.9967968 0.000 77.00 0.346 0.000 0.9978 0.000 0.00 0.830 1062 6.1 154
2 2 308 373 0.994565215 2925 0.0765 0.45951 0.9967968 0.461 75.00 0.355 0.771 0.9978 0.772 10.72 0.970 1028 6.7 162
3 4 309 406 0.992959631 2830 0.0765 0.88917 0.9951826 0.893 73.00 0.365 0.408 0.9978 0.409 20.22 1.150 998 7.6 170
4 6 309 437 0.992959631 2770 0.0765 1.30548 0.9951826 1.312 72.00 0.370 0.282 0.9978 0.283 29.27 1.330 960 8.3 179
5 8 308 464 0.992008279 2695 0.0765 1.69351 0.9967968 1.699 69.00 0.386 0.227 0.9952 0.228 36.33 1.550 912 9 186
6 10 307 492 0.992008279 2615 0.0765 2.05405 0.9984189 2.057 67.00 0.398 0.193 1.0020 0.193 42.72 1.69 875 9.8 193
With change in SPARK INTENSITY and With Coating After Using Catalytic Convertor
1 0 308 413 0.994565215 3000 0.0765 0.00000 0.9967968 0.000 77.00 0.346 0.000 0.9978 0.000 0.00 0.805 1024 6.7 146
2 2 308 420 0.994565215 2925 0.0765 0.45951 0.9967968 0.461 75.00 0.355 0.771 0.9978 0.772 10.72 0.935 997 7.5 151
3 4 309 427 0.992959631 2830 0.0765 0.88917 0.9951826 0.893 73.00 0.365 0.408 0.9978 0.409 20.22 1.010 962 8.2 159
4 6 309 430 0.992959631 2770 0.0765 1.30548 0.9951826 1.312 72.00 0.370 0.282 0.9978 0.283 29.27 1.150 920 8.9 167
5 8 308 435 0.992008279 2695 0.0765 1.69351 0.9967968 1.699 69.00 0.386 0.227 0.9952 0.228 36.33 1.310 882 9.6 174
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 45
CALCULATION
CHANGE IN RPM BY INCREASING THE LOAD
• As increasing the load with the help of
the rope belt dynamometer on the
pulley it resist the motion of the
vehicle. So as increasing the load it
decrease the rpm of the vehicle wheel
hub as shown above. At this time Fuel
consumption is nearly constant in case
of SI engine.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 46
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
0 2 4 6 8 10
R.P.M.
Load (kg)
Change in R.P.M.
Without any Change
After Material Coating
By chabging in Spark Intensity
By changing in Spark Intensity
and Material Coating
BRAKE POWER
• Brake power of the engine is the
net power available at the crank
shaft for doing useful work.
• It is generally measure with the
help of Rope brake Dynamometer.
B.P. =
2𝜋𝑁𝑇
60000
𝑘𝑊
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 47
0.000
0.500
1.000
1.500
2.000
2.500
2 4 6 8 10
BreakPower(kw)
Load (kg)
B.P. Vs Load
Without any Change
After Material Coating
By Changing in Spark Intensity
By changing in Spark Intesity
and Material Coating
BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY
• Any thermal efficiency is define as the
work done to the heat supply to the
engine. It is based on either Indicated
Power or Brake Power.
ηbth =
𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
𝐹𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 × 𝐶𝑎𝑙𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒
%
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 48
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
40.00
45.00
2 4 6 8 10
BreakThermalEfficiency(%)
Load (kg)
B.T.E.(%) Vs Load
Without any Change
After Material Coating
By Changing in Spark Intensity
By changing in spark Intensity
and Material Coating
BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION
• Brake Specific Fuel Consumption is
the amount of fuel required to be
supplied to an engine to develop 1
kW power per hour. As increasing
the load the BSFC is decrease.
𝐵𝑆𝐹𝐶 =
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 49
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
0.500
0.600
0.700
0.800
0.900
2 4 6 8 10
B.S.F.C.(kg/kwh)
Load (kg)
B.S.F.C. Vs Load
Without Any Change
After Material Coating
By Changing in Spark Intensity
By Changinh in Spark
Intensity and Material
Coating
EXHAUST EMISSION PARAMETERS
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 50
HYDROCARBONS
• The unburnt fuel which are directly pass to
the exhaust without any combustion inside
the engine is Hydrocarbon. At the starting of
the engine or say at zero load the
composition of the hydrocarbon is more. It is
denoted by ppm (parts per million).
