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Can you have it, without having it? - Alex Klarman @ PSE 2013 Vilnius

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Alex Klarman, CEO, Goldratt Institute - Israel (Israel) @ @ TOCICO International Public Sector Effectiveness Conference 2013 Vilnius

- Mega-projects versus large projects.

- Tools for uncertainty-management in mega-projects.

- Cooperating with the investor, contractors and subcontractors, vendors and internal and external control bodies.

More information - http://pse.lt

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Can you have it, without having it? - Alex Klarman @ PSE 2013 Vilnius

  1. 1. Application of Theory of Constraints (TOC) Can you have it, without having it? A case-study of a Critical Chain application in a set of huge city-wide construction and renovation projects for the UEFA EURO 2012TM games in Wrocław, Poland Alex Klarman, Ph.D. Łukasz Lorenz, M.Sc. Artur Jóźwiak, M.Sc. Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  2. 2. © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel) This presentation contains material that is the intellectual property of the Goldratt Institute (Israel) and may not be reproduced or distributed in any form, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of Dr. Alex Klarman and the Goldratt Institute (Israel). 2 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  3. 3. Alex Klarman, Ph.D. Alex Klarman - As the CEO of the Goldratt Institute (Israel), Dr. Klarman is leading the effort to introduce TOC to, and establish it as the standard management approach in Israel, as well as worldwide. His background - Ph.D. in biophysics, as well as his industrial and educational background, including long years of hands-on experience in industry, makes him exceptionally fitting to this demanding undertaking. As the commanding officer of Dr. Eli Goldratt during decades' long service the Israeli army, Dr. Klarman became familiar with the early concepts of OPT and TOC almost three decades ago. Since 1985 he took a major part in the drive to develop, disseminate and apply TOC. Dr. Klarman’s work included participating in developing the Theory of Constraints and leading the development of the educational materials and simulators used in various areas of TOC education, as well as implementing TOC solutions in some of the leading world-class corporations including the likes of Ford, Phillips, Intel, Teva and Microsoft, as well as many, many others. 3 Place for your photo Goldratt Institute (Israel) Question Mark Ltd. 2 Hadar Street Herzliya 46290 ISRAEL Tel: +972-9-950-7464 Fax: +972-9-950-7463 E-mail: toc-israel@012.net.il © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  4. 4. What we did, and why it may be :interesting We’d like to present how and why a major city in Poland, fearing possible delays in its preparations to host the EURO 2012TM games has decided to apply TOC in its project management. Then, what it got in return. 4 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  5. 5. The challenge: After a most competitive process, involving first many of the European countries, and then most of the major Polish cities, in 2008 Wroclaw was selected by UEFA to be one of the only four Polish cities to host the games. The other three were Warsaw, Poznan and Gdansk. The town has immediately started a process of design, planning and then constructing the stadium and a host of other projects, in order to enable the tens of thousands of expected visitors to safely arrive and view the games. 5 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  6. 6. The challenge: It was also an once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to upgrade the municipal infrastructure, and the City wasn’t going to miss it. A bold architectural design was selected: A contractor – a Polish-Greek consortium (having an experience at the 2004 Olympic Games at Athens) won the bid, promising to have it ready by June 30, 2011. The construction work itself was to start in April 2009 and to finish in January 2011. 6 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  7. 7. What were the projects we are talking about? The list of projects included:  A 43,000 seats stadium of the Elite class.  An integrated rail-tram-bus connector station  A connection to the main European superhighway A4 to Berlin and Ukraine  An downtown ring-road  The doubling of the main route leading to the airport  A new tram route connecting the stadium to the city  Roads, streets, bridges, and many walking and cycling routes  Etc… 7 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  8. 8. So far so good – what was the problem? On December 30, 2009, eight months after the start of the construction works, the city had revoked its contract with the contractor. The reason, acc. to the press: “…large and growing delays, which will certainly prevent Wroclaw from hosting the games as planned” . 8 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  9. 9. So what the City of Wroclaw did? Well, they did the smart thing, they have invited us, Goldratt Institute (Israel)TM, to act as their representative – to be their eyes, ears (and mouth – when needed) - in assisting, planning, monitoring and controlling the entire multi-project environment. We, in turn, have planned to apply the Critical Chain Project Management mechanisms in these projects. 9 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  10. 10. cntd. So what the City of Wroclaw did? The first questions we’ve faced were very basic: • What exactly does the City expect of us? • What kind of project environment do we face here? Is it a true Multi-Project environment, or rather its a set of Multi-Single independent projects? 10 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  11. 11. cntd. So what the City of Wroclaw did? The answer to the first question was very clear: • 11 To complete all projects according to plan. Simple, isn’t it? © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  12. 