Lift Truck Operator Training Program by HBAA


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Lift Truck Operator Training Program by HBAA

  1. 1. Alabama Homebuilders Self Insurers Fund Lift Truck Operator Training Program Presented by the AHBSIF Loss Control Department
  2. 2. Course Outline I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Introduction Lift Truck Basics Fuels and Batteries Emergency Situations Fundamentals of Operation Driving Test
  3. 3. I. Introduction
  4. 4.  This presentation will provide participants with the following: – The importance of lift truck safety – Component, weight, stability, and speed characteristics of lift trucks – Safe handling of fuels and batteries – Daily maintenance and safety check procedures
  5. 5. II. Lift Truck Basics Section 1 - Awareness
  6. 6. Recognition of emphasized messages: – NOTE • This message is used when special information, instructions, or identification is required relating to procedures, equipment, tools, pressures, capacities, and other special data. – IMPORTANT • This message is used when special precautions should be taken to ensure a correct action or to avoid damage to, or malfunction of, the truck or a component. – CAUTION • This message is for proper precautions which, if not followed, can result in personal injury. – WARNING • This message is used when a hazard exists which can result in injury or death if proper precautions are not taken. – DANGER • This message is used when an extreme hazard exists which will result in death or serious injury if proper precautions are not taken immediately.
  7. 7. Benefits of Operator Training  Improved safety for the operator and others  The operator learns how to perform a pre-shift inspection – Reduce down time and maintenance costs – Increase productivity – Improve safety  The equipment is better cared for – Employees understand the value of the equipment and how to use it efficiently  Operator training and progress is documented  OSHA requirements are fulfilled
  8. 8. Forklift Types Narrow Aisle Picker Electric Standup
  9. 9. Forklift Types Powered Pallet Truck Sit Down Rider (Pneumatic Tire)
  10. 10. • Section 2 – Components and Stability
  11. 11. Components of a Lift Truck Overhead Guard Operator Restraint System Upright Lift Cylinder Fuel Tank Backrest Counterweight Tilt Cylinder Carriage Steer Axle and Wheels Drive Axle and Wheels
  12. 12. Data Plate • The data plate must be in legible condition • A data plate provides the following information: – Maximum lift height – Attachment capacities – Maximum weight capacities
  13. 13. Lift Truck Weight • Listed capacities are not good indicators of the machines total weight • A lift truck can weigh two to three times as much as the lifted capacity • A lift truck usually weighs twice its capacity 2:1 ratio Component Estimated lbs Truck Weight 8,000 lbs Capacity 4,000 lbs Operator 175 lbs Total 12,175 lbs
  14. 14. Load Center  The load center rating of a fork truck is the maximum distance from the face of the forks to the center of gravity of a capacity load.  The data plate will have this information.  Standard forks measure 24” at the load center.  For every inch beyond the rated load center that the load is placed, approximately 100 lbs. of capacity is lost.
  15. 15. Load Center 24”
  16. 16. Stability  Even though a forklift has four wheels, it is only supported at three points.  The steering axle of most four-wheel lift trucks is attached by means of a pivot point in the center of the axle.
  17. 17. Center of Gravity  The black spot in the triangle below represents the Center of Gravity.  The Center of Gravity (CG) shifts according to the movements of the truck.  If the CG moves outside the triangle the truck will overturn.
  18. 18. Center of Gravity  Figure 1 shows the CG shift when the truck is loaded and braking.  Figure 2 shows the CG shift when the truck is uneven or turning with excessive speed.
  19. 19. Lift Height Center of Gravity Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 Stability  As the CG gets higher, the stability of the lift truck gets smaller.  Loads must be kept as low as possible at all times.
  20. 20. • Section 3 – Safety Equipment
  21. 21. Common Safety Devices  Roll Over Protection System (ROPS) – Designed to minimize complete overturn – Employees should never jump from a machine during overturn – Integral Components include: • Overhead Protection • Seatbelt • Protective cage  Pedestrian Warning Devices – Lights • Headlights, Brake Lights • Amber Strobes – Horn and Back-Up Alarm  Operator’s Manual – Includes safe operating procedures and capacities
  22. 22. III. Fuels and Batteries
  23. 23. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)  Burns cleaner than gas engines.  Produces a poisonous gas that is not easily detectable, must be operated in well ventilated areas.  LPG is heavier than air and will seek low lying areas.  LPG is extremely flammable, must avoid all sources of ignition
  24. 24. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)  It acts like a liquid. It can soak into clothing.  It is compressed under high pressure in the tank.  LPG in liquid state has a temperature of 44° below zero. Can cause frostbite on contact with skin.  Chemicals are added to give the gas an odor which helps identify leaks.
  25. 25. LPG Tank Handling & Storage  A specified area should be designated for the storage and changing of LPG tanks.  Tanks should always be stored in their upright position with all gauges and valves at the top whether empty or full.  When trucks are parked overnight or for extended periods, the service valve of the tank must be closed.  Never park a truck near a source of heat.  Always wear proper safety equipment when handling tanks (safety glasses, heavy rubber gloves).