• By increasing the load the proper combustion
is occur because of more heat energy is
required by increasing the load so that by
increasing the load the proportion of the
hydrocarbon emission is decrease.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 51
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0 2 4 6 8 10
HC(ppm)
Load (kg)
HC Vs Load
Withour any Change
After Material Coating
By Changing in Spark Intensity
By Changing in Spark Intensity
and Material Coting
After Using Catalytic Convertor
CARBON MONOXIDE
• By improper combustion of the fuel the
Carbon Monoxide is generated. As increasing
the load the proper combustion of the fuel is
occur. In addition it is necessary to utilize the
oxygen to decrease the Carbon Monoxide
emission
• By increasing the load at same RPM, proper
fuel combustion is occur and the generated
Carbon Monoxide is converted into Carbon
Dioxide
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 52
0.000
0.500
1.000
1.500
2.000
2.500
0 2 4 6 8 10
CO
Load (kg)
CO Vs Load
Without any Change
After Material Coating
By Changing in Spark
Intensity
By Changing in Spark
Intensity and Material
Coating
After Using Catalytic
Convertor
CARBON DIOXIDE
• As increasing the load the emission of the
Carbon Dioxide is increase. It is necessary lo
emits lower Carbon Monoxide. Carbon
Monoxide is reacts with the Oxygen and
generate the Carbon Dioxide which is not
harmful unlike Carbon Monoxide
• At the increasing the load the heat energy is
utilize more it means the temperature of the
engine is increase so that at this condition it is
easy to react of Carbon Monoxide to Oxygen
and generate Carbon Monoxide.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 53
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 2 4 6 8 10
CO2
Load (kg)
CO2 Vs Load
Without any Change
After Material Coating
By changing in Spark
Intensity
By Changing in Spark
Intensity and Material
Coating
After Using Catalytic
Convertor
NITROGEN OXIDES
• At normal ambient temperature Nitrogen
cannot react with oxygen. But at high
temperature Nitrogen can react with Oxygen.
So as temperature increase Nitrogen is start
to react with Oxygen. After reaction Nitrogen
is create Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). Nitrogen
Oxides is generally measured in ppm (parts
per million).
• As load and/or rpm increase the temperature
of the engine increase so that the emission of
the Nitrogen Oxides is increase.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 54
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 2 4 6 8 10
NOx
Load (kg)
NOx Vs Load
Without any Change
After Material Coating
By Changing in Spark
Intensity
By Changing in Spark
Intensity and Material
Coating
After Using Catalytic
Convertor
CONCLUSION
• The experimental investigation has been carried out to optimize the performance and to
reduce the exhaust parameters of the engine, after coating the piston by Titanium Oxide.
For upcoming the heat losses occurring from the crown of the piston, it is been coated by
Titanium Oxide of 300 micron (0.3 mm).
• There is an increment in BTE due to the reduction in heat loss of the piston coated with
TiO2.
• There is decrement in CO, HC and NOx due to the reduction in heat loss of the piston
coated with TiO2.
• The performance increases and emission is decrease of the engine. Due to the increase
in spark intensity the fuel consumption decreases.
• Thermal Barrier Coating and by increase in spark intensity, the combined effect gives
good result in engine performance and also in emission. Due to proper combustion
unburnt HC is reduced and CO is reduce while CO2 is increase.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 55
FUTURE SCOPE
• The value of NOx can be controlled by using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system (By
giving exhaust flow of 7% to 21%). So in Titanium Oxide coated piston engine by using
EGR technique can reduce NOx from exhaust.
• As we know that petrol as a fuel is limited so by using alternative fuels in Titanium
Coated piston engine the performance can be increase.
• By using two spark plugs with different intensity we can improve engine performance.
• Bi-Fuel engine can be develop with Coated piston and different spark intensity according
to fuel used.
• Change in different compression ratio according to spark intensity can give good results.
• By enhance spark timing should analyzed with Titanium oxide coated piston engine.
• By using other material for coating can change result.
• Using electronic kit, increase and decrease the intensity of spark as required by engine.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 56
REFERANCES
• Internal combustion engine cold-start efficiency: A review of the problem, causes and potential
solutions by Andrew Roberts, Richard Brooks, Philip Shipway
• THE PROBLEM OF COLD STARTS: 2 A CLOSER LOOK AT MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS LEVELS by
Matthew S. Reiter Kara M. Kockelman
• A Study of Method to Solve Cold-Start Problem in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle by Yong-shik Chong,
Jun-ha Hwang, Jong-cheol Kim
• Cold Starting of IC Engines by R.B. Gupta
• Multi Point Fuel Injection
• Structural Analysis of a Ceramic Coated Diesel Engine Piston Using Finite Element Method by
Narsaiyolla Naresh, P.Sampath Rao.
