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Invasive Species

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Invasive Species

  1. 1. Invasive Plant SpeciesNevin DawsonUniversity of Maryland ExtensionSylvan KaufmanSylvan Green Earth
  2. 2. Native v. Exotic Native Thousands of years of co-evolution with othernative plants and animals Exotic Introduced from other parts of the country orworld Exists outside of the system that it evolved in Not necessarily invasive (1,000 of 4,000)
  3. 3. Invasive v. Non-Invasive As per Executive Order 13112 an"invasive species" is defined as a speciesthat is: 1) non-native (or alien) to the ecosystemunder consideration and 2) whose introduction causes or is likely tocause economic or environmental harm orharm to human health.Noxious Weeds: defined by MD Weed Control Law;required to be removed: johnsongrass, shattercane,and thistles
  4. 4. Primer on Invasives How they get started Imported in packing material or ballast water Intentionally introduced: “seemed like a goodidea at the time” Erosion control Ornamental
  5. 5. Primer on Invasives Why they are successful Easy to grow Quick solution to a problem Easy landscaping Lack of knowledge of consequences Similar to Superman No natural enemies Easy to compete in the local climate/site
  6. 6. Primer on Invasives Their impact Damages and losses of more than $138 billionper year nationally* Crowd out native species Reduce food and cover sources for nativespecies Reduce biodiversity*Pimentel, D.; R. Zuniga and D., Morrison (2005). "Update on theenvironmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive speciesin the United States.". Ecological Economics 52: 273–288.doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.10.002
  7. 7. Ornamental Plants• English ivy (Hedera helix)• Oriental bittersweet(Celastrus orbiculatus)• Eulalia, flame grass,zebra grass (Miscanthussinensis)• Burning bush(Euonymus alatus)• Japanese Barberry(Berberis thunbergii)• Privet (Ligustrum spp)• Norway maple(Acer platanoides)
  8. 8. Microstegium vimineum,Japanese stilt grass Used forpackingorientalporcelain Shadetolerant Changes soilconditions
  9. 9. WavyleafBasketgrass(Oplismenushirtellus subsp.Undulatifolius) Sticky seeds
  10. 10. Multiflora Rose(Rosa multiflora)
  11. 11. Oriental Bittersweet(Clastrus orbiculatus)• Can establish in dense shade, growsalong woodland edges, forest gaps• Competitive advantage over nativebittersweet through photosyntheticefficiency• Climbs over trees increasingpossibility of wind damage, girdlessmaller trees
  12. 12. Lonicera japonicaJapanese honeysuckle Introduced to LongIsland in 1806 Promoted forornamental use,wildlife Girdles trees, densegroundcover Semi-evergreen toevergreen
  13. 13. LonicerasempervirensLonicera japonica
  14. 14. Polygonum perfoliatumMile-a-minute vine Accidental introductionin Rhododendrons fromAsia Can grow 6”/day Found in young forests,stream edges, fallowfields
  15. 15. Kudzu (Pueraria montana)
  16. 16. Kudzu
  17. 17. Ailanthus altissimatree of heaven Introduced 1748 toPhiladelphia Chemicals fromleaves and rootshinder growth ofother plants Aggressive roots
  18. 18. Pyrus calleryanaCallery (Bradford) pear
  19. 19. Garlic mustard• Grows in forestunderstoriesand edges• Reducesestablishment oftree seedlings• Threat tosurvival of rarebutterflyPierisvirginiensis
  20. 20. Phragmites australis, common reed Native and non-native strains http://www.invasiveplants.net/diagnostic/diagnostic.asp
  21. 21. Control Measures Mechanical Hand pulling/cutting High labor cost Low dollar cost May require repetition Requires moderate access Mowing Moderate labor Moderate dollar cost Requires repetition Requires high access Grazing High cost Good for sites with difficult access Good for sensitive sites
  22. 22. Control Measures Chemical Labor varies Higher cost possible Moderate access required Possible collateraldamage
  23. 23. Effective Herbicide TreatmentsSuccess with herbicides requires• the most effective herbicide,• applied using the correct method, and• applied during the best time period.
  24. 24. Herbicide Effectiveness Broad spectrum, non-selective or narrowspectrum, selective- e.g. glyphosate vs. clopyralid Soil activity- e.g. glyphosate vs. imazapyr Air temperature- above 55 F and below 80 F Plant phenology- Evergreen vs. deciduous
  25. 25. Method and Timing of Application Foliar spray Wiping Hack-and-squirt orinjection (late winter,summer, not in spring) Cut stump (late winterand summer) Basal bark treatment(late winter, earlyspring)
  26. 26. SprayersJohn D. Byrd, Mississippi State UniversityUSDA Forest Service – Region 8Archive
  27. 27. Hack and Squirt
  28. 28. Cut stumpPhoto from tame.ifas.ufl.edu
  29. 29. Vines
  30. 30. Pests and PathogensNevin Dawson, Forest Stewardship EducatorUniversity of Maryland Cooperative ExtensionGlenn (Dode) Gladders, Forest Health SpecialistDelaware Forest ServiceBasic BiologyandCurrent Threats
  31. 31. Basic Biology Abiotic Salt Drought Fertilizer Herbicide Frost/freeze Gas leak Air pollution Soil compaction
  32. 32. Basic Biology Damage type Defoliation Boring and Girdling Sucking Galling
  33. 33. Basic BiologyDefoliation Chewing mouthparts Mandibles tear offpieces of leaves Results in defoliation Plant loses ability tophotosynthesizeMandible
  34. 34. Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) Defoliates Larvae eats leaves in spring Over 732,000 acres in eastern US in 2005 19,279 acres defoliated in Maryland in 2008 Slows growth Trees become more sensitive to otherfactors Can be fatal if occurs two years in a row,or subjected to additional factors Prefer oak, but will feed on otherhardwoods
