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  1. 1. e h g d s e
  2. 2. What are hedges? Hedges are devices used by speakers to "explain" utterances beforehand in relation to the four maxims.
  3. 3. There is an accepted way of speaking which we all accept as standard behavior. When we produce, or hear, an utterance, we assume that it will generally be true, have the right amount of information, be relevant, and will be couched in understandable terms.
  4. 4. If an utterance does not appear to conform to this model, then we do not assume that the utterance is nonsense; rather, we assume that an appropriate meaning is there to be inferred. In Grice’s terms, a maxim has been flouted, and an implicature generated.
  5. 5. There are certain kinds of expressions speakers use to mark that they may be in danger of not fully adhering to the principles, these kinds of expressions are called “hedges”. For example we may say: “I am not sure if this is right…” or “As far as I know…” to show that we respect the maxim of quality and many of us may use this cliché expression” So, to cut a long story short,…” to emphasize that we observe the quality maxim in communication process.
  6. 6. We can observe many of such phrases and sentences in news stories also: To sum up the story… There are no more details about this news…(Quantity maxim) The official sources announced that… No one takes the responsibility of this report … It is heard that…(Quality maxim) On this subject, we interview…(Relation maxim) To clarify the news I talk to…(manner maxim)
  7. 7. You can also read about hedges in the following link: 2012/05/hedging-of-maxims.html
  8. 8. What is inference? • An inference is a deduction made by a listener based on his knowledge about the world • Example: Judy has borrowed my Kortmann to study • What is the inference? • people can't be borrowed, but books can - Kortmann must refer to a book
  9. 9. What is presupposition? • A presupposition is a logical requirement that takes on a concrete linguistic shape. • Examples: • Mike's siblings are really nice • Presupposition: Mike has siblings • My car broke down this morning • Presupposition: I have a car • The door is no longer open • Presupposition: the door was open before • I like chocolate too! • Presupposition: someone else likes chocolate as well
  10. 10. To review the topic of the maxims, watch the following videos and identify the maxims violated. • http:// •
  11. 11. Bibliography • Yule, 1996 • addapted from: http://startlearninglinguistics.blogspot .com/2012/04/cooperative-principlepragmatics-as.html • 12/05/hedging-of-maxims.html