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 57
THANK YOU
STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 58

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Cold starting problem in scooty pep+

  • 1. IPCOWALA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Study of cold starting problem in Scooty Pep+ Submitted by, • Shah Deep (121010102011) • Chauhan Rahul (121010102033) • Mominsuthar Sahirmohmad (121010102044) • Parmar Jayveersinh (121010102048) Guided By, Prof. Ritesh Kumar Ranjan Asst. Professor of IIET
  • 2. OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION • PROBLEM DEFINITION • NEED OF PROJECT • OBJECTIVE • COLD STARTING • LITERALURE SURVEY • EXPECTED SOLUTION • COMPONENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL SETUP • OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS • CONCLUSION • FUTURE SCOPE • REFERANCE STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of fuel occurs with an oxidizer in combustion chamber that is an integral part of working fluid flow circuit. • Mostly IC engine works on fossil fuels like Petrol, Diesel. It also works on natural gases like CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas). Mainly IC engine Classified as SI Engine (Spark Ignition Engine) and CI Engine (Compression Ignition Engine). STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 3
  • 4. INTRODUCTION • Scooty pep+ is the vehicle of TVS Motors which is specially design for girls and old people. • This vehicle is light weighted vehicle and easy to handle. • In this vehicle it has 4-stroke 88-CC air cooled petrol engine which generate 5.8 N-m max. torque and 3.68 kW max. power. • It has digital DC CDI ignition system. • It has automatic CVT automatic transmission system STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 4
  • 5. PROBLEM DEFINATION • This TVS Scooty Pep+ is very good Scooty in the range of 80-90 CC engines. • But there is some major problem is occur in this Scooter which faced by consumer. • Major problem is cold starting. The vehicle cannot able to start in cold season or at when the temperature is very low. • The other problem is occur in this Scooter is overheat. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 5
  • 6. NEED OF PROJECT • In the IC engine there are the problem of Cold Starting. In this problem Cold Start attempts to start a vehicle’s engine when it is cold, relative to its normal Operating Temperature, often due to normal cold weather. • Due to cold starting problem so many problem is occur. Consumer require more effort to start the engine. • In addition to start the engine in cold weather it is require to supply rich mixture of charge (Air- fuel mixture) to the cylinder. Which may increase unburnt Hydro-Carbon emission. • Due to reach mixture emission of Carbon Monoxide due to less Oxygen presence inside the cylinder which is toxic. The emission of NOx is increase which create environment problems. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 6
  • 7. OBJECTIVE The primary goal of this project was to develop cold start technologies for IC engine operation. Specifically, in this project we use the SI engine which are widely use in now days for light duty vehicles. We trying to minimize this problems in vehicles at less cost and by easy implementation. This project contains these following major phases: 1. Conduct the cold start performance on the Scooty pep+ engine. 2. To design the system by which we can analyze the system. 3. To identify and acquire the emission. 4. Evaluate the performance, modify equipment/operating parameters and repeat if necessary. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 7
  • 8. COLD STARTING • Cold start is an attempt to start a vehicle’s engine when it is cold, relative to it normal operating temperature. • Cold start situation is commonplace, as weather conditions in most climates will naturally be at lower temperature than typical operating temperature of an engine. • In case of two wheeler vehicle, vehicle needs to start manually with the use of KICK. • Multiple reasons for cold starting are, • The engine compression is higher as lack of the heat make ignition more difficult • Low temperature cause engine oil to become more viscous, making it more difficult to circulate. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 8
  • 9. PROBLEM DUE TO COLD STARTING • Due to the cold start problem, consumer have to do more effort to start the vehicle. • Due to Cold starting problem it produce more toxic exhaust gases like Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Hydro-Carbon (HC) etc. • It produce more hydro-carbons due to incombustible fuels. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 9
  • 10. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 10
  • 11. LITERATURE SURVEY STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 11
  • 12. Author Definition Abstract Conclusion Andrew Roberts, Richard Brooks, Philip Shipway Internal combustion engine cold-start efficiency: A review of the problem, causes and potential solutions • The thermal efficiency of the internal combustion engine is significantly lower at cold start than when the vehicle reaches steady state temperatures owing to sub-optimal lubricant and component temperatures. • The approaches have a common theme of attempting to reduce energy losses so that systems and components reach their intended operating temperature range as soon as possible after engine start. • Through this review, it can be seen that the issue of internal combustion engine cold-start efficiency is one that has attracted a great deal of attention. • It can be seen that there are noticeable improvements to be had in both fuel consumption and emissions as a direct result of improving the cold start performance of the internal combustion engine. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 12
  • 13. Author Definition Abstract Conclusion Yong-shik Chong, Jun-ha Hwang, Jong-cheol Kim A Study of Method to Solve Cold-Start Problem in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle • The Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) has the problem of starting the fuel cells in winter because of the water that generated from the cells. • Therefore, cold-start is hot issue of the FCEV and the car makers are using several methods. • Using the inverter and traction motor system of the vehicle, the fuel cell stack increases the temperature of the coolant. • Cold-start logic for LMFC Pilot vehicle that had a serious problem has been confirmed through the infrared and vehicle tests. • As the current is concentrated to only one phase of power module because of the characteristic of the cold- start logic, it would be likely to destroy the power module with very high rate of probability. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 13
  • 14. Author Definition Abstract Conclusion Matthew S. Reiter Kara M. Kockelman THE PROBLEM OF COLD STARTS: A CLOSER LOOK AT MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS LEVELS • Starting emissions are consistently found to make up a high proportion of total transportation-related methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). • After three to four minutes of vehicle operation, both the engine coolant and the catalytic converter have generally warmed, and emissions are significantly lower. This paper synthesizes a variety of current knowledge about cold start emissions for motor vehicles. Simulations performed using EPA’s MOVES program suggests that, regardless of geographic location or time of year, CH4, N2O, and VOC constitute a significant cost of cold engine starts. Looking toward the future, the same top pollutants continue to appear, but absolute levels of emissions decline substantially. Other potential sources of vehicle power, such as electricity, are undergoing their own sharp reductions in pollutant emissions. This could have major implications for the future of transportation. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 14
  • 15. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW 1. The engine performance and emissions depend on engine speed and temperature of surrounding. 2. When the temperature of surrounding is low then the lubricating oil becomes more viscous and it resist the motion of engine so fuel consumption increase. 3. When we start the engine at low temperature condition the emission of unburnt fuel (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) is higher. 4. Due to low temperature of surrounding and engine it requires rich mixture to start it up. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 15
  • 16. 5. As temperature of engine increase the emission of Carbon Monoxide (CO) is decrease and emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is increase. 6. The emission of Oxygen is decrease by increasing of temperature of engine as it convert CO to CO2. 7. As increasing of temperature, combustion of fuel is properly occur so that emission of Hydro- Carbon (HC) is decrease. 8. As increasing of temperature, emission of NOx is increase because Nitrogen is react with Oxygen at high temperature. 9. Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) can be use as catalyst for effective reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and other emission. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 16
  • 17. EXPECTED SOLUTION STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 17
  • 18. EXPECTED SOLUTION •Change in Spark Intensity •Material Coating •Catalytic Convertor STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 18
  • 19. CHANGE IN SPARK INTENSITY • In SI engine mostly spark plug is located at the top at cylinder head. • In normal condition when compression stroke is finish and when spark ignites at that time firstly the part of fuel at the top of the cylinder is ignite and then the flame is transfer to the bottom of the cylinder. • But in the cold condition the heat loss occurs so the required heat is not transferred to the bottom of the cylinder and engine is not able be to start. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 19
  • 20. ELECTRODE GAP AND SPARK INTENSITY • Electrode gap of any spark plug decide the spark magnitude. Incorrect electrode gap can effect on engine performance. • Engine having high compression ratio require small electrode gap. • If the electrode gape too small, quenching of flame nucleus occurs and range of Air-Fuel ratio is reduce for development of flame. • So as increase the intensity of spark plug, flame is travel for long time inside the combustion chamber and good combustion occurs. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 20
  • 21. ELECTRODE GAP STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 21 Electrode gap is mostly controlled by spark plug manufacturer. Now days there is very large selection plugs because of different engine specifications and according to compression ratio.
