Speaking skill presentation

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Speaking skill presentation

  1. 1. Speaking Definition
  2. 2. What is Speaking? • Speech is the vocalized form of human communication • Speech production takes places in real time and it is linear, i.e. utterance by utterance. • Planning is severly limited, therefore, it is the hardest of all four skills.
  3. 3. Coceptualization and Formulation Conceptualization Discourse type Topic Purpose Formulation Making strategic choices: syntax, vocabulary Beginning, middle and end
  4. 4. ! Note that: • In English, utterances tend to have a two-part structure: Topic + comment
  5. 5. Articulation • It involves the use of the organs of speech to produce sounds. • Sounds are produced in a continuous stream, some sounds merge with others. Handbag, baked beans • Continual changes in loudness, pitch direction, tempo and pausing serve to organize the sounds into meaninful words and utterances. • Proficients speakers produce 15 phonemes a second.
  6. 6. Self-monitoring & repair • It is a process that happens concurrently with the stages of conceptualization, formulation and articulation. • Self-monitoring may result in a slowing down, pausing and backtracking or rephrasing of an utterance.
  7. 7. Automaticity Conceptualizing Formulating Articulating Monitoring
  8. 8. Use of prefabricated chunks Add-on strategies (chaining together of short phrases) Fluency Mean that a speaker’s attentional resources are thinly streched
  9. 9. ! Note that: Being under pressure or tired will affect a speaker’s performance
  10. 10. ! Note that: • Speaking is like any other skill such as driving or playing a musical instrument: the more you practice, the more likely you are to be able to chunk small units into larger ones.
  11. 11. Fluency • Is fluency the ability to speak fast? • It’s not only about speed, but pausing is equally important. • However, frequent pausing is a sure sign of a struggling speaker. • Natural sounding pauses| are those that occur at the ontersection of clauses, | or after groups of words that form a meaningful unit.|
  12. 12. Fluency Another factor in the perception of fluency is the lenght of the run (number of syllables between pauses) Race-callers and auctioners rather than constructing from scratch,use prefabricated chunks Pause fillers: uh, um, er Repeats • Long runs • Use of prefabricated chunks • Production strategies
  13. 13. Interaction and turn-taking • Sometimes, a face-to-face dialogue is involved in speaking. • Turn-taking is negotiated because speakers are familiar with the rules and skills of turn- taking. Two rules are to be followed:  Long silences are to be avoided  Listen when other speakers are speaking
  14. 14. Discourse markers • That reminds me. (I’m continuing with the same topic) • By the way… (I’m indicating a topic change) • Well, anyway.. (I’m returning to the topic) • Like I say… (I’m repeating what I said before) • Yes, but.. (I’m indicating a difference of opinion) • Yes, no I know.. (I’m indicating agreement with a negative idea) • Uh-huh… (I’m listening)
  15. 15. Paralinguistics and sociocultural knowledge
  16. 16. Genre knowledge By its purpose: • Transactional: for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information • Interpersonal: For the purpose of maintaining social relationships By its interaction: • Non-inteactive or interactive By its planning: • Planned or unplanned
  17. 17. Genre knowledge PURPOSE PARTICIPATION PLANNING Airport anouncements Transactional non-interactive planned Sports commentary Transactional non-interactive Unplanned Job interview Transactional Interactive (partly) planned Service encounter Transactional Interactive Unplanned Joke telling Interpersonal (partly) interactive (partly) planned Leaving a voice- mail message Transactional or interpersonal non-interactive Unplanned Casual conversation interpersonal interactive Unplanned
  18. 18. The difference between written and spoken discourse
  19. 19. Dell Hymes: Speaking Proficiency Grammatical competence Sociolinguistic competence Discourse competence Strategic competence

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