Mers corona virus

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Lecture By :
DR.SATTI MOH’D SALEH
INFECTIOUS DISEASE PHYSICIAN
MEDICAL DIRECTOR
MEEQAT GENERAL HOSPITAL
CBAHI INFECTION CONTROL MEMBER

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Mers corona virus

  1. 1. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV): BY: DR.SATTI MOH’D SALEH INFECTIOUS DISEASE PHYSICIAN MEDICAL DIRECTOR MEEQAT GENERAL HOSPITAL CBAHI INFECTION CONTROL MEMBER
  2. 2. CORONA VIRUS - CORONA DERIVED FROM LATIN ( MEANS CROWN OR HALO) DUE TO SHORT SPIKE LIKE PROJECTIONS (HE)
  3. 3. - MERS CoV 6 NEW TYPE OF CORONA VIRUS  - 2ND OF 4 SUB GROUP ALPHA- B-GAMA & DELTA  - RNA VIRUS  -ALPHA & BETA DESCEND FROM BAT GENE POOL  - DELTA & GAMA FROM AVIAN GENE POOL
  4. 4. NOVEL CORONA VIRUS NOVEL CORONA VIRUS REPORTED ON 24/9/2012 BY DR. ALI MOHAMMAD ZAKI  -ISOLATED & IDENTIFIED FROM PATIENT 60 YEARS OLD WITH ACUTE PNEUMONEA & ARF BY DR. ALI M. ZAKI -POSTED HIS FINDINGS
  5. 5. ‫صور‬‫المصري‬ ‫الطبيب‬‫فيروس‬ ‫مكتشف‬ ‫زكي‬ ‫علي‬‫كورو‬‫نا‬ vb.n4hr.com -
  6. 6. Replication of Coronavirus
  7. 7. MERS CoV NAMED AS NOVEL CORONA VIRUS OR SAUDI’S SARS LIKE CORONA VIRUS  - INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON TOXONOMY OF VIRUS NAME IT AS MERS CoV
  8. 8. MERS Cases and Deaths, April 2012-tneserP Current as of September 13,2013,9:00 AM EDT Countries Cases (Deaths) France 2 (1) Italy 3 (0) Jordan 2 (2) Qatar 5 (2) Saudi Arabia 90 (44) Tunisia 3 (1) United Kingdom (UK) 3 (2) United Arab Emirates (UAE) 6 (2) Total 114 (54
  9. 9. INTERNATIONAL ALARM FOR TWO REASONS: VIRUS OFTEN DEADLY  NO CLEAR TREATMENT
  10. 10. SOURCE UNKNOWN
  11. 11. -SPECULATION BAT VIRUSES     INTERMEDIATE HOST    CAMELS & OTHERS    MULTIPLE GEOGRAPHIC SITES (MULTIPLE ZOOTIC EVENTS)  
  12. 12. SOURCE - ? AUSTRALIA, U AFRICAN BATS TO MIDDLE EAST S O R C E SOURCE
  13. 13. *KNOWN FACTS -HAS TROPISM TO NON CILIATED BROCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS (CONTRA TO OTHER VIRUSES  - CELLS THAT MERS INFECT WITHIN THE LUNGS FORM 20 % OF RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS  - LARGE NUMBER OF VIRUSES NEEDED TO BE INHALED TO CAUSE INFECTION
  14. 14. Is this virus the same as the SARS virus? No. The novel coronavirus is not the same virus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003. However, like the SARS virus, the novel coronavirus is most similar to those found in bats. CDC is still learning about this new virus.
  15. 15. Location of Bat Sampling Sites
  16. 16. MERS-CoV INCUBATION period The available data suggest that symptoms have occurred up to 14 days after last exposure. 