  • 22. MATERIAL COATING • If we will coat the piston by that material which have less thermal conductivity then the heat loss will be reduce. • Material coating is only done in upper surface of piston so the heat generated by the combustion process cannot easily transfer to the transmission which are located under piston (crank shaft, CVT, automatic transmission) and we can reduce the heat loss. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 22
  • 23. BENEFITS OF MATERIAL COATING • Maximum resistance to wear. • By coating different parts, life of piston increases. • Maintenance of different coated parts will decrease and lower operating costs. • Some materials like ceramic material made possible to resolve the problem of highly wear and tear problem and it is practically applicable and increase the life of piston rings and other sliding elements. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 23
  • 24. SELECTION OF COATING MATERIAL Material AlSi Steel NiCrAl Oil Ring Compression Ring Thermal Conductivity (W/moC) 155 79 161 25-42 46-59 Thermal Expansion (1/oC) 21 122 12 10-13 10 Density (kg/m3) 2700 7870 7870 7300 7200 Specific Heat (J/kgoC) 960 500 764 Poisson’s ratio 0.3 0.3 0.27 0.29 0.3 Young’s Modulus (GPa) 90 200 90 160-135 110-140 STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 24 Mainly selection of coating material is based on their properties, so for selecting the coating material we should have their detail properties. For reducing the heat loss we should complete knowledge of their thermal conductivity of coating material and metals. (Thermal Conductivity ‘k’ – It is the property of material to conduct the heat)
  • 25. THERMAL BERRIER COATING To eliminate the heat loss of engine it require thermal barrier coating (TBC) with the main function is to thermally insulating of components. Greater fuel efficiency can be achieve when engines works at high temperature. TBC is design to improve the thermal efficiency of any engine without increasing the surface temperature of the components. Advantages of TBC: • Resistance to high temperature • Low heat conductivity which reduce heat loss • High chemical stability • High hardness value • Resistance to wear • Low heat conduction coefficient • High compression strength STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 25
  • 26. MATERIAL FOR TBC • Materials which have low thermal conductivity are preferred for Thermal Barrier coating. • The main purpose of Titanium Oxide is to get coated for the different machine parts. • Its thermal conductivity is lower near to negligible. • So it reduce the heat loss from any machine. Properties Minimum Value (SI) Maximum Value (SI) Units (SI) Atomic Volume 0.0057 0.07 m/kmol Density 3.97 4.05 Mg/m3 Energy Content 100 150 MJ/kg Bulk Modulus 209.1 21801 GPa Compressive Strength 660 3675 MPa Thermal Conductivity 4.8 11.8 W/mK Hardness 9330 10290 MPa Poisson’s Ratio 0.27 0.29 Tensile Strength 333.3 367.5 MPa Maximum Service Temperature 1840 1910 K Melting Point 2103 2123 K Specific Heat 683 697 J/kgK STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 26
  • 27. COATED PISTON STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 27 We coat the piston by Titanium Oxide of 300 micron (0.3mm).
