SFCCSFCCForklift TrainingForklift Training
Goals of TrainingGoals of TrainingTo provide you the info you need to operate aTo provide you the info you need to operat...
What to ExpectWhat to Expect 4 Parts to Your training4 Parts to Your trainingFormalFormal (Classroom Instruction)(Classr...
Classroom TopicsClassroom Topics Inspecting the forkliftInspecting the forklift Becoming aware of the area where youBeco...
Practical or “Hands On” TrainingPractical or “Hands On” Training Important because it allows the trainer seeImportant bec...
DemonstrationsDemonstrations In order to reduce the chances of injury,In order to reduce the chances of injury,the instru...
HELP ME I AM TIPPINGHELP ME I AM TIPPINGOVER!!!OVER!!! You need to stay in your seat with yourYou need to stay in your se...
Proper Eye DirectionProper Eye Direction Turn from the waist when goingTurn from the waist when goingbackwardsbackwards ...
The ROT EnvironmentThe ROT Environment What areas are safety concerns?What areas are safety concerns?Where people are wa...
Preparing to Drive the ForkliftPreparing to Drive the Forklift What do you need to beginWhat do you need to beginReceive...
Safety is the TOP PRIORITYSafety is the TOP PRIORITY You are expected to ALWAYS operate theYou are expected to ALWAYS ope...
TAKE IT SERIOUSLY!TAKE IT SERIOUSLY! Each year nearly 100 workers are killedEach year nearly 100 workers are killedand al...
Fork lift = Powered Industrial TruckFork lift = Powered Industrial Truck What is it used for?What is it used for?To carr...
Height RestrictionsHeight Restrictions Height Definition Terms:Height Definition Terms:Collapsed HeightCollapsed Height•...
Height RestrictionsHeight Restrictions Height Definition Terms:Height Definition Terms:Maximum Fork HeightMaximum Fork H...
How Does a Forklift Work?How Does a Forklift Work? Works as a lever.Works as a lever. This “leverage” needs to be in con...
How Does a Forklift Work?How Does a Forklift Work? When two boxes of equal weight sit at anWhen two boxes of equal weight...
How Does a Forklift Work?How Does a Forklift Work? But if one box is heavier than the other, orBut if one box is heavier ...
CounterweightCounterweight IF the load weighs more than the forkliftsIF the load weighs more than the forkliftscounterwei...
Handling Your LoadHandling Your Load Other things that can throw off the balanceOther things that can throw off the balan...
Handling Your LoadHandling Your Load Always use caution when you are handlingAlways use caution when you are handlingload...
Understanding the ROT ForkliftUnderstanding the ROT Forklift A TIP OVER EVENTA TIP OVER EVENTTwo typesTwo types• Lateral...
Why is it important to stay in theWhy is it important to stay in theforklift if it is tipping over?forklift if it is tippi...
The Data PlateThe Data Plate Important to know how to read it if you are goingImportant to know how to read it if you are...
The Data PlateThe Data Plate HeightHeightThe plate shows reduced capacities atThe plate shows reduced capacities ateleva...
Load CenterLoad Center Load center = center of gravity of objectLoad center = center of gravity of object Load center of...
Load CenterLoad CenterLoad center rating = center of gravity of objectLoad center rating = center of gravity of object48”2...
Why is load center so important?Why is load center so important? Each forklift has RATED CAPACITYEach forklift has RATED ...
Load CenterLoad CenterLoad center rating = 24”Load center rating = 24”60”30”
Load CenterLoad Center60”30”
Examples of Load CentersExamples of Load Centers Info needed from our data plate.Info needed from our data plate.
Forklift & Load MomentsForklift & Load MomentsLoad capacity (pounds)Load capacity (pounds)Moment =Moment =Load center rati...
Forklift & Load Moments: ExampleForklift & Load Moments: ExampleLoad center rating = 24”Load center rating = 24”Load capac...
Forklift MomentForklift MomentLoad capacity (pounds)Load capacity (pounds)ForkliftForkliftMomentMomentLoad center rating (...
Load MomentLoad MomentLoad weight (pounds)Load weight (pounds)LoadLoadMomentMomentLoad center rating (inches)Load center r...
Forklift & Load Moments: ExampleForklift & Load Moments: ExampleForklift Moment = 72,000 inch poundsForklift Moment = 72,0...
More ExamplesMore Examples Data plate lists a capacity of 5,000 lbs andData plate lists a capacity of 5,000 lbs anda load...