  17. 17. First Reported MERS-CoV Case 60 year old Saudi man •Presented on June 13th with 7d h/o fever and cough; recent shortness of breath •Increasing blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine, starting day 3 of admission •White cell count normal on admission (but 92.5% neutrophils) and increased to a peak of 23,800 cells per cubic millimeter on day 10 with neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and progressive thrombocytopenia
  18. 18. First Case: Chest Radiographs Bilateral enhanced pulmonary hilar vascular shadows (more prominent on the left) and accentuated bronchovascular lung markings. Multiple patchy opacities in middle and lower lung fields Opacities more confluent and dense A: On admission B: 2 days later
  19. 19. First Case Outcome •Patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome •Died June 24th •No close contacts with severe illnesses reported
  20. 20. Second Case 49 year old Qatari national •Onset of illness September 3rd with mild respiratory symptoms •September 9th- admission to Qatar hospital with bilateral pneumonia- subsequent intubation •September 12th admitted to London ICU with respiratory failure and renal failure •Fully dependent on ECMO •History of travel to Saudi Arabia July 31- Aug. 18, where noted to have URI symptoms (and traveling companions) •History of farm (camels and sheep) exposure, but no history of direct contact with these animals
  21. 21. Second Case: Management Airborne precautions •Close contacts monitored for at least 10d •64 contacts identified among healthcare personnel (HCP), family, and friends –No severe acute respiratory illnesses identified –13 HCP with mild respiratory symptoms –10 HCP negative for MERS-CoV
  22. 22. Saudi Arabia Household Cluster •A cluster of 4 respiratory illnesses in a family who lived in an apartment –All males; ages 16-70y •All hospitalized •3 of 4 confirmed with MERS-CoV •3 of 4 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia) •2 deaths
  23. 23. Nosocomial Transmission in France, Index Patient •64 year old man, returned from travel to Dubai 5 days earlier •History of renal transplantation •Onset of symptoms: Diarrhea, fever, chills •Abdominal CT showed pulmonary infiltrates 2d after onset •Developed cough and dyspnea 4d after onset; initial NP swab deemed negative, but bronchoalveolar lavage specimen positive •Respiratory failure, renal failure- death, 36 days after onset of illness
  24. 24. Radiographs of Patient 2 B. 4 days after onset of illness, Ground glass opacity and consolidation of left lower lobe . Consolidation of right upper lobe, 1 day after onset of illness C and D. Bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidation, 7 days and 9 days after onset of illness, respectively
  25. 25. MERS-CoV Outbreak in Saudi Arabia April – May 2013 •Al-Ahsa governorate in eastern region •Cluster currently being investigated •25 confirmed cases, 14 confirmed deaths •18 males, 7 females; Ages 14 - 94 years, median age: 58 •Initial cases associated with one hospital but now also: –Family contacts –Healthcare workers –Cases with no link to hospital •Most cases with comorbidities
  26. 26. MERS-CoV- Overall Epidemiology •Approximately 50% mortality rate •Onsets between April 2012 and May 29, 2013 •Median age ~ 56 y –2 pediatric cases reported •Male predominance •Most cases reported with comorbidities •Cases by country of residence: –Saudi Arabia 40, UK 3, Jordan 2, Qatar 2, UAE 1, France 2, Tunisia 2, Italy 3 –Three were returning travelers, 3 medical transfers
  27. 27. MERS Cases and Deaths, April 2012-tneserP Current as of September 13,2013,9:00 AM EDT Countries Cases (Deaths) France 2 (1) Italy 3 (0) Jordan 2 (2) Qatar 5 (2) Saudi Arabia 90 (44) Tunisia 3 (1) United Kingdom (UK) 3 (2) United Arab Emirates (UAE) 6 (2) Total 114 (54
  28. 28. Confirmed cases of MERS-CoV (n=55) and history of travel from the Arabian Peninsula
  29. 29. MERS-CoV CLINICAL CASE definition A person with an acute respiratory infection, which may include fever (≥ 38°C , 100.4°F) and cough; AND Suspicion of pulmonary parenchymal disease (e.g., pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome based on clinical or radiological evidence); AND History of travel from the Arabian Peninsula or neighboring countries* within 14 days. 
  30. 30. CDC Case Definitions: Probable Case •Any person who- –meets the criteria above for “Patient Under Investigation” and has clinical, radiological, or histopathological evidence of pulmonary parenchyma disease (e.g. pneumonia or ARDS), but no possibility of laboratory confirmation exists, either because the patient or samples are not available or there is no testing available for other respiratory infections, AND –is a close contact with a laboratory-confirmed case, AND –has illness not already explained by any other infection or etiology, including all clinically indicated tests for community-acquired pneumonia according to local management guidelines. •OR any person with- –severe acute respiratory illness with no known etiology, AND –an epidemiologic link to a confirmed MERS case. Confirmed Case
  31. 31. MERS-CoV CLOSE CONTACT definition A close contact* is defined as a person who: Did not use respiratory protection (N95 or higher level respirator); AND Shared the same airspace within 10 feet for at least 5 minutes. Examples of close contact include providing care for the case (e.g., a healthcare worker or family member), or having similar close physical contact; or stayed at the same place (e.g., lived with, visited) as the case during their infectious period.