  • 28. CATALYTIC CONVERTOR • From the exhaust of vehicles so many combustion products like CO, CO2, NOx, HC etc. emitted from engine due to improper combustion. These exhaust products have damaging effect on pure quality of air, environment and human health which makes strict norms of pollution emission. • A catalytic converter is a device for controlling vehicle emission which converts harmful products of combustion to less toxic substances by way of catalyzed chemical reactions. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 28
  • 29. CATALYTIC CONVERTOR CONT…… • Most recent vehicles that run through petrol or diesel are fitted with a three way catalytic converter, are named so because mainly it converts three basic pollutants in automobile exhaust emission system. • By an oxidizing process it converts unburned Hydro-Carbons (HC) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) to Carbon Dioxide (CO2)and water vapor, and by reduction process it converts Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) to produce CO2, Nitrogen (N2), and water (H2O). STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 29
  • 30. CATALYTIC CONVERTOR WORKING STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 30
  • 31. CATALYTIC CONVERTOR WORKING CONT…. • In the catalytic converter, there are two different types of catalyst at work, a reduction catalyst and an oxidation catalyst. Both types consist of a ceramic structure coated with a metal catalyst, usually platinum, rhodium and/or palladium. • The reduction catalyst is the first stage of the catalytic converter. It uses platinum and rhodium to help reduce the NOx emissions. • The oxidation catalyst is the second stage of the catalytic converter. It reduces the unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide by burning (oxidizing) them. This catalyst aids the reaction of the CO and hydrocarbons with the remaining oxygen in the exhaust gas. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 31
  • 32. COMPONENTS AND EXPERIMENTAL SETUP STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 32
  • 33. SCOOTY PEP Cylinder Single Cylinder Engine Stroke 4 – Stroke Fuel Petrol Displacement 87.8 CC Compression Ratio 10:1:1 Bore and Stroke 51×43 Maximum Power 3.68kW at 6500 RPM Maximum Torque 5.8 Nm at 4000 RPM Transmission Variomatic Transmission Ignition CDI Clutch Pivoted Clutch Centrifugally Operated STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 33
  • 34. ROPE BELT DYNAMOMETER The basic parts of a rope brake dynamometer are as follows: 1. Belt 2. Pulley 3. Spring Balance 4. Frame STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 34 Diameter of Drum 150 mm Width of drum 72 mm Thickness of Belt 6 mm Width of belt 65 mm Length of belt 85 mm Range of weight Scale 0 – 50 kg Rated RPM 2000 RPM
  • 35. WEIGHT SCALE • We will use digital weight scale to determine that how much load we applied on the dynamometer. • One end is connect with belt of dynamometer and other is to the stand. The range of the weight scale is 0 – 50 kg. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 35
  • 36. AIR INTAKE TANK • Air tank is device which use to supply air to the engine as required. At front side it has hole which suck the air from atmosphere. • Inside the air tank there is a device which filtered air after sucking. At backward side the output port is available by which we can connect it to the engine. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 36
  • 37. FUEL CONSUMPTION MEASUREMENT • Burette is used to measure the volumetric fuel consumption of the engine which is shown in Figure. The fuel flow is measured by noting down the time taken for 10 ml of fuel consumed by the engine. • Burette used for the measurement has following specifications: • Range: 0 - 50 ml • Least Count : 0.1 ml STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 37
  • 38. MEASUREMNT OF SPEED • For measurement of rotational speed generally tachometer is used. A digital tachometer having 5 digits, 10 mm LCD display and range 10 to 99,999 RPM with accuracy ±0.05% + 1 digit was used for speed measurement. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 38
  • 39. EXHAUST GAS ANALYZR • It is the device that how much exhaust gases is produced by the engine. • With the help of exhaust gas analyzer we can determine that how much emission is emits by the engine. • At different load condition we will analyze the data and find out that at different condition how much emission obtain and after implementation of different solution we will analyze data and determine that which method is use for better results. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 39
  • 40. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 40
  • 41. OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 41
  • 42. PARAMETERS TO BE OBSERVED • Speed • Time for fuel consumption • Air Flow Rate • Temperature of Inlet Air and Exhaust Gases • Load on the Engine • Exhaust gas Proportions STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 42