  26. 26. LPG Tank Removal  Wear proper personal protective equipment.  Do not smoke.  Purge the fuel line by closing the tank’s service valve and waiting for the engine to run out of fuel. (Controls in neutral, forks down, brake on, ignition off.)  Once the service valve is closed, unscrew the line connection and move the hose out of the way.  Carefully remove the tank from the mounting bracket.
  27. 27. LPG Tank Installation  Select a replacement tank in good service condition.  Do not roll or drag the new tank to the machine. Use a cart or other suitable equipment.  Position the tank in the mounting bracket by aligning the collar hole over the mounting bracket pin. (this is important for fuel consumption and safety)  Check all rubber seals in the tank and fuel line connection.
  28. 28. LPG Tank Installation  Reconnect the fuel line connection until tight.  Slowly turn on the service valve to full and slightly backseat.  Make sure both tank clamps are adjusted properly and hold the tank firmly.  If no leaks are detected, start the truck and check for normal operation.
  29. 29. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)  The same natural gas that powers hot water heaters and furnaces.  CNG is different than LPG in that it remains a gas even under high pressure.  CNG is lighter than air and dissipates rapidly when released.  CNG tanks are usually permanently mounted to the lift truck.
  30. 30. Gasoline and Diesel  The difference between these two fuels is their ignition temperatures.  Gasoline – Extremely flammable – Colorless – Distinctive odor  Diesel – Has higher ignition point than gas – Colorless – Slight odor, harder to detect than gas
  31. 31. Gas and Diesel Refueling  Most lift trucks filler caps are equipped with a venting device and a fuel screen.  The screen serves as a fire retardant device by keeping fire out of the fuel tank.  Check when refueling to make sure the screen is in place.
  32. 32. Gas and Diesel Refueling  Safe refueling checklist: – Refuel in designated areas with good ventilation – Smoking and open flames are prohibited – Shut off the truck, lower the forks, put the truck in neutral, and set the parking brake before beginning – Don’t overfill the tank – Clean up any spills – Use only clean, properly marked fuel cans
  33. 33. Batteries  A lead-acid battery is a portable power source for supplying direct current electricity.  The most common voltages include 12, 24, 36, and 48 volts.  Discharging a battery below 80% of its total capacity can result in shortened battery and truck component life.
  34. 34. Battery Hazards  Sulfuric Acid – Small amounts can cause severe contact burns to the skin.  Gasses – Batteries produce hydrogen and oxygen mixture continuously. Keep all ignition sources away.  Electricity – Batteries are capable of producing very high discharge rates. Avoid direct shorting situations.  Battery Weight – Use care when handling, charging, and using batteries in the truck.
  35. 35. Battery Chargers  Two types: – Single Phase charger has two wires and a ground with one transformer and two fuses. – Three Phase charger has three wires and a ground in the power supply cable. It has three transformers and three fuses.  Always correctly match the charger to the voltage and amp hour ratings of the battery.  Also check the input voltage and cycle. Input voltage is most commonly 220, 440, or 480, with US Standard 60 cycles.
  36. 36. Battery Charging  Battery recharging requires a special service area in accordance with OSHA section (g)(1). The area must be: – – – – Well ventilated Truck off, set parking brake Jewelry is prohibited Personal protective equipment should include safety glasses, head protection, aprons, and gloves – All battery cables should be disconnected before charger hook-up – Handling must be done according to manufacturers recommendations
  37. 37. Battery Charging – Vent caps must be left on during charging. – If the battery is charged while still in the truck, the compartment must be left open. – The charger should be turned off before it is connected to the battery then turned on to begin the charging cycle. – Color coded connectors help prevent connecting a battery of the wrong voltage to the wrong charger or truck. – Chargers should be properly set to avoid over or under charging. – The charger should be turned off before disconnecting from the battery.
  38. 38. IV. Emergency Situations
  39. 39. Are you prepared?  Does the facility have an evacuation procedure?  Are emergency contact numbers readily available?  Do any of your employees/co-workers have CPR or First Aid training?  Does the facility have a first aid kit?
  40. 40. Handling an Emergency The three C’s, Check, Call, Care help us remember what to do in an emergency situation.  Check – check the area for your own safety first, then the victim's  Call – for help, 911 or whom ever is in the immediate area that can provide assistance  Care - administer care to the victim, this may be first aid or at least stabilization
  41. 41. Fire Prevention - Extinguishers Ordinary Combustibles Includes materials such as wood and paper Flammable Liquids Includes fuels, grease, other liquids Electrical Fires Contains non-conductive smothering agent
  42. 42. How to Use a Fire Extinguisher P-A-S-S Pull -- Pull the pin at the top of the extinguisher that keeps the handle from being activated Aim -- Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire Squeeze -- Maintain a distance of eight to ten feet away from the fire and squeeze the handle. Discharge will only occur if the handle is being squeezed. Sweep -- Sweep the nozzle back and forth at the base of the fire until it appears to be out.