  35. 35. Courtesy of Sherry Frick andBiff Thompson
  36. 36. Courtesy of Sherry Frick andBiff Thompson
  37. 37. Courtesy of Sherry Frick andBiff Thompson
  38. 38. Courtesy of Sherry Frick andBiff ThompsonEgg masses 10-15‟ offground
  39. 39. Basic BiologyGirdling/Boring Chewing mouthparts Larval galleries severflow of phloem andwater May reduce structuralintegrity of tree
  40. 40. Emerald Ash Borer
  41. 41.  Feed in cambium anddisrupt water/nutrientflow Found in PGs Co. in „04 Eradication effort in „05 Detected in „06 Re-eradication effort in„07 – ‟09 Monitoring andbiocontrol tillpresentEmerald Ash Borer
  42. 42. D-shaped exit holesBark splitsSerpentine galleriesSymptoms of Attack by EABCourtesy of Al Sawyer
  43. 43. David Roberts,MSUMI Dept ofAgricultureThe upper third ofa tree dies backfirst, followed bythe rest the nextyear.This is followed bymany shoots orsprouts emergingbelow dead portionsof the trunk.S-shapedgalleries underbarkSymptoms of attack by EABJames W.SmithCourtesy of Mike Raupp
  44. 44. Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)
  45. 45. Emerald Ash Borer Primary vector
  46. 46. Basic BiologySucking Piercing and suckingmouthparts Insect removesphloem or chlorophyllfrom plant Sometimes alsodamages tissueCicada mouthparts
  47. 47. On the horizon Coming soon to a forest near you! Sirex wood wasp Asian long horned beetle
  48. 48. Sirex Wood Wasp (Sirex noctilo) Usually attacks pines Also attacks spruce,fir, larch, and douglasfir Native wasps onlyattack dead and dyingtrees Injects fungus alongwith eggs that servesas food source forlarvae
  49. 49. Sirex Wood Wasp (Sirex noctilo) Carries destructive fungus Up to 80% mortality in pure stands Adult females can fly up to 100 miles Infestation can spread 5-15 miles per year
  50. 50. Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB)• Adults are more than1” long, shiny blackand white with longantennae• Bores into trunk andbranchesAnoplophora glabripennis
  51. 51. Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB)Anoplophora glabripennis• Frass (sawdust)• Damage is done by larvae andby adults emerging in the summer
  52. 52. PATHOGENS
  53. 53. Most Pathogens of Trees Are:A. FungiB. BacteriaC. VirusesD. Mycoplasmas
  54. 54. Most Pathogens of Trees Are:A. FungiB. BacteriaC. VirusesD. Mycoplasmas
  55. 55. Canker Diseases Caused by variouspathogens, includingNectria andBotryosphaeria Cankers often look likewounds Fruiting bodies may bepresent around margins ofcankers Almost all trees aresusceptible to one or morecanker-causing pathogens
  56. 56.  Effects are variable depending onhost, pathogen, and environment.Canker Diseases
  57. 57.  Stress often plays an important role. Stressed trees may be moresusceptible to these diseases thanstress-free trees Drought Wounds Other stressors May weaken trees to breaking pointCanker Diseases
  58. 58. Anthracnose Diseases Many different diseases Foliar symptoms & sometimes branchcankers Dogwood anthracnose has killed millionsof C. florida trees Anthracnoses of ash, oak, maple,sycamore, and most other trees aregenerally much less serious
  59. 59. Vascular Diseases Caused by variouspathogens, each with one toseveral hosts genera “Plumbing” problem Verticillium wilt Dutch elm disease Blue stain Oak wilt Vascular staining Often sticky spores that aretransported by insects Mainly Ascomycetes (nobasidiocarps)
  60. 60. Dutch Elm Disease Caused by Ophiostoma ulmi Vectored by elm bark beetle Has virtually eliminated American elm as astreet tree New disease-resistant varieties are available(Princeton)
  61. 61. Bacterial Diseases
  62. 62. Bacterial Leaf Scorch Affects various trees but our main concern is RED OAKSGraphocephalaversutaGraphocephalacoccineaAulacizesirrorataOncometopiaundataPhotos courtesy of the U.S. National Arboretum
  63. 63. Symptoms• MarginalScorching(in fall)• Yellow halo• Flagging• Dieback
  64. 64. Be on the lookout for…
  65. 65. Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthera remorum) AKA remorum blight and Phytophtheracanker disease Discovered in CA in 2000 Probable introduction to MD in 2003 Found at three nursery sites, all eradicated Spread by rain, soil, wind, and infectedplant material Bark cankers may kill host Leaf blight serves as reservoir Certain species may only be either leafhost or bark host
  66. 66. Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthera remorum) White oaks probably not susceptible Red oaks, rhododendron, blueberry,poison ivy, honeysuckle, and viburnumsmay all be susceptible Bark infection Large lesions Secondary infestation by ambrosia beetles,bark beetles, sapwood rotting fungus Leaf infection Brown to grey lesions anywhere in vascularsystem
  67. 67. Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthera remorum)Control No known chemical control Coordinate with MDA through HGIC fordiagnosis If positive, state will coordinatedestruction of materialrhododendron
  68. 68. SODblueberryrhododendron
  69. 69. Importance of Tree Health Keep a tree‟s defense systems active andeffective with water Consider fertilizing
  70. 70. What you can do!Monitor your landChoose the best control methodand timingPlan for restoration Nature abhors a vacuum How will you fill the gap?
  71. 71. Mid-Atlantic EarlyDetection Network
  72. 72. Questions?Nevin DawsonForest Stewardship EducatorWye Research and Education Centerndawson@umd.edu 410-827-8056 x125

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