  • 43. OBSERVATION STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 43 Name of Manufacturer: TVS Calorific value: 43600 KJ/Kg Model: Scooty Pep+ Compression Ratio: 9:1 Type: SPARK IGNITION Spark Plug: Bosch (Copper) Fuel Type: PETROL Without change in SPARK INTENSITY and Without Coating Sr.No. Load(kg) Temperature Engine R.P.M. Time Required for10cc Fuel Consumpti on (Seconds) Exhaust Emissions Air- Intake 'T'/DBT (K) Exhaust Gas(K) CO(% vol.)(P) HC (ppm)( P) CO2(% vol.)(P) NOx (ppm)( P) 1 0 308 347 3000 72.00 0.960 1170 4.4 145 2 2 308 363 2910 70.00 1.205 1154 5.1 147 3 4 308 394 2780 67.00 1.310 1139 5.9 155 4 6 308 421 2690 65.00 1.460 1117 6.7 164 5 8 308 457 2560 63.00 1.730 1098 7.3 171 6 10 309 483 2490 61.00 1.95 1083 7.9 179 Without change in SPARK INTENSITY and With Coating 1 0 307 352 3000 74.00 0.955 1120 4.8 146 2 2 307 369 2910 72.00 1.125 1087 5.3 149 3 4 308 401 2810 69.00 1.260 1054 6.1 158 4 6 308 432 2720 67.00 1.386 1023 6.9 168 5 8 307 467 2630 66.00 1.630 997 7.6 176 6 10 309 494 2520 64.00 1.83 960 8.1 185 With change in SPARK INTENSITY and Without Coating 1 0 307 357 3000 75.00 0.840 1078 5.9 151 2 2 308 371 2920 73.00 0.980 1039 6.6 159 3 4 308 403 2830 70.00 1.170 1003 7.4 168 4 6 308 436 2760 68.00 1.360 973 8.1 176 5 8 309 465 2680 67.00 1.590 924 8.7 182 6 10 309 491 2610 65.00 1.76 882 9.6 188 With change in SPARK INTENSITY and With Coating 1 0 308 358 3000 77.00 0.830 1062 6.1 154 2 2 308 373 2925 75.00 0.970 1028 6.7 162 3 4 309 406 2830 73.00 1.150 998 7.6 170 4 6 309 437 2770 72.00 1.330 960 8.3 179 5 8 308 464 2695 69.00 1.550 912 9 186 6 10 307 492 2615 67.00 1.69 875 9.8 193 With change in SPARK INTENSITY and With Coating After Using Catalytic Convertor 1 0 308 358 3000 77.00 0.805 1024 6.7 146 2 2 308 373 2925 75.00 0.935 997 7.5 151 3 4 309 406 2830 73.00 1.010 962 8.2 159 4 6 309 437 2770 72.00 1.150 920 8.9 167 5 8 308 464 2695 69.00 1.310 882 9.6 174 6 10 307 492 2615 67.00 1.46 844 10.3 182 OBSERVATION TABLE
  • 44. CALCULATION 1. BRAKE POWER (B.P.): B.P. = 2𝜋𝑁𝑇 60000 𝑘𝑊 B.P. = 2×3.14×2695×8×0.0765 60000 𝑘𝑊 = 1.69351 kW 2. POWER ADJUSTMENT FACTOR (α): 𝛼 = 𝑝 100 𝑛 × 300 𝑇 𝑚 𝛼 = 101 100 1 × 300 308 0.5 𝛼 = 0.9967968 3. CORRECTED BRAKE POWER (𝐁. 𝐏𝐜𝐨𝐫𝐫𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐞𝐝): 𝐵. 𝑃𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 𝐵. 𝑃𝑎𝑚𝑏𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝛼 = 1.69351 0.9967968 = 1.699 kW 5. BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (BSFC): 𝐵𝑆𝐹𝐶 = 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 0.386 1.699 = 0.227 kg/kWh 6. SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION ADJUSTMENT FACTOR (β): 𝛽 = 𝑘 𝛼 Where, k =Ratio of Indicated Power or Correction Factor 𝑘 = 𝑝 𝑥 − 𝑎 × 𝜑 𝑥 × 𝑝𝑠𝑥 𝑝 𝑟 − 𝑎 × 𝜑 𝑟 × 𝑝𝑠𝑟 𝑚 × 𝑇𝑟 𝑇𝑥 𝑛 𝛽 = 0.9945625 0.9951 = 0.9952 7. CORRECTED BSFC: 𝐵𝑆𝐹𝐶 𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 𝐵𝑆𝐹𝐶 𝑎𝑚𝑏𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝛽 = 0.10373 0.9994 = 0.228 kg/kWh 8. BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY (ηbth): ηbth = 𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐹𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 × 𝐶𝑎𝑙𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 % = 1.699 ×3600 ×100 0.228 ×43600 = 36.33 % STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 44
  • 45. Name of Manufacturer: TVS Calorific value: 43600 KJ/Kg Model: Scooty Pep+ Compression Ratio: 9:1 Type: SPARK IGNITION Spark Plug: Bosch (Copper) Fuel Type: PETROL Without change in SPARK INTENSITY and Without Coating Sr.No. Load(kg) Temperature CorrectionFactor'k' EngineR.P.M. DrumRadius+ (ThicknessofBelt/4)in m BrakePower(KW)(P) PowerAdjustment factor(α) CorrectedBrakePower (KW) Fuel Consumption BrakeThermalEfficiency (%)(P) Exhaust Emissions Air-Intake'T'/DBT (K) ExhaustGas(K) TimeRequiredfor10 ccFuelConsumption (Seconds) FuelConsumption Rate(Kg/h) BrakeSpecificFuel Consumption (Kg/KWh)(P) SpecificFuel Consumption AdjustmentFactor (β) CorrectedBrake SpecificFuel Consumption (Kg/KWh) CO(%vol.)(P) HC(ppm)(P) CO2(%vol.)(P) NOx(ppm)(P) 1 0 308 347 0.994565215 3000 0.0765 0.00000 0.9967968 0.000 72.00 0.370 0.000 0.9978 0.000 0.00 0.960 1170 4.4 145 2 2 308 363 0.994565215 2910 0.0765 0.45715 0.9967968 0.459 70.00 0.381 0.830 0.9978 0.832 9.95 1.205 1154 5.1 147 3 4 308 394 0.992959631 2780 0.0765 0.87346 0.9967968 0.876 67.00 0.398 0.454 0.9962 0.456 18.20 1.310 1139 5.9 155 4 6 308 421 0.992959631 2690 0.0765 1.26778 0.9967968 1.272 65.00 0.410 0.322 0.9962 0.323 25.62 1.460 1117 6.7 164 5 8 308 457 0.992008279 2560 0.0765 1.60868 0.9967968 1.614 63.00 0.423 0.262 0.9952 0.263 31.51 1.730 1098 7.3 171 6 10 309 483 0.992008279 2490 0.0765 1.95586 0.9951826 1.965 61.00 0.437 0.222 1.0020 0.222 37.16 1.95 1083 7.9 179 Without change in SPARK INTENSITY and With Coating 1 0 307 352 0.994565215 3000 0.0765 0.00000 0.9984189 0.000 74.00 0.360 0.000 0.9961 0.000 0.00 0.955 1120 4.8 146 2 2 307 369 0.994565215 2910 0.0765 0.45715 0.9984189 0.458 72.00 0.370 0.808 0.9961 0.811 10.22 1.125 1087 5.3 149 3 4 308 401 0.992959631 2810 0.0765 0.88289 0.9967968 0.886 69.00 0.386 0.436 0.9962 0.438 18.94 1.260 1054 6.1 158 4 6 308 432 0.992959631 2720 0.0765 1.28191 0.9967968 1.286 67.00 0.398 0.309 0.9962 0.310 26.71 1.386 1023 6.9 168 5 8 307 467 0.992008279 2630 0.0765 1.65266 0.9984189 1.655 66.00 0.404 0.244 0.9936 0.245 33.86 1.630 997 7.6 176 6 10 309 494 0.992008279 2520 0.0765 1.97943 