More ExamplesMore Examples Can you pick up this load?Can you pick up this load? NO,The forklift will tip over!NO,The for...
Taking it a step further…Taking it a step further… How can you find out how much you could liftHow can you find out how m...
Rule of ThumbRule of Thumb If you think the load exceed the forklift’sIf you think the load exceed the forklift’scapacity...
The Stability TriangleThe Stability Triangle It’s there even though you can’t see it.It’s there even though you can’t see...
The Stability TriangleThe Stability Triangle Example AExample A Shows the gravity point in the center of theShows the gr...
Triangle Example BTriangle Example B When you add a load to the forklift, theWhen you add a load to the forklift, thecent...
Triangle Example CTriangle Example C Example C shows the reaction of theExample C shows the reaction of thestability poin...
Triangle Example DTriangle Example D What will happen if your stability point is here?What will happen if your stability ...
Forklift StabilityForklift StabilityInfluenced by:Influenced by:Load weightLoad weightdistance of load from pivot point...
Stability DynamicsStability Dynamics Dynamics means “Movement”Dynamics means “Movement” Any type of movement will make t...
Stability DynamicsStability Dynamics When is this likely to happen?When is this likely to happen?Driving up or down ramp...
Forklift + Load Center of GravityForklift + Load Center of Gravity The center of gravity of the forklift loadThe center o...
Isn’t Driving a Forklift like driving aIsn’t Driving a Forklift like driving acar?car? Not at all!Not at all! Car is bas...
Handling the Load - SkillsHandling the Load - Skills Forks wide enough to support loadForks wide enough to support load ...
Handling the Load - SkillsHandling the Load - Skills Tilt forward or back only after forks andTilt forward or back only a...
Inspecting Your TruckInspecting Your Truck Inspecting the vehicle, both visually andInspecting the vehicle, both visually...
OSHA Regs - ConductOSHA Regs - Conduct Only authorized drivers can operate forkliftOnly authorized drivers can operate fo...
OSHA Regs - ConductOSHA Regs - Conduct When leaving vehicle unattended:When leaving vehicle unattended:- Power shut off- ...
OSHA Regs - PreventionOSHA Regs - Prevention Employees shall not place any part of their bodiesEmployees shall not place ...
OSHA Regs - PreventionOSHA Regs - Prevention Vehicles shall not be operated on floors, sidewalk doorsVehicles shall not b...
OSHA Regs - PerformanceOSHA Regs - Performance Forklifts shall not exceed safe speeds and shall alwaysForklifts shall not...
OSHA Regs - PerformanceOSHA Regs - Performance Railroad tracks shall be crossed diagonally – noRailroad tracks shall be c...
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Sfcc forklift training final

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  • Load center = center of gravity of any object you are trying to lift Yard Stick Demonstration = Do you see the center of gravity? 18 inches Talk about counterweight – how important it is to keep the back of the forklift off of unstable surfaces, e.g. dirt, potholes, as it can get stuck and requires heavy machinery (in many cases) to become unstuck.
  • Load center = center of gravity of any object you are trying to lift Yard Stick Demonstration = Do you see the center of gravity? 18 inches
  • Load center = center of gravity of any object you are trying to lift Yard Stick Demonstration = Do you see the center of gravity? 18 inches
  • Load center = center of gravity of any object you are trying to lift Yard Stick Demonstration = Do you see the center of gravity? 18 inches
  • Distance from max weight = load center rating
  • Load center = center of gravity of any object you are trying to lift Yard Stick Demonstration = Do you see the center of gravity? 18 inches
  • Distance from max weight = load center rating
  • Distance from max weight = load center rating
  • Load center = center of gravity of any object you are trying to lift Yard Stick Demonstration = Do you see the center of gravity? 18 inches
  • Sfcc forklift training final

    1. 1. SFCCSFCCForklift TrainingForklift Training
    2. 2. Goals of TrainingGoals of TrainingTo provide you the info you need to operate aTo provide you the info you need to operate aforklift SAFELY.forklift SAFELY.To provide you with a chance to practice yourTo provide you with a chance to practice yourforklift skills while being observed by aforklift skills while being observed by acertified forklift instructor.certified forklift instructor.For you to receive your forklift certification!For you to receive your forklift certification!
