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Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education. Jelena Fedurko

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Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education. Jelena Fedurko

  1. 1. TOC Strategic Solutions Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education Jelena Fedurko Vilnius, September 2012 Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  2. 2. Jelena FedurkoJelena has 13 years of TOC experience as atrainer and consultant providing support inTOC implementations in the areas of peoplemanagement, production, supply chain,project management.Jelena has worked in Japan, Poland,Turkey, Italy, Russia, Ukraine, India, China,Chile, Colombia, Mexico and other countriesthroughout the world.Jelena is the author of the book Behind theCloud – Enhancing logical thinking. Thebook presents new developments in thearea of working with assumptions.Together with Oded Cohen Jelena has co- jelenafedurko.gs@gmail.comauthored the book TOC Fundamentals,recently published in Russian. www.toc-strategicsolutions.comShe has authored numerous articles on TOCconcepts and implementation, and hascontributed to and edited several TOCbooks. Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  3. 3. The Role of Education 1. Transfer knowledge 2. Build skills Teaching is only the means to achieve that. Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  4. 4. Major learning skills 1. Comprehension 2. Evaluation 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Deduction 7. Induction 8. Balanced thinking 9. Creative thinking Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  5. 5. Major learning skills1. Comprehension – understanding the meaning, interpretation, ability to state a problem in one’s own words (while knowledge is ability to recollect and reproduce data and information)2. Evaluation – making judgments about the value of data/concepts3. Application – using what has been learnt to real-life situations4. Analysis – breaking down material/concepts into components to detect relationship among the parts or the parts and the whole (requires comparing and contrasting); distinguishing between facts and inferences; recognizing logical fallacies in reasoning5. Synthesis – forming a whole through building up/connecting elements to create a larger and more coherent pattern6. Deduction – moving from general principles to particular instances7. Induction – moving from particular instances to generalized conclusions8. Balanced thinking – examination of arguments for and against a particular data/material/concept9. Creative thinking – ability to devise innovative solutions Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  6. 6. What is unique about TOC? 1. Search for a logical reasoning The use of Cause & Effect relationships to structure our thinking, record our analysis and understand the suggested solution for any problem (based on Convergence) 2. Resolve conflicts A strong belief that there should be no conceptual conflict within our reality – hence – striving to find a win-win solution to any perceived “no solution situation” (Local & Global) 3. Seek for collaboration and contribution The use of TOC logical tools logic to communicate to ourselves and thereafter to the team with the view of working together to achieve the desired improvement (based on Respect) Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  7. 7. TOC Tools for Building Comprehension Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  8. 8. TOC tools for building ComprehensionWhile Knowledge is ability to recollect and reproduce data andinformation,Comprehension is ability to understand the meaning,interpret, and state a problem in one’s own words. The TOC tool to assist with Comprehension – the CloudUnderstanding and verbalizing the situation in which a person or a systemis caught between two mutually exclusive actions or modes of behaviour. B D The need that is satisfied by the Action 1 A action in D The common objective achieved by having Conflict B and C C D’ The need that is satisfied by the Action 2 action in D’In the Cloud we state what for we want to take an action, and what for wewant to satisfy the need. With that we claim that if we do something – it willgive us a certain effect. Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  9. 9. Inner Dilemma Cloud Inner dilemma – is when you are faced with two options and do not know which route to take. In an inner dilemma: B and C are both my needs to achieve the objective A D’ is the action that I want to take. D is the action that is forced on me by the system/situation. B D Means to Forced My need 1 achieve action A Need 1 The Objective C D’ Means to Preferred My need 2 achieve Need 2 action Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  10. 10. Building Comprehension – presenting a situation as an Inner Dilemma Cloud A case when a father of a teenage son built a dilemma cloud on whether to give his son a computer or a motor scooter for his fourteenth birthday. The father was concerned with the whole situation, especially that the birthday was coming close. B D Fulfil the son’s long Buy a motor scooter A standing dream for his birthday Be a good father C D’ Ensure latest educational and informational Buy a computer opportunities for his birthday for the son Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  11. 11. TOC tools for buildingComprehension isComprehension ability to understand the meaning, interpret, andstate a problem in one’s own words. The major TOC tool to build Comprehension – the assumptions behind the arrows in the Cloud Assumptions B-D B D Assumptions D-D’ The need that is satisfied by Action 1 A The common the action in D objective achieved by C D’ having B and C The need that is satisfied by the Action 2 action in D’ Assumptions C-D’ Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  12. 12. What are Assumptions? In reference to the Cloud, assumptions are facts, observations, beliefs, expectations, convictions, presuppositions, experiences, interpretations, concepts, principles, data, general knowledge and other elements of thinking with which we support our reasoning behind a logical connection. Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  13. 13. Building Comprehension – working with Assumptions B-D 1: The father has frequently told his son many stories about having a motor scooter as a teenager, and for the son to get the motor scooter will be a symbol of being accepted by the father as mature and grown-up. B D Fulfil the son’s long Buy a motor scooter A standing dream for his birthday Be a good father C D’ Ensure latest educational and informational Buy a computer opportunities for his birthday for the son C-D’ 1: Most of the information and communication goes through the internet. Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  14. 