Too bad someone didn’t take a better stream shot isn’t it
The Value of Trees
Walking the WoodsUnderstanding our natural areas and their value Joe H. Sullivan, PhDDepartment of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture University of Maryland
Brief Outline Why do we values our trees and forests? How do we place a value on these in economic terms? What are some of the threats to our woods?
What is the value of a forest or woodland?Real estate value – simple market valueTourism value – aesthetics, fees, etcDirect use – quantitative value, e.g. timberEcosystem services or non-use values – these are difficult to quantify and frequently modeled values.
What are the ecosystem services and how do we value them?
Air qualityTimber production Biodiversity Carbon sequestrationNutrient cycling Carbon storageWater Filtrationand Regulation
Placing a value on Ecosystem Services? How do we value the ecosystem services? Apply some matrix in terms of environmental accounting (e.g. Costanza) or energy consumption (Odum), sometimes called Emergy. One model commonly used, particularly by urban planners is the URFORE or ECO model.
The UFORE model Urban Forest Effects Model – USDA/FS, late 1990’s (recently renamed as ECO, and part of the i-tree suite of forest assessment tools) UFORE has been used to assess services provided by trees in U.S. cities including Washington D.C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, Minneapolis and San Francisco, natural areas such as Prince William Forest Park (NPS) and even the University of Maryland campus. UFORE outputs include ecological parameters and ecosystem services
The i-TREE Suite http://www.itreetools.org/USDA Forest Service, 2006 plus revisions“By understanding the local, tangibleecosystem services that trees provide, i-Tree users can link urban forestmanagement activities withenvironmental quality and communitylivability.”
Off-the shelf software OR designJosh Nadler your own! Taylor Keen
i-Tree Analysis Toolsi-Tree Eco (UFORE) provides a broad pictureof the entire urban forest. It is designed to usefield data from complete inventories orrandomly located plots throughout acommunity along with local hourly airpollution and meteorological data to quantifyurban forest structure, environmental effects,impacts of pest infestation and value tocommunities.
OTHER TOOLS OF INTEREST OFF THE I-TREE SUITEi-Tree Vue allows you to use of national land cover datamaps to assess your communitys land cover, including treecanopy, and some of the ecosystem services provided by yourcurrent urban forest.i-Tree Streets (Stratum) focuses on the benefits provided by amunicipalitys street trees.i-Tree Hydro (beta) is a new application designed to simulatethe effects of changes in tree and impervious cover on streamflow and water quality.i-Tree Canopy offers a quick and easy way to produce astatistically valid estimate of land cover types (e.g., treecover)
OTHER TOOLS OF INTEREST OFF THE i-TREE SUITEi-Tree Design (beta) is a simple online tool that provides aplatform for assessments of individual trees at the parcel level.This tool links to Google Maps and allows you to see how treeselection, tree size, and placement around your home effectsenergy use and other benefits.i-Tree Pest Detection Module is a portable, accessible andstandardized protocol for observing a tree for possible insect ordisease problems.i-Tree Storm provides a method for a community to assesswidespread storm damage in a simple, credible, and efficientmanner immediately after a severe storm.
Example: Prince William Forest Park Located just west of I-95, SW of Washington D.C., in Prince William County, Virginia. National Park under National Park Service administration since the 1930s. Previous uses include farmland, pyrite mines, social services during the Great Depression, and training grounds for the precursor to the CIA Mixture of Atlantic Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions. Naturally regenerating vegetation but in the urban “footprint”
Prince William County Manassas Prince William Forest Park
Sampling Methods 100 random plots within the park, located via GPS coordinates. Each plot 1/10 acre (approximately 37.2 feet in radius). ID all woody species in the plot. Data include DBH, height, height to crown, crown area, dieback, % of crown missing, impervious surfaces and crown light exposure. Couple these data with weather and air quality data. Estimates are provided by the model.
Summary Results• Total number of trees surveyed 5099• Total estimated trees in the park 5.7 X 106• Mean trees/hectare 1126• Mean trees per plot (total) 51• Number of tree species surveyed 39• Leaf Area Index 3.36• Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index 2.45
Species Composition: all trees 15.6 22.2 American beech Black tupelo 5.4 Red maple Virginia pine 5.4 Flowering dogwood Tulip tree 5.6 17.5 White oak 6.5 American holly Other species 10.3 11.5
Forest Community Composition Relative Relative Leaf Area Importan density Basal Species Frequency Index (m2 ce Value (% of Area (% m-2) (I.V.) total) of total)American beech 90 24.6 11.0 0.86 125.6 Black gum 86 18.0 4.6 0.24 108.6 Red maple 83 11.8 9.3 0.41 104.1 White oak 62 5.3 15.1 0.32 82.4 Tulip poplar 61 5.7 16.5 0.49 73.2 Virginia pine 45 8.2 16.5 0.23 69.7
Carbon in PWFPNet Average AverageSequestration Sequestration Total Storage Storage (t yr-1) (t ha-1 yr-1) (t) (t ha-1 yr-1)12,346 + 1,093 2.43 + 0.2 394,241 + 8,698 77.45 + 3.7Value at $20 t-1 Value at $20 t-1 Value at $20 t-1 Value at $20 t-1$246,920 $48.60 $7,884,820 $1549
Pest Damage in DC and UMDPest UMD % UMD DC % DC Impacted Potential Impacted Potential Loss ($) Loss ($)Asian 27.3 14.7M 34.4 916MlonghornedbeetleGypsy moth 20.6 45.2M 13.8 1.39BDutch elm 2.1 376 T 2.4 112MdiseaseEmerald ash 0.8 2.35M 2.1 72Mborer
Some modeles for PWFPThe low-emission B2 scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel onClimate Change predicts moderate increases in mean annualglobal temperature by the end of the twenty-first century.In the next 30 years, 35 out of 39 tree species in PWFP willcontinue to experience optimal growth conditions.By 2070, however, the model predicts that the number of speciesthat would find the Park optimal would decrease to ten, whileone species, witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.), wouldexperience a climate entirely unsuitable for growthThis model also predicts that 10 species would be extirpatedfrom the park by the end of this century and that all currenttree species would be in the fringe range or outside of optimalconditions for growth.
What about the higher emission models??By 2070 ALL species would be listed in the unfavorable climaterange!Is this true??What are current emission levels?What does this mean?
Land Use and FragmentationDeforestation, urban sprawl, agriculture, and other human influenceshave substantially altered and fragmented our landscape.Such disturbance of the land can change the atmosphericconcentration of carbon dioxide, as well as affect local, regional, andglobal climate by changing the energy balance on Earths surface.The extent to which land use changes have contributed to globalwarming is controversial but may account for up to half of thewarming reported today.This is only one of the affects of development and land use changeson our environment. Dr. Neel will speak in more detail on this topicin the next presentation.