    3. 3. What to ExpectWhat to Expect 4 Parts to Your training4 Parts to Your trainingFormalFormal (Classroom Instruction)(Classroom Instruction)PracticalPractical (Hands On Training)(Hands On Training)DemonstrationDemonstration (Watching(Watching INSTRUCTORINSTRUCTORShow you what to do)Show you what to do)EvaluationEvaluation (Watching(Watching YOUYOU show what youshow what youhave learned)have learned)
    4. 4. Classroom TopicsClassroom Topics Inspecting the forkliftInspecting the forklift Becoming aware of the area where youBecoming aware of the area where youwill be operating the forkliftwill be operating the forklift FuelingFueling Safety ConcernsSafety ConcernsLoad CenterLoad CenterStability TriangleStability TriangleStability DynamicsStability Dynamics
    5. 5. Practical or “Hands On” TrainingPractical or “Hands On” Training Important because it allows the trainer seeImportant because it allows the trainer seewhat you can do on the forklift.what you can do on the forklift. Obstacle CourseObstacle CourseMoving forward & backwardsMoving forward & backwardsGetting comfortable with the “rear end swing”Getting comfortable with the “rear end swing”Practicing correct eye direction when drivingPracticing correct eye direction when driving
    6. 6. DemonstrationsDemonstrations In order to reduce the chances of injury,In order to reduce the chances of injury,the instructors will point out commonthe instructors will point out commonpractices that are responsible for many ofpractices that are responsible for many ofthe injuries that can occur on the forklift.the injuries that can occur on the forklift. There are two important demonstrationsThere are two important demonstrationsyou will be watching during trainingyou will be watching during trainingTip Over PreventionTip Over PreventionProper Eye DirectionProper Eye DirectionWhy important?Why important?
    7. 7. HELP ME I AM TIPPINGHELP ME I AM TIPPINGOVER!!!OVER!!! You need to stay in your seat with yourYou need to stay in your seat with yourseat belt on and “ride it out”seat belt on and “ride it out” Push body into the seat and lean thePush body into the seat and lean theopposite direction of the tip overopposite direction of the tip over Why do you think it is important to stay inWhy do you think it is important to stay inyour seat?your seat?
    8. 8. Proper Eye DirectionProper Eye Direction Turn from the waist when goingTurn from the waist when goingbackwardsbackwards Eyes in the direction of travel!!!Eyes in the direction of travel!!! Don’t rely on peripheral vision.Don’t rely on peripheral vision.
    9. 9. The ROT EnvironmentThe ROT Environment What areas are safety concerns?What areas are safety concerns?Where people are walkingWhere people are walkingRoadways where vehicle could beRoadways where vehicle could beOverhead clearances?Overhead clearances?Uneven surfacesUneven surfacesLoading dockLoading dockSpeed limitSpeed limit
    10. 10. Preparing to Drive the ForkliftPreparing to Drive the Forklift What do you need to beginWhat do you need to beginReceive approval from a Supervisor orReceive approval from a Supervisor orManagerManagerHave your forklift certifcation card with you!Have your forklift certifcation card with you!Conduct a forklift inspection – formalConduct a forklift inspection – formaldocumentation due once per weekdocumentation due once per week
    11. 11. Safety is the TOP PRIORITYSafety is the TOP PRIORITY You are expected to ALWAYS operate theYou are expected to ALWAYS operate theforklift with safety as your top priority.forklift with safety as your top priority. This means doing at least a visualThis means doing at least a visualinspection, having your hard hat on andinspection, having your hard hat on andseat belt on, driving slowly with your forksseat belt on, driving slowly with your forksdown and looking around you before youdown and looking around you before youmove.move.
    12. 12. TAKE IT SERIOUSLY!TAKE IT SERIOUSLY! Each year nearly 100 workers are killedEach year nearly 100 workers are killedand almost 95,000 injured in forkliftand almost 95,000 injured in forkliftaccidentsaccidents OSHA requires that all forklift operatorsOSHA requires that all forklift operatorsare properly trainedare properly trained Listen and learn, the more you know theListen and learn, the more you know thesafer you will be while driving the forklift.safer you will be while driving the forklift.