0.9951826 1.989 64.00 0.416 0.209 1.0020 0.209 39.45 1.83 960 8.1 185 With change in SPARK INTENSITY and Without Coating 1 0 307 357 0.994565215 3000 0.0765 0.00000 0.9984189 0.000 75.00 0.355 0.000 0.9961 0.000 0.00 0.840 1078 5.9 151 2 2 308 371 0.994565215 2920 0.0765 0.45872 0.9967968 0.460 73.00 0.365 0.793 0.9978 0.795 10.41 0.980 1039 6.6 159 3 4 308 403 0.992959631 2830 0.0765 0.88917 0.9967968 0.892 70.00 0.381 0.427 0.9962 0.428 19.35 1.170 1003 7.4 168 4 6 308 436 0.992959631 2760 0.0765 1.30077 0.9967968 1.305 68.00 0.392 0.300 0.9962 0.301 27.50 1.360 973 8.1 176 5 8 309 465 0.992008279 2680 0.0765 1.68408 0.9951826 1.692 67.00 0.398 0.235 0.9968 0.236 35.14 1.590 924 8.7 182 6 10 309 491 0.992008279 2610 0.0765 2.05012 0.9951826 2.060 65.00 0.410 0.199 1.0020 0.199 41.50 1.76 882 9.6 188 With change in SPARK INTENSITY and With Coating 1 0 308 358 0.994565215 3000 0.0765 0.00000 0.9967968 0.000 77.00 0.346 0.000 0.9978 0.000 0.00 0.830 1062 6.1 154 2 2 308 373 0.994565215 2925 0.0765 0.45951 0.9967968 0.461 75.00 0.355 0.771 0.9978 0.772 10.72 0.970 1028 6.7 162 3 4 309 406 0.992959631 2830 0.0765 0.88917 0.9951826 0.893 73.00 0.365 0.408 0.9978 0.409 20.22 1.150 998 7.6 170 4 6 309 437 0.992959631 2770 0.0765 1.30548 0.9951826 1.312 72.00 0.370 0.282 0.9978 0.283 29.27 1.330 960 8.3 179 5 8 308 464 0.992008279 2695 0.0765 1.69351 0.9967968 1.699 69.00 0.386 0.227 0.9952 0.228 36.33 1.550 912 9 186 6 10 307 492 0.992008279 2615 0.0765 2.05405 0.9984189 2.057 67.00 0.398 0.193 1.0020 0.193 42.72 1.69 875 9.8 193 With change in SPARK INTENSITY and With Coating After Using Catalytic Convertor 1 0 308 413 0.994565215 3000 0.0765 0.00000 0.9967968 0.000 77.00 0.346 0.000 0.9978 0.000 0.00 0.805 1024 6.7 146 2 2 308 420 0.994565215 2925 0.0765 0.45951 0.9967968 0.461 75.00 0.355 0.771 0.9978 0.772 10.72 0.935 997 7.5 151 3 4 309 427 0.992959631 2830 0.0765 0.88917 0.9951826 0.893 73.00 0.365 0.408 0.9978 0.409 20.22 1.010 962 8.2 159 4 6 309 430 0.992959631 2770 0.0765 1.30548 0.9951826 1.312 72.00 0.370 0.282 0.9978 0.283 29.27 1.150 920 8.9 167 5 8 308 435 0.992008279 2695 0.0765 1.69351 0.9967968 1.699 69.00 0.386 0.227 0.9952 0.228 36.33 1.310 882 9.6 174 STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 45 CALCULATION
  • 46. CHANGE IN RPM BY INCREASING THE LOAD • As increasing the load with the help of the rope belt dynamometer on the pulley it resist the motion of the vehicle. So as increasing the load it decrease the rpm of the vehicle wheel hub as shown above. At this time Fuel consumption is nearly constant in case of SI engine. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 46 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0 2 4 6 8 10 R.P.M. Load (kg) Change in R.P.M. Without any Change After Material Coating By chabging in Spark Intensity By changing in Spark Intensity and Material Coating
  • 47. BRAKE POWER • Brake power of the engine is the net power available at the crank shaft for doing useful work. • It is generally measure with the help of Rope brake Dynamometer. B.P. = 2𝜋𝑁𝑇 60000 𝑘𝑊 STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 47 0.000 0.500 1.000 1.500 2.000 2.500 2 4 6 8 10 BreakPower(kw) Load (kg) B.P. Vs Load Without any Change After Material Coating By Changing in Spark Intensity By changing in Spark Intesity and Material Coating
  • 48. BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY • Any thermal efficiency is define as the work done to the heat supply to the engine. It is based on either Indicated Power or Brake Power. ηbth = 𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐹𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 × 𝐶𝑎𝑙𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 % STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 48 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 2 4 6 8 10 BreakThermalEfficiency(%) Load (kg) B.T.E.(%) Vs Load Without any Change After Material Coating By Changing in Spark Intensity By changing in spark Intensity and Material Coating
  • 49. BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION • Brake Specific Fuel Consumption is the amount of fuel required to be supplied to an engine to develop 1 kW power per hour. As increasing the load the BSFC is decrease. 𝐵𝑆𝐹𝐶 = 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑢𝑒𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑘𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 49 0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800 0.900 2 4 6 8 10 B.S.F.C.(kg/kwh) Load (kg) B.S.F.C. Vs Load Without Any Change After Material Coating By Changing in Spark Intensity By Changinh in Spark Intensity and Material Coating
  • 50. EXHAUST EMISSION PARAMETERS STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 50
  • 51. HYDROCARBONS • The unburnt fuel which are directly pass to the exhaust without any combustion inside the engine is Hydrocarbon. At the starting of the engine or say at zero load the composition of the hydrocarbon is more. It is denoted by ppm (parts per million). • By increasing the load the proper combustion is occur because of more heat energy is required by increasing the load so that by increasing the load the proportion of the hydrocarbon emission is decrease. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 51 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 2 4 6 8 10 HC(ppm) Load (kg) HC Vs Load Withour any Change After Material Coating By Changing in Spark Intensity By Changing in Spark Intensity and Material Coting After Using Catalytic Convertor
