One Circle Diet for Three Sisters Demonstration Gardens
GREENBELT THREE SISTERS GARDENS
2012 Theme for Three Sisters Gardens • One Circle: How to Grow a Complete Diet in Less Than 1,000 Square Feet • By: David Duhon
14 Foods that can give complete diet in the 1000 square feet of garden space1. Collards (kale, 8. Soy Beans broccoli, chard) 9. Wheat2. Parsley 10.Filberts/hazelnuts3. Onions 11.Peanuts4. Garlic 12.Turnips5. Parsnips 13.Leeks6. Potatoes 14.Sunflowers7. Sweet potatoes
Collards • Widely considered to be a healthy food, collards are good sources of vitamin C and soluble fiber, and contain multiple nutrients with potent anticancer properties, such as diindolylmethane and sulforaphane] Roughly a quarter pound (approx. 100 g) of cooked collards contains 46 Calories. • Researchers at the University of California at Berkeley have recently discovered that 3,3-diindolylmethane in Brassica vegetables such as collard greens is a potent modulator of the innate immune response system with potent antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer activity
Parsley • In addition to its volatile oils and flavonoids, parsley is an excellent source of two vital nutrients that are also important for the prevention of many diseases: vitamin C and vitamin A • Good Companion plant atracks predatory insects-especially for tomatoes • As parsley seed germinates slowly (sometimes taking several weeks), it should be soaked in warm water overnight before planting. Sow outdoors in early spring in rows 10 to 12 inches apart, and cover 1/2 inch deep. Later thin the plants to stand about 6 inches apart
Onions • With their unique combination of flavonoids and sulfur-containing nutrients, the allium vegetables — such as onions — belong in your diet on a regular basis. • Onions, and other Allium species, are highly valued herbs possessing culinary and medicinal value. Some of their beneficial properties are seen after long-term usage. Onion may be a useful herb for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, especially since they diminish the risk of blood clots. Onion also protects against stomach and other cancers, as well as protecting against certain infections. Onion can improve lung function, especially in asthmatics. The more pungent varieties of onion appear to possess the greatest concentration of health-promoting phytochemicals .
Garlic • Garlic plants can be grown closely together, leaving enough space for the bulbs to mature, and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. When selecting garlic for planting, it is important to pick large heads from which to separate cloves. Large cloves, along with proper spacing in the planting bed, will also improve head size. Garlic plants prefer to grow in a soil with a high organic material content, but are capable of growing in a wide range of soil conditions and pH levels. • Garlic scapes are removed to focus all the garlics energy into bulb growth. The scapes can be eaten raw or cooked.
Parsnips • The parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) is a root vegetable related to the carrot. Parsnips resemble carrots, but are paler in colour than most carrots, and have a sweeter taste, especially when cooked. The buttery, slightly spicy, sweet flavor of cooked mature parsnips (often picked after the first frost) is reminiscent of butterscotch, honey, and subtle cardamom. Like carrots, parsnips are native to Eurasia and have been eaten there since ancient times.
Potatoes • Wild potato species occur throughout the Americas, from the United States to Uruguay. The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated independently in multiple locations, but later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species proved a single origin for potatoes in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex), where they were domesticated 7,000– 10,000 years ago. Following centuries of selective breeding, there are now over a thousand different types of potatoes. Of these subspecies, a variety that at one point grew in the Chiloé Archipelago (the potatos south-central Chilean sub-center of origin) left its germplasm on over 99% of the cultivated potatoes worldwide
Sweet Potatoes • The plant is a herbaceous perennial vine, bearing alternate heart-shaped or palmately lobed leaves and medium-sized sympetalous flowers. The edible tuberous root is long and tapered, with a smooth skin whose color ranges between yellow, orange, red, brown, purple, and beige. Its flesh ranges from beige through white, red, pink, violet, yellow, orange, and purple. Sweet potato varieties with white or pale yellow flesh are less sweet and moist than those with red, pink or orange flesh • The center of origin and domestication of sweet potato is thought to be either in Central America or South America.] In South America, Peruvian sweet potato remnants dating as far back as 8000 BC have been found]
Soy Beans • The soybean (U.S.) or soya bean (UK) (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses • Soybeans produce significantly more protein per acre than most other uses of land.[
Wheat • In 2009, world production of wheat was 682 million tons, making it the second most- produced cereal after maize (817 million tons), and with rice as close third (679 million tons). Wheat was a key factor enabling the emergence of city-based societies at the start of civilization because it was one of the first crops that could be easily cultivated on a large scale, and had the additional advantage of yielding a harvest that provides long-term storage of food. Wheat contributed to the emergence of city-states in the Fertile Crescent. The whole grain can be milled to leave just the endosperm for white flour. The by-products of this are bran and germ. The whole grain is a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals, and protein, while the refined grain is mostly starch.
Filberts--Hazelnuts • The Celts believed hazelnuts gave one wisdom and inspiration. There are numerous variations on an ancient tale that nine hazel trees grew around a sacred pool, dropping into the water nuts that were eaten by salmon (a fish sacred to Druids) which absorbed the wisdom. The number of spots on the salmon were said to indicate how many nuts they had eaten. A Druid teacher, in his bid to become omniscient, caught one of these special salmon and asked a student to cook the fish but not to eat it. While he was cooking it, hot liquid from the cooking fish splashed onto the pupils thumb, which he naturally sucked to cool, thereby absorbing the fishs wisdom. This boy was called Fionn Mac Cumhail (Fin McCool) and went on to become one of the most heroic leaders in Gaelic mythology
Peanuts •• Contrary to what their name implies, peanuts are not true nuts but a member of a family of legumes related to peas, lentils, chickpeas and other beans. Peanuts start growing as a ground flower that due to its heavy weight bends towards the ground and eventually burrows underground where the peanut actually matures. The veined brown shell or pod of the peanut contains two or three peanut kernels. Each oval-shaped kernel or seed is comprised of two off-white lobes that are covered by a brownish- . red skin
Turnip • Pliny the Elder considered the turnip one of the most important vegetables of his day, rating it "directly after cereals or at all events after the bean, since its utility surpasses that of any other plant." This vegetable is not particular about the type of soil it grows in and because it can be left in the ground until the next harvest, it "prevents the effects of famine" for humans (N.H. 18.34). • Turnips grow wild in Siberia and have been eaten since prehistoric times. • Turnips are easy to grow if sown in the proper season. They mature in two months and may be planted either in the spring, late summer or fall for roots or greens. The spring crop is planted for early summer use. The fall crop, which is usually larger and of higher quality, is often stored for winter use.
Leeks • Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt, as well as wall carvings and drawings, led Zohary and Hopf to conclude that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet “from at least the 2nd millennium BCE onwards.” They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE. The leek was the favourite vegetable of the Emperor Nero, who consumed it in soup or in oil, believing it beneficial to the quality of his voice
Sunflower • Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is an annual plant native to the Americas. Sunflowers should be allowed to mature in the garden. There are several indicators of maturity. The back of the flower head will be brown and dry; most of the yellow petals will have dried and fallen; the seeds will be plump; and the seed coats will be black and white striped