    13. 13. Fork lift = Powered Industrial TruckFork lift = Powered Industrial Truck What is it used for?What is it used for?To carry, push, pull, lift, stack or tier materialsTo carry, push, pull, lift, stack or tier materials 4 Types of Forklifts4 Types of ForkliftsCounterbalance - ROTCounterbalance - ROTNarrow AisleNarrow AisleStock PickerStock PickerRider or Walkie TruckRider or Walkie Truck
    14. 14. Height RestrictionsHeight Restrictions Height Definition Terms:Height Definition Terms:Collapsed HeightCollapsed Height• Distance from the floor to the highest point on theDistance from the floor to the highest point on thetruck when the mast is fully loweredtruck when the mast is fully loweredFree LiftFree Lift• Height you can lift the forks before the mast beginsHeight you can lift the forks before the mast beginsto rise, or the load guard rises above the collapsedto rise, or the load guard rises above the collapsedmast height. Important when lifting materials inmast height. Important when lifting materials intrailers.trailers.
    15. 15. Height RestrictionsHeight Restrictions Height Definition Terms:Height Definition Terms:Maximum Fork HeightMaximum Fork Height• Maximum height that your truck can lift a load.Maximum height that your truck can lift a load.• It is measured from the floor to the top of forks.It is measured from the floor to the top of forks.Overall Extended HeightOverall Extended Height• Distance from the floor to the top most part of theDistance from the floor to the top most part of thetruck when the mast and forks are fully raised.truck when the mast and forks are fully raised.• What are height clearances unique to ROT?What are height clearances unique to ROT?
    16. 16. How Does a Forklift Work?How Does a Forklift Work? Works as a lever.Works as a lever. This “leverage” needs to be in constantThis “leverage” needs to be in constantbalance in order for the truck to safely liftbalance in order for the truck to safely liftand move loads.and move loads. It’s like a “Teeter Totter”It’s like a “Teeter Totter”““Balance”Balance”
    17. 17. How Does a Forklift Work?How Does a Forklift Work? When two boxes of equal weight sit at anWhen two boxes of equal weight sit at anequal distance from the center pivot of aequal distance from the center pivot of ateeter totter, then we have a balancedteeter totter, then we have a balancedpoint.point. The balance point = Center of Gravity orThe balance point = Center of Gravity orthe FULCRUM.the FULCRUM. As long as the FULCRUM remains withinAs long as the FULCRUM remains withinthis center of gravity, the teeter totter isthis center of gravity, the teeter totter isconsidered balanced.considered balanced.
    18. 18. How Does a Forklift Work?How Does a Forklift Work? But if one box is heavier than the other, orBut if one box is heavier than the other, orif one box slides away from the centerif one box slides away from the centerpoint it creates an imbalance.point it creates an imbalance. Most forklifts rely on theirMost forklifts rely on theirCOUNTERWEIGHT as leverage to pickCOUNTERWEIGHT as leverage to pickup loads.up loads.What do we mean when we sayWhat do we mean when we saycounterweight?counterweight?
    19. 19. CounterweightCounterweight IF the load weighs more than the forkliftsIF the load weighs more than the forkliftscounterweight can handle or if a lightercounterweight can handle or if a lighterload is not centered within a certainload is not centered within a certaindistance to this counterweight, the forkliftdistance to this counterweight, the forkliftcan tip over.can tip over. A load needs to be centered properly.A load needs to be centered properly.The LOAD CENTER is very important forThe LOAD CENTER is very important forthe stability of both the forklift and thethe stability of both the forklift and theload.load.
    20. 20. Handling Your LoadHandling Your Load Other things that can throw off the balanceOther things that can throw off the balanceof your load are…of your load are… Load instabilityLoad instability Elevating (Raising up) loadsElevating (Raising up) loads Driving with loads, especially on unevenDriving with loads, especially on unevensurfaces or around cornerssurfaces or around corners Example: Conditions of the surfaces weExample: Conditions of the surfaces wedrive on at ROT(uneven surfaces like thedrive on at ROT(uneven surfaces like thedrainage ditch in the loading zone)drainage ditch in the loading zone)
    21. 21. Handling Your LoadHandling Your Load Always use caution when you are handlingAlways use caution when you are handlingloads with the forkliftloads with the forklift An unbalanced forklift can lean andAn unbalanced forklift can lean andsuddenly tip causing serious injuries orsuddenly tip causing serious injuries oreven death.even death. KNOW THE FORKLIFT!KNOW THE FORKLIFT! KEEP IT STABLE!KEEP IT STABLE!
