The roaring twenties


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The roaring twenties

  1. 1. The Roaring Twenties<br />
  2. 2. COMPETENCY GOAL 9:Prosperity and Depression (1919-1939)<br />9.01: Elaborate on the cycle of economic boom and bust in the 1920's and 1930's.<br />9.02: Analyze the extent of prosperity for different segments of society during this period.<br />9.03: Analyze the significance of social, intellectual, and technological changes of lifestyles in the United States.<br />9.04: Describe challenges to traditional practices in religion, race, and gender.<br />
  3. 3. 1920's = "Roaring 20's” or "Jazz Age“<br />modern America is born at this time<br />1920 census = urban society<br />
  4. 4. <ul><li>President Warren G. Harding promises U.S. a “return to normalcy ”
  5. 5. Pro-business cabinet includes Andrew W. Mellon as Secretary of the Treasury – trickle-down economics
  6. 6. Government supports business, hands-off policy in other matters </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Harding appoints unqualified, corrupt men, cabinet positions (Ohio Gang)
  7. 7. Teapot Dome Scandal = Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall takes bribes and makes illegal deals with oil executives
  8. 8. Harding depressed about scandals, dies suddenly (1923)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Vice-President Calvin Coolidge tries to clean up scandals; re-elected president in 1924
  9. 9. Laissez faire —business unregulated by government benefits the nation; business prospers
  10. 10. Refuses to help farmers; doesn’t believe in government help for individuals</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Average per capita annual income rises 35%
  11. 11. Americans have more money to buy goods, spend on leisure
  12. 12. Using assembly lines, Henry Ford makes cars most people can afford</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Installment buying —repay borrowed amount in small monthly payments
  13. 13. National advertising begins, promotes new products
  14. 14. Cheap fuel powers new inventions that make life easier</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Laborsaving appliances, shorter work hours increase leisure time
  15. 15. People get higher wages, spend more on leisure activities: - go to movies, reading, listening to radio, talking on phones</li></li></ul><li>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Air Age Begins
  17. 17. Former WW I pilots work as crop-dusters, stunt fliers, flight instructors
  18. 18. U.S. Post Office Department begins air mail service (1918)
  19. 19. Charles A. Lindbergh, Amelia Earhart fly across the Atlantic
  20. 20. Pan American Airways becomes first U.S. passenger airline (1927)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>1920s celebrates youth, young people rebel against tradition and authority
  21. 21. Young people stay in school longer, wear daring clothes, follow silly fads
  22. 22. Dance marathons are popular and Charleston is a favorite dance</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>19th Amendment assures women have the right to vote
  23. 23. The symbol of 1920s American women is the flapper</li></li></ul><li>Women's Fashion<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Designers<br />Jean Patou<br />Jeanne Lanvin<br />Coco Chanel<br />
  26. 26. Men's Fashion<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. <ul><li>18th Amendment— Prohibition —bans making, selling alcohol (1920)
  29. 29. Speakeasiessell alcohol, bootleggers transport, sell liquor illegally</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Organized crime gangs battle for control of bootlegging operations
  30. 30. Crime boss Al Capone seizes control of 10,000 speakeasies in Chicago; St. Valentine’s Day Massacre</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Prohibition fails, 21st Amendment repealed Prohibition (1933)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>In 1920s, many African Americans move North, get better jobs = Great Migration</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
  31. 31. Marcus Garvey calls blacks to return to Africa and form separate nations</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Fundamentalism—believe in literal interpretation of the Bible
  32. 32. John Scopes breaks evolution ban, found guilty, decision reversed</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan gains strength, tries to influence politics</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Mass media —communication to large audience—takes hold in 1920s
  33. 33. People flock to movies to see favorite actors and actresses such as Charlie Chaplin
  34. 34. First talking movie The Jazz Singer (1927)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Sporting events of all types enjoy rising attendance
  35. 35. Sports figures give people hope for better life, heroes such as Babe Ruth, baseball player; Bobby Jones, golfer; Gertrude Ederle, swimmer; Jack Dempsey, boxer.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The Lost Generation—artists, writers resent WW I, see little hope for future
  36. 36. Ernest Hemingway
  37. 37. F. Scott Fitzgerald
  38. 38. Sinclair Lewis </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Harlem Renaissance —burst of black cultural activity, Harlem, NYC
  39. 39. Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston</li></li></ul><li>“Harlem is not merely a Negro colony or community, it is a city within a city, the greatest Negro city in the world. It is not a slum or a fringe, it is located in the heart of Manhattan and occupies one of the most beautiful…sections of the city.” - James Weldon Johnson <br />
  40. 40. “I, Too.” by Langston Hughes<br /> I, too, sing America.<br />I am the darker brother.They send me to eat in the kitchenWhen company comes,But I laugh,And eat well,And grow strong.<br />Tomorrow,I'll be at the tableWhen company comes.Nobody'll dareSay to me,"Eat in the kitchen,"Then.Besides,They'll see how beautiful I amAnd be ashamed--I, too, am America. <br />
  41. 41. <ul><li>Jazz—combines African rhythms, blues, ragtime
  42. 42. Louis Armstrong
  43. 43. Duke Ellington</li></li></ul><li>