14. Day-to-Day Conflict Cloud Day-to-Day Conflicts are between you and someone else; they are not deep problems and they do not happen all the time. In a day-to-day conflict between you and somebody else: C is my need and D’ is the action I want to take. B is the other side’s need and D is the other side’s desired action. B D Means to Need 1 achieve Other A Need 1 Side Common Objective C D’ Means to Need 2 achieve Me Need 2 Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  15. 15. Building Comprehension – presenting asituation as a Day-to-Day Conflict Cloud The son’s side B D Fulfil the long Receive a standing dream A motor scooter Feel good in the family C D’ Ensure latest educational and informational Give a opportunities for the computer son The father’s side Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  16. 16. TOC tools for building ComprehensionComprehension is ability to understand the meaning,interpret, and state a problem in one’s own words. TOC tool to assist with Comprehension – the Negative Branch Understanding and verbalizing possible negative outcomes of a decision/action. Possible negative outcome will happen Exists/ will happen will happen Exists/ will happen independently independently Exists/ will happen will happen independently Decision/action Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  17. 17. TOC Tools for Building •Evaluation •Application Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  18. 18. TOC tools for building EvaluationEvaluation – making judgments about the value ofdata/concepts. TOC tool to assist with Evaluation – the protocol of checking the logic in the Cloud Check the logic: "In order to (tip of arrow)….. I must (tail of arrow)……" Does the flow of the words make sense? If not, correct the wording accordingly. 3.In order to [B] 4. I must [D] 2. I must [В] 1. In order to [А] B D A 6. I must [C] C D’ 5. In order to [А] 9. [D] and [D’] are in conflict 7. In order to [С] 8. I must [D’] 10. [D] jeopardizes achieving the need in [C] 11. [D’] jeopardizes the need in [B] Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  19. 19. TOC tools for building EvaluationEvaluation – making judgments about the value of data/concepts. TOC tool to assist with Evaluation – challenging assumptions behind the arrows in the CloudThe process aimed at challenging the validity of one or several assumption behind the causalities in the Cloud. Finding and negating an erroneous assumption leads to developing a solution to a problem described in the Cloud. Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  20. 20. TOC tools for building EvaluationEvaluation – making judgments about the value of data/concepts. TOC tool to assist with Evaluation –Categories of Legitimate Reservations (CLR) The protocol of checking logic in a cause-effect relationship In logical reasoning it is important to check each causality connection between two entities to ensure that it is clear and irrefutable. The process of checking logic is called scrutinizing that has its own terminology and sequence. We check for: 1. Clarity 2. Entity Existence 3. Causality Existence 4. Cause Insufficiency 5. Additional Cause 6. “House on Fire” 7. Predicted Effect Existence Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  21. 21. TOC tools for building Application Application – using what has been learnt to real-life situations. TOC tools to assist with Application – the Cloud, the Negative Branch, the Positive Branch, CRT, FRT Presenting one’s own reality or projection of a future outcome(negative or positive) through logical structures that present and justify causality. Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  22. 22. TOC Tools for Building •Analysis and Synthesis •Deduction and Induction •Balanced Thinking •Creative Thinking Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  23. 23. TOC tools for building Analysis and Synthesis Analysis – breaking down material/concepts into components to detect relationship among the parts or the parts and the whole (requires comparing and contrasting); distinguishing between facts and inferences; recognizing logical fallacies in reasoning. Synthesis – forming a whole through building up/connecting elements to create a larger and more coherent pattern. lution solution direction of d tion TOC A A A A TOC TOC A major TOC tool to assist PIVOT C C B B B B ’’ ’’ D Dwith Analysis and Synthesis D D D D D D Future Reality Current Reality – the U-Shape Rs T Injec ns TOC Injections NB DE UDE UDE UDE DE DE Also, Categories of DE UDE UDE DE DE DE DE DE UDE UDE UDE UDELegitimate Reservations DE DE UDE UDE Measurementstsplay an important role in building easure rformance High Perform Hig surem ts Measurements Low Performance Low rformanskills for Analysis and Synthesis Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  24. 24. TOC tools for building Deduction and Induction Deduction – moving from general principles to particular instances. A major TOC tool to assist then with Deduction – the protocol of establishing logic in causality branches If and if “if…, and if…, then…” A A B B Induction – moving from particular instances to CC D D D D generalized conclusions. ’’ A A B B Major TOC tools to assist C C D D with Induction: D D ’’ A A •Convergence B B C C D D •Clouds Consolidation D D ’’ process Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  25. 25. TOC tools for building Balanced thinking Balanced thinking – examination of arguments for and against a particular data/material/concept. Major TOC tools to assist with B D Balanced Thinking: A •Checking logic in the Cloud: C D’ “D is a necessary condition for B, but endangers C” and “D’ is a necessary condition for C, but endangers B” Possible negative • Negative Branch outcome Looking for a possible negative outcome of a decision/suggested Decision/ suggested solution/planned (desired) solution/ planned action (desired) action Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  26. 26. TOC tools for building Creative thinkingCreative thinking – ability to devise innovative solutions. Major TOC tools to assist with B Creating Thinking: A Injection •Developing Injections to the C Cloud Possible negative outcome • Developing Supporting + Injections to trim identified + Supporting Negative Branches Injection + Injection Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena
  27. 27. Addressing Resistance to Change with TOC Thinking Processes 1. Disagreement on what the problem is 2. Disagreement with the direction of solutions 3. Disagreement that the solution will bring the desired benefits Yes, but… 4. Fear that the solution will result in negative consequences (Risks) ssec o P gn k n hT 5. Obstacles to implementation seem to be h f o not acl pp A impossible to overcome i i i i 6. Say “Yes” and do nothing r t Impact of TOC on Thinking and Education_Vilnius_Sept 2012Copyright © 2012 by Jelena

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