    22. 22. Understanding the ROT ForkliftUnderstanding the ROT Forklift A TIP OVER EVENTA TIP OVER EVENTTwo typesTwo types• Lateral (sideways)Lateral (sideways)• Longitudinal (usually forward)Longitudinal (usually forward)• What do you do if you start to tip over?What do you do if you start to tip over?Stay in the seatStay in the seatBrace yourself for impactBrace yourself for impactLean in the opposite direction of the tip overLean in the opposite direction of the tip overRIDE IT OUTRIDE IT OUT
    23. 23. Why is it important to stay in theWhy is it important to stay in theforklift if it is tipping over?forklift if it is tipping over? Serious injury or even death can be theSerious injury or even death can be theresult of mixing split second judgment,result of mixing split second judgment,which could lead you to jump in thewhich could lead you to jump in thedirection of the tip and being pinned in bydirection of the tip and being pinned in bythe forklift or crushed.the forklift or crushed.
    24. 24. The Data PlateThe Data Plate Important to know how to read it if you are goingImportant to know how to read it if you are goingto operate the forklift safely.to operate the forklift safely. The Data or “Capacity” plate includes:The Data or “Capacity” plate includes:Capacity = maximum weight the forklift is capable ofCapacity = maximum weight the forklift is capable ofliftingliftingLoad Center = Load capacity infers that the center ofLoad Center = Load capacity infers that the center ofgravity will be maintained within a certain distancegravity will be maintained within a certain distancefrom the load guard of the forklift.from the load guard of the forklift.Most forklifts have a 24 inch load center rating whichMost forklifts have a 24 inch load center rating whichmeans that a 48 inch pallet of evenly stackedmeans that a 48 inch pallet of evenly stackedmaterials will have its center of gravity at exactly halfmaterials will have its center of gravity at exactly halfof the load length which is 24 inches.of the load length which is 24 inches.
    25. 25. The Data PlateThe Data Plate HeightHeightThe plate shows reduced capacities atThe plate shows reduced capacities atelevated lift heights. A common height whereelevated lift heights. A common height whereyour capacity becomes affected is 156 inches.your capacity becomes affected is 156 inches.Tilting back enough to stabilize the load andTilting back enough to stabilize the load andnever driving with the load elevated (raised)never driving with the load elevated (raised)are ways to prevent making the forklift andare ways to prevent making the forklift andload unstable.load unstable.
    26. 26. Load CenterLoad Center Load center = center of gravity of objectLoad center = center of gravity of object Load center of gravity = ½ length of loadLoad center of gravity = ½ length of load½load length
    27. 27. Load CenterLoad CenterLoad center rating = center of gravity of objectLoad center rating = center of gravity of object48”24”MostMostforkliftsforkliftshavehaveloadloadcentercenterratingratingof 24”of 24”
    28. 28. Why is load center so important?Why is load center so important? Each forklift has RATED CAPACITYEach forklift has RATED CAPACITYmaximum weight capable of liftingmaximum weight capable of liftingbased on load’s CENTER OF GRAVITYbased on load’s CENTER OF GRAVITYLoad Center Rating = Max Weight LiftedLoad Center Rating = Max Weight LiftedMust beMust be within 24” when picking upwithin 24” when picking upcapacity loadcapacity loadStamped on the data plateStamped on the data plate
    29. 29. Load CenterLoad CenterLoad center rating = 24”Load center rating = 24”60”30”
    30. 30. Load CenterLoad Center60”30”
    31. 31. Examples of Load CentersExamples of Load Centers Info needed from our data plate.Info needed from our data plate.
    32. 32. Forklift & Load MomentsForklift & Load MomentsLoad capacity (pounds)Load capacity (pounds)Moment =Moment =Load center rating (inches)Load center rating (inches)X Moments are a math equation!Moments are a math equation! Use the same equation to calculate both theUse the same equation to calculate both theforklift moment & the load momentforklift moment & the load momentMoment =Moment = (inch pounds)(inch pounds) If the forklift moment = the load moment, theIf the forklift moment = the load moment, theload can be lifted!load can be lifted!
