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Emerald Ash Borer

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Emerald Ash Borer

  1. 1. Emerald Ash Borer
  2. 2.  Feed in cambium anddisrupt water/nutrient flow Found in PGs Co. in ‘04 Eradication effort in ‘05 Detected in ‘06 Re-eradication effort in ‘07 –’09 Monitoring andbiocontrol tillpresentEmerald Ash Borer
  3. 3. Emerald Ash Borer Adult emerges in sync with black locust flowers
  4. 4.  Feed in cambium anddisrupt water/nutrient flow Found in PGs Co. in ‘04 Eradication effort in ‘05 Detected in ‘06 Re-eradication effort in ‘07 –’09 Monitoring andbiocontrol tillpresentEmerald Ash Borer
  5. 5. D-shaped exit holesBark splitsSerpentine galleriesSymptoms of Attack by EABCourtesy of Al Sawyer
  6. 6. David Roberts,MSUMI Dept ofAgricultureThe upper third ofa tree dies backfirst, followed bythe rest the nextyear.This is followed bymany shoots orsprouts emergingbelow dead portionsof the trunk.S-shapedgalleries underbarkSymptoms of attack by EABJames W.SmithCourtesy of Mike Raupp
  7. 7. Woodpecker activity is an ‘earlywarning sign’ of emerald ashborers.R.Anderson, USDA FSJ. Solomon, USDA FSSo are barkfissuresVertical split in bark abovelarval galleryDavid Roberts, MSUCourtesy of Mike Raupp
  8. 8. …lookalike diseases caused bymicroorganisms.Ash yellows(caused byphytoplasmaorganisms)Ash anthracnose(caused by a fungus)Verticillium wilt(caused by a fungus)North Dakota State U. U. Of MN Extension Forestry at Auburn U.Courtesy of Mike Raupp
  9. 9. …there are a number of less lethal native borer insectsthat cause similar symptoms in ash trees…Banded ashclearwing and lilacborer mothsBanded ashborerJ. Solomon, USDA FSRed-headed ashborerG.Csoka,HungaryForestResearchCarpenterworm mothW. Hoffard, USDA FSJ. Solomon, USDA FSJ. Solomon, USDA FSCliff Sadof, Purdue U.Ash privet borerCourtesy of Mike Raupp
  10. 10. “How to tell” signs of Emerald Ash Borer and ClearwingBorers
  11. 11. Emerald Ash BorerEradication Zone 16,000 acres 3,000 acre bump-out after new detections(7/31/07) 12,000 trees removed 2008 winter 25,000 trees removed winter All ash >1 in. DBH
  12. 12. Courtesy of PhilipBell
  13. 13. Emerald Ash Borer Primary vector
  14. 14. Quarantine All of MD west of the Chesapeake Bay andSusquehanna River Most states: all quarantined Other states: quarantine by county or region
  15. 15. 2009
  16. 16. December 15, 2011 APHIS, Pest Control, and the Wood Trade
  17. 17. Quarantine What does it mean? No transport of EAB across line No transport of living or bark-on ash products acrossline No transport of hardwood firewood across line Most but not all interstate transport within quarantinezone is OK
  18. 18. A Little HelpCourtesy of Philip Bell
  19. 19. Courtesy of AlSawyer
  20. 20. Rate of Spread?
  21. 21. How long do we have?(2009 estimates)~1/2 mile per yearCity DistanceUpper Marlboro 6 milesDistrict of Columbia 6 milesWaldorf 8 milesLa Plata 15 milesCollege Park 15 milesBowie 19 milesBaltimore 48 milesArrival Date2010201020122021202120252059
  22. 22. How long do we have?2013 estimate Until the next load of untreated firewood
  23. 23.  Ash trees provideservices like pollutionremoval, carbonstorage andsequestration, andenergy savings The US Forest Serviceestimates that thevalue of the ashresource withinBaltimore County’sUrban-RuralDemarcation Line is$353M Effective controloptions are available,but are most effectivewhen used togetherwith a managementplan
  24. 24. Emerald Ash Borer Purple traps
  25. 25. Emerald Ash BorerControl Imidacloprid May to early June Soil drench, 1 oz. per inch circumference Amount needed per in. DBH may increase with tree size Annual application 1 year for protection on young trees (<6 in. DBH), 2 yearsin older trees Available to homeowners Trunk injection also available
  26. 26. Emerald Ash BorerControl Emamectin Benzoate (Tree-äge) Registered for EAB in all states where present Trunk injection (systemic) Used as preventive measure in valuable landscapetrees Has 2-3 year protection/application Studies show high efficacy Effectiveness lessened by low initial tree vigor Available to professionals only
  27. 27. Control Dinotefuran is registered for basal trunk bark: spray on lower trunk with gardensprayer soil applicationRemember… Always follow instructions on the label—it’s thelaw!
  28. 28. Emerald Ash BorerOther control options Tree removal/replacement Bifenthrin Cyfluthrin Permethrin Carbaryl Botanigard Spinosad
  29. 29. Compromise Maintain the benefits of large trees (>24 in.) Treat with emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge®) every 2or 3 years Replace smaller trees with non-ash species
  30. 30. Key Points and Summary Insecticides can effectively protect ash trees from EAB Only treat a tree if EAB within 15 miles Trees with more than 50% canopy decline are unlikely torecover even if treated Emamectin benzoate is the only product tested to datethat controls EAB for more than one year with a singleapplication; it also provided a higher level of control thanother products in side-by-side studies
  31. 31. Key Points and Summary XytectTM soil treatments are labeled for application at ahigher maximum rate than other imidaclopridformulations: useful for large trees Treatment programs must comply with any labelrestrictions on the amount of insecticide that can beapplied
  32. 32. Biocontrol Progress Four parasitoids found inChina and US Egg Parasitoid: Oobiusagrili Larval Parasitoids: Spathius agrili Tetrastichus planipennisi Pre-pupal Parasitoid:Scleroderma sp.Courtesy of Philip Bell
  33. 33. Emerald Ash Borer Cost of infestation expected: $10-20 billion inlosses to urban forests over the next 10 years Urban density of ash trees Mean of cities in EAB range: 53/ha (131/ac) Baltimore: 244/ha (603/ac) Consider cost of live takedown v. deadtakedown
  34. 34. Emerald Ash Borer
  35. 35. Emerald Ash BorerOutreach and education OMalley declared May 18-24 Emerald AshBorer Awareness Week in Maryland 2008 Summer-long campaign with the minor-league Bowie Baysox Fact sheets, ID cards, HGIC hotline First responder training www.mda.state.md.us/plants-pests/eab http://www.emeraldashborer.info/ County/municipal decision maker workshops
  36. 36. EAB ID card set 1000 general 200 Master Logger 500 Bayer Advanced Apps Poster Meeting Follow-up
  37. 37. Mid-Atlantic EarlyDetection Network
  38. 38. Coming Soon NIFA Regional IPM grant EDDSmaps Expansion of ID card set Boxwood blight Sudden oak death Sirex wood wasp Kudzu Bug

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