  43. 43. V. Fundamentals of Operation
  44. 44. Safe Truck Operation  Trained Operators Only – OSHA requires that only trained operators be allowed to operate fork trucks  Stunt Driving and Horseplay is Strictly Prohibited – Fork trucks are heavy and powerful machines that demand an operators attention and respect  Read and Understand Operator Instructions – You must read and understand the operators manual for each truck you operate  Faulty Equipment and Maintenance – If at any time the fork truck is in need of repair or defective in any way, it must be taken out of service and fixed
  45. 45. Operating Around Personnel  Operators should not rely on pedestrian warning devices and mirrors.  Know the terrain and visibility of your workplace.  Sound your horn at intersections and blind spots.  If your view is blocked because of the load, travel backwards. If you must move forward, make sure that people are out of the way and move the lift truck slowly.
  46. 46. Operating Around Personnel  Never attempt to move a load that requires someone to steady or position the material. Restack the load and/or Secure the load to a pallet.  Never drive the fork truck up to someone in front of a fixed object. Avoid potential “caught between” exposures.
  47. 47. Upright and Fork Safety  Never allow anyone to walk under raised upright whether loaded or empty.  Never allow anyone to stand on the forks or climb the upright assembly.  Never allow anyone to reach or to step in the areas of the mast, carriage, forks, or load.  Never allow anyone to ride on the truck.
  48. 48. Leaving or Parking the Truck OSHA considers a fork truck unattended if the operator is 25 feet away or out of sight of the truck. Use the following tips when leaving the truck or parking it for long periods:  Bring the machine to a complete stop.  Turn off the engine, for LPG trucks, shut off the service valve and let the engine run out of fuel.  Lower all attachments completely. Put the forks on the floor.  Place all controls in neutral.
  49. 49. Leaving or Parking the Truck  Apply the parking brake.  Never park on a grade or around traffic.  Never leave the truck parked on a dock ramp, dock leveler, or in a trailer.  Never park the truck where it blocks emergency or fire-fighting equipment or emergency travel routes.  Chock the wheels if needed.  Turn off power supply and remove the keys if possible.
  50. 50. Personnel Elevators  Lift trucks are not designed to lift people.  There are machines designed for this purpose; – Scissor lifts – Order Pickers (platform lift) – Elevated work platforms  OSHA does allow the practice under specific conditions (ASME B56.1).
  51. 51. Personnel Elevators  Must be designed by a professional engineer  Must be designed to work with a specific lift  Occupants must wear a harness and lanyard  Operators must man controls at all times
  52. 52. Lift Truck Tip Over  In case of a tip-over, use the following precautions: – Wear your seatbelt. – Never attempt to leap from the truck. – Grip the wheel firmly with both hands. – Brace your feet firmly against the floor boards.
  53. 53. Handling Loads  Always balance and secure the load.  Never pick loads that are too heavy.  Be aware of your clearances at all times. Check for overhead obstructions or power lines.  Center the load. Forks must be at least 2/3 the length of the load.
  54. 54. Handling Loads ≤ 2/ 3 Le n g th
  55. 55. Handling Loads  When picking up a load, place the forks under the load as far as possible.  Tilt the mast back slightly for stabilization.  Keep the load low. The forks should never be more than 6 to 8 inches from the ground.
  56. 56. Stacking  Square the truck to the rack/bin and come to a complete stop  Elevate the load to the proper height and Inch the truck in  Tilt the load forward for placement.  Lower the forks to take pressure off the pallet.  Back the truck up till the forks clear and lower them before traveling.  Use the same procedure in reverse when picking up a load from a stack.
  57. 57. Traveling  Understand the traffic laws of your environment  Familiarize yourself with the work area. - Visibility - Travel surface  Maintain at least a three truck length distance between yourself and any truck ahead.  Always yield the right-ofway to any emergency vehicle
  58. 58. Traveling  Grades, Ramps, and Inclines – Travel must be straight up and straight down. Never turn on ramps, slopes, or inclines. – With a load, travel up or down with the load pointing upgrade. – Without a load, travel up or down with the forks pointing downgrade. – The load should be tilted back and raised only as high as necessary to clear the surface.
  59. 59. Traveling  Dock Operations – Before entering a tractor trailer make certain the wheels are chocked. – Check the trailer jacks. Make sure they are fully lowered and secured. – Inspect the floor of the trailer prior to driving on it. – Check the dock boards between the trailer and the dock. Always travel slowly over dock boards. – Stay away from the edge of the dock. – Use lights to improve visibility while working in trailers.
  60. 60. Hands-On Section • Pre-operation Inspection • Familiarization with operating controls and gauges • Driving exercises – Figure 8 Test – Reverse Mobility – Lifting and Carrying
  61. 61. Pre-Operational Checklist Item Ok repair Item Forks, Backrest, Carriage Leaks under Fork Lift Mast, Chain, Hydraulic Lines Seat and Seat belts Tires, Axles Horn and/or Backup alarm Overhead Guard/ROPS Lights, Bodywork Fuel Tank & Connections Gauges and Instruments Fuel Level Hydraulic Controls & Lift Engine Oil Level All Brakes Radiator Water Level (Cold) Steering Ok repair