    33. 33. Forklift & Load Moments: ExampleForklift & Load Moments: ExampleLoad center rating = 24”Load center rating = 24”Load capacity = 3,000 lbs.Load capacity = 3,000 lbs.Load weight = 3,000 lbs.Load weight = 3,000 lbs.24”3,000 lbs
    34. 34. Forklift MomentForklift MomentLoad capacity (pounds)Load capacity (pounds)ForkliftForkliftMomentMomentLoad center rating (inches)Load center rating (inches)XLoad Center Rating = 24”Load Center Rating = 24”Load Capacity = 3,000 lbs.Load Capacity = 3,000 lbs.3,000 pounds3,000 pounds24 inches24 inchesXinch poundsinch pounds==ForkliftForkliftMomentMoment==72,000
    35. 35. Load MomentLoad MomentLoad weight (pounds)Load weight (pounds)LoadLoadMomentMomentLoad center rating (inches)Load center rating (inches)XLoad Center Rating = 24”Load Center Rating = 24”Load Weight = 3,000 lbs.Load Weight = 3,000 lbs.3,000 pounds3,000 pounds24 inches24 inchesXinch poundsinch pounds==LoadLoadMomentMoment==72,000
    36. 36. Forklift & Load Moments: ExampleForklift & Load Moments: ExampleForklift Moment = 72,000 inch poundsForklift Moment = 72,000 inch poundsLoad Moment = 72,000 inch poundsLoad Moment = 72,000 inch poundsCan the load be lifted?Can the load be lifted?24”3,000 lbs
    37. 37. More ExamplesMore Examples Data plate lists a capacity of 5,000 lbs andData plate lists a capacity of 5,000 lbs anda load center of 24 inches.a load center of 24 inches. Forklift Moment ?Forklift Moment ? 24” X 5000 lbs = 120,000 inch lbs24” X 5000 lbs = 120,000 inch lbs If the load is 4,000 lbs and the load centerIf the load is 4,000 lbs and the load centeris 33 inches.is 33 inches. Load Moment ?Load Moment ? 33” X 4000 lbs = 132,000 inch lbs33” X 4000 lbs = 132,000 inch lbs
    38. 38. More ExamplesMore Examples Can you pick up this load?Can you pick up this load? NO,The forklift will tip over!NO,The forklift will tip over! Why will it tip over?Why will it tip over?The load moment is greater than the forkliftThe load moment is greater than the forkliftmoment.moment.
    39. 39. Taking it a step further…Taking it a step further… How can you find out how much you could liftHow can you find out how much you could liftwith a 5,000 lbs rated forklift and a 4,000 lbswith a 5,000 lbs rated forklift and a 4,000 lbsload with a load center of 33 inchesload with a load center of 33 inches Divide the forklift’s inch pound moment by 33.Divide the forklift’s inch pound moment by 33. 120,000120,000 ÷ 33 = 3636 lbs÷ 33 = 3636 lbs SO can we lift 4,000 lbs?SO can we lift 4,000 lbs? How many lbs can you lift? 3636 lbsHow many lbs can you lift? 3636 lbs
    40. 40. Rule of ThumbRule of Thumb If you think the load exceed the forklift’sIf you think the load exceed the forklift’scapacity, DON’T LIFT THE LOAD!capacity, DON’T LIFT THE LOAD! Go and speak to your supervisor or theGo and speak to your supervisor or theROT manager about the situation.ROT manager about the situation.
    41. 41. The Stability TriangleThe Stability Triangle It’s there even though you can’t see it.It’s there even though you can’t see it. It is located between the forklifts fulcrumIt is located between the forklifts fulcrumand tapers back to the center point of theand tapers back to the center point of theforklifts rear axle.forklifts rear axle. The forklift has a three point suspension.The forklift has a three point suspension. The Center of gravity is a point within theThe Center of gravity is a point within thetriangletriangle See page 24.See page 24.
    42. 42. The Stability TriangleThe Stability Triangle Example AExample A Shows the gravity point in the center of theShows the gravity point in the center of thestability trianglestability triangle It shows a forklift at rest without a loadIt shows a forklift at rest without a load
    43. 43. Triangle Example BTriangle Example B When you add a load to the forklift, theWhen you add a load to the forklift, thecenter of gravity willcenter of gravity will move in the directionmove in the directionof the loadof the load Example B indicates by the position of theExample B indicates by the position of thepoint that a near capacity load has beenpoint that a near capacity load has beenraised.raised.
    44. 44. Triangle Example CTriangle Example C Example C shows the reaction of theExample C shows the reaction of thestability point when the forklift slowly turnsstability point when the forklift slowly turnswhile transporting a near capacity load.while transporting a near capacity load. The stability point moves OPPOSITE theThe stability point moves OPPOSITE thedirection of the turndirection of the turn
    45. 45. Triangle Example DTriangle Example D What will happen if your stability point is here?What will happen if your stability point is here? You will be tipping over!You will be tipping over! The gravity point could just as well be showingThe gravity point could just as well be showingthe results of sudden breaking with a heavythe results of sudden breaking with a heavyload.load. It could also show what happens when a load isIt could also show what happens when a load israised and tilted forward.raised and tilted forward. You DON’T need to be carrying a capacity loadYou DON’T need to be carrying a capacity loadfor a tip over to happen!for a tip over to happen!