  32. 32. Complications  Complications have included severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with multi-organ failure, renal failure requiring dialysis, consumptive coagulopathy and pericarditis.
  33. 33. PERSON TO PERSON TRANSMISSION (VERY LOW)  - NO SUSTAINED TRANSMISSION IN COMMUNITY  - PEOPLE WITH COMORBIDITY OR IMMUNOSUPPRESSION INCREASE INFECTION, INCREASE COMPLICATION, INCREASE MORBIDITY
  34. 34. For Healthcare Providers Infection control recommendations for healthcare settings Standard, contact, and airborne precautions are recommended for management of hospitalized patients with known or suspected MERS-CoV infection. These recommendations are consistent with those recommended for the coronavirus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003. The recommendations are based on available information (as of June 10, 2013) and will be re- evaluated and updated as needed when new information becomes available
  35. 35. Infection Control Recommendations for Hospitalized Patients •These recommendations are for hospitalized patients who meet the case definition and are based on the following issues: –Poorly characterized clinical signs and symptoms, and a suspected high rate of morbidity and mortality among infected patients –Unknown modes of transmission of MERS- CoV –Lack of a vaccine and chemoprophylaxis –Evidence of limited, not sustained, human-to- human transmission
  36. 36. Patient Placement Airborne Infection Isolation Room (AIIR) –If an AIIR is not available, the patient should be transferred as soon as is feasible to a facility where an AIIR is available. –Pending transfer, place a facemask on the patient and isolate him/her in a single-patient room with the door closed. –The patient should not be placed in any room where room exhaust is recirculated without high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration. •Once in an AIIR, the patient’s facemask may be removed. •When outside of the AIIR, patients should wear a facemask to contain secretions.
  37. 37. Patient Placement Limit transport and movement of the patient outside of the AIIR to medically-essential purposes. •Implement staffing policies to minimize the number of personnel who must enter the room.
  38. 38. HAND HYAGIENE IS VERY IMPORTANT
  39. 39. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Healthcare Personnel (HCP)Gloves •Gowns •Eye protection (goggles or face shield) •Respiratory protection that is at least as protective as a fit-tested NIOSH- certified disposable N95 filtering face piece respirator
  40. 40. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Healthcare personnel (HCP) Recommended PPE should be worn by HCP upon entry into patient rooms or care areas. •Upon exit from the patient room or care area, PPE should be removed and either: –Discarded, or –For re-useable PPE, cleaned and disinfected according to the manufacturer’s reprocessing instructions.
  41. 41. Environmental Infection Control •Follow standard procedures, per hospital policy and manufacturers’ instructions, for cleaning and/or disinfection of: –Environmental surfaces and equipment –Textiles and laundry –Food utensils and dishware
  42. 42. ADVISES IN HAJJ & UMRA FREQUENT HAND WASHING CONTACT WITH OTHERS NOT TO TOUCH EYE NOSE & MOUTH WITHOUT HAND WASHING COVER MOUTH, NOSE WITH TISSUES (NOT TO INFECT OTHERS ON COUGHING & SNEEZING)
  43. 43. CDC does not recommend that travelers change their plans because of MERS. However, the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health has made special recommendations for travelers to Hajj and Umrah. Because of the risk of MERS, Saudi Arabia recommends that the following groups should postpone their plans for Hajj and Umrah this year: People over 65 years old Children under 12 years old Pregnant women People with chronic diseases (such as heart disease, kidney disease, diabetes, or respiratory disease) People with weakened immune systems People with cancer or terminal illnesses CDC encourages people traveling to Saudi Arabia to perform Hajj or Umrah to consider this advice. People who are concerned about MERS should discuss their travel plans with their doctor.