12. The answer to the second question was more tricky: Are these Multi-project or multi-single? The answer: Both! Some of the projects turned out to be a part of truly multi-project environment. In these the CCPM multi-project methodology was fully applied. 12 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  13. 13. What type of projects were we dealing with? Then, there was also another set of projects, which were truly independent among themselves. In these CCPM for single projects was applied. Some other projects were, however, in such an advanced state, that it was too late to fully introduce mechanisms of planning and control acc. to CCPM. In these we made only partial use of it, as well as other TOC tools. And then there was the stadium. 13 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  14. 14. So, we’ve divided all the projects into following groups: The southern trio: Lotnicza Rd., Connector rail-tram-bus station Kosmonauts Rd. proper CCPM, multiproject environment. The northern duo: Krolewiecka Rd Kozanowska tram route CCPM, multi-single. The singletons: Strzegomska Street, Mid-City ring-road, the Cigar area CCPM, multi-single. The Stadium 14 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  15. 15. Krolewiecka Rd.
  16. 16. Kosmonautów Station Lotnicza Cigar
  17. 17. The execution process: We’ve decided to assist the project teams in the following way:   We’ve introduced a single-project CC Buffer Management in the northern duo of projects.  17 Creating one interconnected functional super-project out of the three separate projects of the southern trio. In that way we’ve managed the project cluster as one, with a single Project Buffer for the entire projects set. We’ve introduced a single-project CC Buffer Management in the single projects. © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  18. 18. The execution process ctnd.:  However, we were barred (by the City, at the insistence of the constructing company) from intervening in the project management of the stadium, as this was a project executed by the “one of the best stadiums builder in Europe, maybe even in the world”, so our assistance wasn’t thought to be needed.  18 All that was left for us there was to manage, mitigate and resolve the multitude of collisions, conflicts and other interactions between the stadium and the many surrounding it projects. © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  19. 19. The southern trio – CCPM, multi-project Intercdependencies (potential collisions) between Trio’s projects 19 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  20. 20. The southern trio - execution Lotnicza Rd. Kosmonautow Rd. Connector Rd. 20 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  21. 21. The southern trio – fever chart buffer uffer uffer Connector 100% Lotnicza Trio Kosmonautow 67% 33% 21 0 CC 100% © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  22. 22. From the press: The reconstructed Kosmonautow Rd. is ready before time Przebudowana ulica Kosmonautów gotowa przed czasem mag 24.08.2011 aktualizacja: 2011-08-24 17:06 According to the schedule, the work się tam be completed only Zgodnie z harmonogramem prace powinny should zakończyć dopiero w in październiku, tymczasemin this Saturday we’ll be able to drive through October, but already nowym wiaduktem i poszerzonymi jezdniami będzie można przejechać już od soboty. the new overpass with its new double lanes. Przebudowany fragment ulicy otwarty zostanie w nocy z piątku na sobotę i zacznie obowiązywać docelowa organizacja ruchu. Tymczasowo zamknięte pozostaną jedynie wjazdy na Autostradową Obwodnicę Wrocławia, bo z tej części nowej trasy nie można jeszcze korzystać. Gdy otwarty zostanie fragment AOW od lotniska do ul. Żmigrodzkiej, wjazdy na węźle Stadion też zostaną udostępnione. Prawdopodobnie nastąpi to w ostatnich dniach sierpnia. Zakończenie prac na ul. Kosmonautów oznacza, że można przywrócić ruch na tamtejszym torowisku. Pasażerowie z Leśnicy wreszcie odetchną od przesiadek. Do tamtejszej pętli kursować będą linie 10 i 20. Uruchomione zostaną jednak dopiero w niedzielę 4 września. Do tego czasu z Leśnicy w kierunku centrum jeździć będzie autobus zastępczy 710. Zastąpi tramwaje wahadłowe w najbliższą sobotę i dowozić będzie pasażerów do Pilczyc, a tam będzie się już można przesiąść na tramwaje 3, 10, 20, 33plus oraz nową linię 32plus, która pojedzie do mostów Mieszczańskich. Więcej... http://wroclaw.gazeta.pl/wroclaw/1,35751,10168402,Przebudowana_ulica_Kosmonautow_gotowa_przed_czasem.html#ixzz1VyZjXaJJ 22 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  23. 23. The results at this stage: 1. The southern trio: Before or on time. 2. The northern duo: Before or on time. 3. The singletons: On time 4. The Stadium: Well, here is the story. 23 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  24. 24. But before we get to the stadium, lets try to answer the question posed at the title of our presentation. So - Can you have it (CCPM) without having it? YES! How? 24 …Well, you have to apply some tricks. © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  25. 25. Trick #1 – Look globally - Virtual Buffer The latest contractual end-date 25 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  26. 26. Explanation of Trick #1 Looking globally: Comparing the date when a project is actually required vs when is it planned to complete, some projects turned out to have available more time than it seemed. Because what really was important for the City– to be ready on time for the planned events. It has allowed us to: 1. To build project plans with ample Project Buffers. 2. Then, properly proritize among the members of the southern trio of projects, as a true multi-project enviroment. 3. The single Project Buffers of its projects became Feeding Buffers of the Critical Chain of the entire set. 4. In projects which were in an advanced stage of realization (the singletons), it enabled creation of Project Buffers, even if their size was lesser than desired. 