    46. 46. Forklift StabilityForklift StabilityInfluenced by:Influenced by:Load weightLoad weightdistance of load from pivot pointdistance of load from pivot pointSide to side balancingSide to side balancingRaising loadsRaising loadsMovement of any type by the forkliftMovement of any type by the forklift
    47. 47. Stability DynamicsStability Dynamics Dynamics means “Movement”Dynamics means “Movement” Any type of movement will make theAny type of movement will make thestability point within the stability trianglestability point within the stability trianglemove in response.move in response. If the point breaks through the lines of theIf the point breaks through the lines of thetriangle, you will in most cases tip overtriangle, you will in most cases tip over
    48. 48. Stability DynamicsStability Dynamics When is this likely to happen?When is this likely to happen?Driving up or down rampsDriving up or down rampsRough surfacesRough surfacesPotholesPotholesJust using your brakesJust using your brakesWhen you corner with a load raised.When you corner with a load raised.Tilting a capacity load forward when raisedTilting a capacity load forward when raised• This move is restricted by OSHAThis move is restricted by OSHA
    49. 49. Forklift + Load Center of GravityForklift + Load Center of Gravity The center of gravity of the forklift loadThe center of gravity of the forklift loadcombination can move out side thecombination can move out side thestability triangle if:stability triangle if:The load is picked up on the tip of the forksThe load is picked up on the tip of the forksThe load is tilted forwardThe load is tilted forwardThe load is tilted too far back when raised,The load is tilted too far back when raised,The load is wideThe load is wideForklift movement causes the center of gravityForklift movement causes the center of gravityto shift.to shift.
    50. 50. Isn’t Driving a Forklift like driving aIsn’t Driving a Forklift like driving acar?car? Not at all!Not at all! Car is based on a four point suspensionCar is based on a four point suspensionsystem.system.Able to corner at fast speedsAble to corner at fast speeds Forklift is based on a three pointForklift is based on a three pointsuspension.suspension.Will tip over if corner is taken too fastWill tip over if corner is taken too fastA fork lift has rear wheel steering – causesA fork lift has rear wheel steering – causesrear end to kick outrear end to kick out
    51. 51. Handling the Load - SkillsHandling the Load - Skills Forks wide enough to support loadForks wide enough to support load Enter at high side or heavy sideEnter at high side or heavy side Enter with forks parallel but above theEnter with forks parallel but above theground and enter load completelyground and enter load completely Raise the load 4 to 6 inches above theRaise the load 4 to 6 inches above thefloor and tilt the load backfloor and tilt the load back NEVER TRAVEL WITH RAISED LOADNEVER TRAVEL WITH RAISED LOAD Raise load only when stopped andRaise load only when stopped andpositioned in area for stackingpositioned in area for stacking
    52. 52. Handling the Load - SkillsHandling the Load - Skills Tilt forward or back only after forks andTilt forward or back only after forks andload are supported.load are supported. Exit loads with forks straight and level andExit loads with forks straight and level andonly when clearonly when clear Sound horn to alert nearby pedestriansSound horn to alert nearby pedestriansand look in the direction of travel and inand look in the direction of travel and inthe direction of the loadthe direction of the load
    53. 53. Inspecting Your TruckInspecting Your Truck Inspecting the vehicle, both visually andInspecting the vehicle, both visually andwith a form once a weekwith a form once a week Check the fuel lines and smell for gasCheck the fuel lines and smell for gasleaksleaks Use chocks if parked on an inclineUse chocks if parked on an incline Make sure there is proper lighting andMake sure there is proper lighting andfloor is stablefloor is stable Practice “situational awareness”Practice “situational awareness”
    54. 54. OSHA Regs - ConductOSHA Regs - Conduct Only authorized drivers can operate forkliftOnly authorized drivers can operate forklift Stunt driving and horseplay prohibitedStunt driving and horseplay prohibited No riders permitted on vehicleNo riders permitted on vehicle No riders permitted on forksNo riders permitted on forks Operators should look in direction of travelOperators should look in direction of traveland shouldn’t move until path is clearand shouldn’t move until path is clear Forklifts should not be driven up to anyoneForklifts should not be driven up to anyonewho is standing in front of a fixed objectwho is standing in front of a fixed object