  44. 44. Laboratory Testing Lower respiratory specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, endotracheal) are a priority respiratory specimen for real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing •Respiratory (lower and upper tracts), stool, and serum specimens •Specimen collection at different times
  45. 45. USED IN MONKEY - SYMPTOMS, SLOW VIRAL GROWTH DAMAGE TO LUNGS, BREATHING (ONLY USED IN FEW MONKEYS WITHIN 8 HOURS OF INFECTIONS) U S E D I N M O N K E Y
  46. 46. For Healthcare Providers Infection control recommendations for healthcare settings Standard, contact, and airborne precautions are recommended for management of hospitalized patients with known or suspected MERS-CoV infection. These recommendations are consistent with those recommended for the coronavirus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003. The recommendations are based on available information (as of June 10, 2013) and will be re- evaluated and updated as needed when new information becomes available
  47. 47. Patient Placement Airborne Infection Isolation Room (AIIR) –If an AIIR is not available, the patient should be transferred as soon as is feasible to a facility where an AIIR is available. –Pending transfer, place a facemask on the patient and isolate him/her in a single-patient room with the door closed. –The patient should not be placed in any room where room exhaust is recirculated without high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration. •Once in an AIIR, the patient’s facemask may be removed. •When outside of the AIIR, patients should wear a facemask to contain secretions.
  48. 48. Patient Placement Limit transport and movement of the patient outside of the AIIR to medically-essential purposes. •Implement staffing policies to minimize the number of personnel who must enter the room.
  49. 49. How Can Travelers Protect Themselves? Taking these everyday actions can help prevent the spread of germs and protect against colds, flu, and other illnesses: Wash your hands often with soap and water. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth. Germs spread this way. Avoid close contact with sick people. Be sure you are up-to-date with all of your shots, and if possible, see your healthcare provider at least 4–6 weeks before travel to get any additional shots. . If you are sick: Cover your mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, and throw the tissue in the trash. Avoid contact with other people to keep from infecting them.
  50. 50. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Healthcare Personnel (HCP) Gloves •Gowns •Eye protection (goggles or face shield) •Respiratory protection that is at least as protective as a fit-tested NIOSH- certified disposable N95 filtering face piece respirator
  51. 51. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Healthcare personnel (HCP) Recommended PPE should be worn by HCP upon entry into patient rooms or care areas. •Upon exit from the patient room or care area, PPE should be removed and either: –Discarded, or –For re-useable PPE, cleaned and disinfected according to the manufacturer’s reprocessing instructions.
  52. 52. Environmental Infection Control •Follow standard procedures, per hospital policy and manufacturers’ instructions, for cleaning and/or disinfection of: –Environmental surfaces and equipment –Textiles and laundry –Food utensils and dishware
  53. 53. Laboratory Testing Lower respiratory specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, endotracheal) are a priority respiratory specimen for real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing •Respiratory (lower and upper tracts), stool, and serum specimens •Specimen collection at different times
  54. 54. Emergency Use Authorization •FDA issued an EUA on June 5, 2013, to authorize use of CDC's “Novel coronavirus 2012 real-time reverse transcription–PCR assay” to test for MERS-CoV in clinical respiratory, blood, and stool specimens. •Assay will be deployed to Laboratory Response Network (LRN) laboratories in all 50 states over the coming weeks.
  55. 55. Approach to Serology •Identify and generate candidate CoV antigens –Using proteins from similar bat viruses •Develop ELISA-based assay •Evaluate assay with an extensive panel of negative (specificity) and positive sera (sensitivity)
  56. 56. Therapeutics •No vaccines developed as of yet •No antivirals identified as of yet •Treatment is supportive
  57. 57. FUTURE TREATMENT INTERFERON ALFA 2 + RIBAVERIN
  58. 58. USED IN MONKEY - SYMPTOMS, SLOW VIRAL GROWTH DAMAGE TO LUNGS, BREATHING (ONLY USED IN FEW MONKEYS WITHIN 8 HOURS OF INFECTIONS) U S E D I N M O N K E Y
  59. 59. IF YOU HAVE A DYING PATIENT SHOULD, ‫؟؟‬YOU TRY IT AS LAST EFFORT
  60. 60. IF YOU HAVE A DYING PATIENT,SHOULD YOU TRY IT AS LAST EFFORT? LAST REMINDER, NO UNNECESSARY PANIC… ALWAYS COMPLY WITH INFECTION CONTROL & PREVENTION STANDARDS

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