26 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  27. 27. Trick #2 – TOC added value – on top of CCPM Lotnicza Rd. experience: The main contractor here wasn’t too easy to cooperate with. For some very good reasons... Cable line 110kV The contractor’s claim Buffer Our solution 27 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  28. 28. Trick #2 We’ve applied TOC tools and convinced the main contractor to get rid of time-reserves in the tasks (move to ABP times), thus enabling the creation of the much needed buffers. Surprisingly – he has agreed. They got a new contractual finish-date, but on the basis of the spare time revealed in the process, we have created the necessary buffer. The result: the main road leading to the stadium was completed one month before the first event there. 28 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  29. 29. But what has happened at the Stadium project? As we’ve mentioned before, we were practically barred from the Stadium project. For how long? Until the situation there became critical, and the danger of missing UEFA and City set milestones became very, very real. 29 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  30. 30. Wasn’t it too late to do anything? Reconstruction of the Fever Chart of the Stadium The moment we’ve joined 30 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  31. 31. Wasn’t it too late to do anything? Although everybody else thought it’s a lost case, we begged to differ - we didn’t think it’s too late. Maybe it was too late to fully implement the CCPM mechanism, but TOC has more to it than just that. 31 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  32. 32. What did we do, which TOC principles did we apply? We’’ve turned to the three well known principles of TOC: I. Inherent simplicity. II. There are no conflicts in nature, which can’t be solved… III. People are not stupid. 32 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  33. 33. How all this lead us to finish on time? We’ve used all three principles, but it was the second and the third that we’ve applied most; both the investor as well as the contractor will win if the project is completed on time – and they certainly are not stupid. It was our main task to find, at every step, the common win. Then we had to present it in such a way that doing the right thing for the project was also the right (and worthwhile) move for each of the parties. 33 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  34. 34. What exactly we did? 1. As we know, applying the 5 steps of TOC starts with identification of the constraint. 2. Only knowing what’s the constraint can lead to a meaningful actions. 3. However, the constraint has moved several times during our activity in the Stadium project. 34 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  35. 35. What we did? Stadium Constraints:   Once that was resolved, the constraint moved to the lack of credible planning; no PERT or Gantt whatsoever you can trust. So we assisted in building one.  Then it moved to the financial problems of the subcontractors. We tried to point out the most critical subcontractors and then help resolve their problems.  35 At the beginning it was the lack of trust and reliable communication along the Investor – Contractor axis. We’ve helped to establish a system of exchange of communication both sides could trust. Etc… © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  36. 36. What we did? Successfully using the TOC tools of conflict resolution (mainly the cloud and NBR) to resolve problems arising between the various parties along the critical chain has brought us within two weeks to position of trust and authority. From this point on, we were able to impact (or even direct) the construction effort in a manner that has prioritized any activity according to its impact on the completion of the entire project on time. 36 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  37. 37. Stadium - execution 37 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  38. 38. Municipal Stadium - Wroclaw, Poland 38 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  39. 39. The bottom line of the City "W swoich działaniach Question Mark Ltd. wykorzystywała swoją "tajną broń" do zarządzania projektami - metodę łańcucha krytycznego jako podstawę procesów planowania, monitorowania i kontroli". „In its activity Question Mark Ltd. has applied its „secret weapon" to manage projects – the Critical Chain mthodology as the base for the processes of planning, monitoring and controlling". 39 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  40. 40. AR TURĖTUMĖTE KLAUSIMŲ? Вопросы? Questions? AČIŪ Большое спасибо! Thank you! Dziękujemy! 40 © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)
  41. 41. Dr Alex (Alik) Klarman – only what truly matters: Alex was born in Frunze (today it’s Bishkek) the capital of Kyrgizstan – you sure know where it is. He got his Ph.D. in biophysics (the molecular architecture of very old and very large proteins) at the Biochemistry dept. of Tel-Aviv University – raise your hand, if you want to know more. As a major (reserve) in the Israeli Army he was Eli Goldratt’s Commanding Officer in two wars – and both survived (how?). His wife, Dr. Uki Maroshek (the intellectual part of the family) manages the Adam Institute in Jerusalem – but Alex cooks. Well. Has four sons - Dan, physicist (happens), Uri - computer science, Shauli - finished his army service (+ some) and has just started college, and Joav - the youngest, is now in the Army. His previous book (together with Richard Klapholz), The Cash Machine , on sales management acc. to TOC , was already translated from English to Polish, Lithuanian (yes, that’s right!), Chinese, Japanese and is soon to appear in German and Hebrew. 41 His latest book , also with Richard Klapholz, Release the Hostages, regarding customer support systems acc. to TOC, was published in 2009 in US. © 2013 Goldratt Institute (Israel)

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