    55. 55. OSHA Regs - ConductOSHA Regs - Conduct When leaving vehicle unattended:When leaving vehicle unattended:- Power shut off- Power shut off- Brakes set- Brakes set- Mast to vertical position- Mast to vertical position- Forks in down position- Forks in down position- Wheels blocked if on an incline- Wheels blocked if on an incline If forklift left on:If forklift left on:- Brakes must be set- Brakes must be set- Mast to vertical position- Mast to vertical position- Forks in down position- Forks in down position- Wheels blocked in front and rear- Wheels blocked in front and rear- Never go beyond 25 feet or out of view of forklift- Never go beyond 25 feet or out of view of forklift
    56. 56. OSHA Regs - PreventionOSHA Regs - Prevention Employees shall not place any part of their bodiesEmployees shall not place any part of their bodiesoutside running lines of forklift or between mast uprightsoutside running lines of forklift or between mast uprights Employees shall not stand, pass or work under anEmployees shall not stand, pass or work under anelevated load, unless effectively blocked to prevent itelevated load, unless effectively blocked to prevent itfrom fallingfrom falling Operators should check vehicle at least once per shift,Operators should check vehicle at least once per shift,and if unsafe, report immediately to supervisorand if unsafe, report immediately to supervisor No truck shall be operated with leak in fuel systemNo truck shall be operated with leak in fuel system Vehicles shall not be run onto an elevator unless givenVehicles shall not be run onto an elevator unless givenpermission to do so and load capacity does not exceedpermission to do so and load capacity does not exceedthat of the elevatorthat of the elevator Motorized hand trucks shall enter elevators with load endMotorized hand trucks shall enter elevators with load endforwardforward
    57. 57. OSHA Regs - PreventionOSHA Regs - Prevention Vehicles shall not be operated on floors, sidewalk doorsVehicles shall not be operated on floors, sidewalk doorsor platforms that will not safely support the vehicle loador platforms that will not safely support the vehicle load Prior to driving, the flooring shall be checked for breaksPrior to driving, the flooring shall be checked for breaksor other structural weaknessesor other structural weaknesses Vehicles shall not be driven onto highway trucks untilVehicles shall not be driven onto highway trucks untilthose trucks’ brakes are blocked and brakes setthose trucks’ brakes are blocked and brakes set To prevent railroad cars from moving during loading, carTo prevent railroad cars from moving during loading, carbrakes should be set, wheels chocked and blue flags orbrakes should be set, wheels chocked and blue flags orlights displayedlights displayed The width of one tire on an industrial truck is theThe width of one tire on an industrial truck is theminimum distance that a forklift must maintain from aminimum distance that a forklift must maintain from aloading dockloading dock Trucks shall not be loaded in excess of their capacityTrucks shall not be loaded in excess of their capacity
    58. 58. OSHA Regs - PerformanceOSHA Regs - Performance Forklifts shall not exceed safe speeds and shall alwaysForklifts shall not exceed safe speeds and shall alwaysmaintain a safe distance from other vehicles – usually 3maintain a safe distance from other vehicles – usually 3truck lengths or a time lapse of 3 seconds.truck lengths or a time lapse of 3 seconds. Trucks traveling in the same direction shall not beTrucks traveling in the same direction shall not bepassed at intersections, blind spots or other dangerouspassed at intersections, blind spots or other dangerouslocationslocations Sound the horn at aisles and locations where vision isSound the horn at aisles and locations where vision isobstructedobstructed Grades shall be ascended or descended slowly – seeGrades shall be ascended or descended slowly – seespecificsspecifics Forks shall be carried as low as possibleForks shall be carried as low as possible
    59. 59. OSHA Regs - PerformanceOSHA Regs - Performance Railroad tracks shall be crossed diagonally – noRailroad tracks shall be crossed diagonally – noparking closer than 8.5’ to center of trackparking closer than 8.5’ to center of track Extreme care when tilting – elevated loadsExtreme care when tilting – elevated loadsshould not be tiltedshould not be tilted Forks should be under the load in a way to keepForks should be under the load in a way to keepit as secure as possibleit as secure as possible If loads are carried by two or more forklifts inIf loads are carried by two or more forklifts inunison, the total weight of the load should notunison, the total weight of the load should notexceed the combined lifting capacity of bothexceed the combined lifting capacity of bothforklifts.forklifts.

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