  • 52. CARBON MONOXIDE • By improper combustion of the fuel the Carbon Monoxide is generated. As increasing the load the proper combustion of the fuel is occur. In addition it is necessary to utilize the oxygen to decrease the Carbon Monoxide emission • By increasing the load at same RPM, proper fuel combustion is occur and the generated Carbon Monoxide is converted into Carbon Dioxide STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 52 0.000 0.500 1.000 1.500 2.000 2.500 0 2 4 6 8 10 CO Load (kg) CO Vs Load Without any Change After Material Coating By Changing in Spark Intensity By Changing in Spark Intensity and Material Coating After Using Catalytic Convertor
  • 53. CARBON DIOXIDE • As increasing the load the emission of the Carbon Dioxide is increase. It is necessary lo emits lower Carbon Monoxide. Carbon Monoxide is reacts with the Oxygen and generate the Carbon Dioxide which is not harmful unlike Carbon Monoxide • At the increasing the load the heat energy is utilize more it means the temperature of the engine is increase so that at this condition it is easy to react of Carbon Monoxide to Oxygen and generate Carbon Monoxide. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 53 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 CO2 Load (kg) CO2 Vs Load Without any Change After Material Coating By changing in Spark Intensity By Changing in Spark Intensity and Material Coating After Using Catalytic Convertor
  • 54. NITROGEN OXIDES • At normal ambient temperature Nitrogen cannot react with oxygen. But at high temperature Nitrogen can react with Oxygen. So as temperature increase Nitrogen is start to react with Oxygen. After reaction Nitrogen is create Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). Nitrogen Oxides is generally measured in ppm (parts per million). • As load and/or rpm increase the temperature of the engine increase so that the emission of the Nitrogen Oxides is increase. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 54 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 2 4 6 8 10 NOx Load (kg) NOx Vs Load Without any Change After Material Coating By Changing in Spark Intensity By Changing in Spark Intensity and Material Coating After Using Catalytic Convertor
  • 55. CONCLUSION • The experimental investigation has been carried out to optimize the performance and to reduce the exhaust parameters of the engine, after coating the piston by Titanium Oxide. For upcoming the heat losses occurring from the crown of the piston, it is been coated by Titanium Oxide of 300 micron (0.3 mm). • There is an increment in BTE due to the reduction in heat loss of the piston coated with TiO2. • There is decrement in CO, HC and NOx due to the reduction in heat loss of the piston coated with TiO2. • The performance increases and emission is decrease of the engine. Due to the increase in spark intensity the fuel consumption decreases. • Thermal Barrier Coating and by increase in spark intensity, the combined effect gives good result in engine performance and also in emission. Due to proper combustion unburnt HC is reduced and CO is reduce while CO2 is increase. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 55
  • 56. FUTURE SCOPE • The value of NOx can be controlled by using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system (By giving exhaust flow of 7% to 21%). So in Titanium Oxide coated piston engine by using EGR technique can reduce NOx from exhaust. • As we know that petrol as a fuel is limited so by using alternative fuels in Titanium Coated piston engine the performance can be increase. • By using two spark plugs with different intensity we can improve engine performance. • Bi-Fuel engine can be develop with Coated piston and different spark intensity according to fuel used. • Change in different compression ratio according to spark intensity can give good results. • By enhance spark timing should analyzed with Titanium oxide coated piston engine. • By using other material for coating can change result. • Using electronic kit, increase and decrease the intensity of spark as required by engine. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 56
  • 57. REFERANCES • Internal combustion engine cold-start efficiency: A review of the problem, causes and potential solutions by Andrew Roberts, Richard Brooks, Philip Shipway • THE PROBLEM OF COLD STARTS: 2 A CLOSER LOOK AT MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS LEVELS by Matthew S. Reiter Kara M. Kockelman • A Study of Method to Solve Cold-Start Problem in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle by Yong-shik Chong, Jun-ha Hwang, Jong-cheol Kim • Cold Starting of IC Engines by R.B. Gupta • Multi Point Fuel Injection • Structural Analysis of a Ceramic Coated Diesel Engine Piston Using Finite Element Method by Narsaiyolla Naresh, P.Sampath Rao. STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 57
  • 58. THANK YOU STUDY OF COLDSTARTING PROBLEM IN SCOOTY PEP+ 58