(Jan 2011) Scholars, their Blogs, and Digital Preservation: Reflections on Research Design

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Event: Speaker Series, School of Information Studies, McGill University, Montreal, QC, January 28, 2011.

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(Jan 2011) Scholars, their Blogs, and Digital Preservation: Reflections on Research Design

  1. 1. SCHOLARS &THEIR BLOGS REFLECTIONS ON RESEARCH DESIGNDr. Carolyn Hankcarolyn.hank@mcgill.caSchool of Information StudiesMcGill UniversitySPEAKER SERIES28 January 2011
  2. 2. 03 Background 04 Research Design 23 Questionnaires 30 Interviews 32 Blog Analysis 36 Findings 58 Discussion 60 Next Steps02 | 63 agenda
  3. 3. LITERATURE Blogger Perceptions on Digital Preservation Hank, Sheble, & Choemprayong, 2007-2010 Blogs & Scholarly Blogging Communication Blog Digital Archiving Preservation03 | 63 background
  4. 4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS How do scholars who blog perceive their blog in relation to their cumulative scholarly record?04 | 63 research design
  5. 5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS How do scholars who blog perceive their blog in relation to long-term stewardship? Who do they perceive as responsible as well as capable for blog preservation?05 | 63 research design
  6. 6. RESEARCH QUESTIONS What blog characteristics impact preservation? What blogger behaviours impact preservation?06 | 63 research design
  7. 7. CONSIDERATIONS Multiple Instances Multiple Authors Scholar blogger(?) ? Scholarly blog(?) Currency Timing05 || 3507 63 research design RESEARCH DESIGN
  8. 8. UNITSBLOGSBLOGGERS08 | 63 research design
  9. 9. DATA SOURCES QuestionnairesBLOGS InterviewsBLOGGERS Blog Analysis09 | 63 research design
  10. 10. POPULATION NEEDLE IN A HAYSTACK10 | 63 research design
  11. 11. POPULATION CHAMELEON IN A HAYSTACK11 | 63 research design
  12. 12. POPULATION Purposive Sampling Academic Blog Portal <http://www.academicblogs.org>12 | 63 research design
  13. 13. BLOGS BY CLUSTER Blogs Listed Total Domain Cluster Duplicates at Source BlogsHumanities History 190 1 189Social Sciences Economics 192 0 192Professions & Law 120 1 119Useful ArtsSciences BioChemPhys 147 3 144All Domains All Clusters 649 5 644Note. For total blogs within the Sciences cluster, BioChemPhys (N=144), sub-fields wererepresented as follows: Biology blogs, 39% (n=56); Chemistry blogs, 15% (n=21); andPhysics blogs, 47% (n=67).Also, BioChemPhys is also abbreviated in select tables as, „Sciences.” 13 | 63 research design
  14. 14. BLOG ELIGIBILITY … PUBLICLY AVAILABLE PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH KNOWLEDGE OR PERSONAL BLOG TIME-STAMPED POSTS ACTIVELY PUBLISHED TO AT LEAST 1 YEAR OLDPERSONAL IDENTIFIERS (RE: AUTHORSHIP)14 | 63 research design
  15. 15. CONTINUED AUTHORED BY 1 OR MORE SCHOLARS SCHOLAR CRITERIA a) 1+ descriptor: Ph.D., Dr., Professor, Reader, Lecturer, Doctoral Student, or Doctoral Candidate b) 1+ descriptor (Scholar, Academic, Researcher, Research Director, Fellow, Biologist) and institutional affiliation c) Link to blogger‟s CV or the like with 1+ citation to a journal article d) Graduate student and explicit reference to area of study or pursuant degree15 | 63 research design
  16. 16. LISTED VS. ELIGIBLE16 | 63 research design
  17. 17. ASSESSMENT History Econ Law Sciences Criterion Freq (%) Freq (%) Freq (%) Freq (%)Publicly available 168 (90%) 163 (85%) 113 (95%) 126 (88%)Published in English 159 (84%) 151 (79%) 111 (93%) 123 (85%)Knowledge or personal 146 (77%) 140 (73%) 93 (78%) 119 (83%)blogTime-stamped posts 145 (77%) 140 (73%) 93 (78%) 118 (82%)Actively published to 68 (36%) 83 (43%) 58 (49%) 62 (43%)At least 1 year old 58 (31%) 66 (34%) 53 (45%) 54 (38%)Personal identifiers in 53 (28%) 59 (31%) 48 (40%) 48 (33%)regard to authorshipAuthored by 1 or morebloggers meeting 46 (24%) 51 (27%) 47 (40%) 44 (31%)scholar parameters 17 | 63 research design
  18. 18. SAMPLING FRAME (1) Clusters Single-Blogs Co-Blogs Total BlogsHistory 32 14 46 (31%)Economics 34 17 51 (27%)Law 22 25 47 (40%)BioChemPhys 37 7 44 (24%)All Clusters 125 63 188 (29%)Note. For blogs in the BioChemPhys cluster, disciplines were represented as follows:Single-blogs: biology 43% (n=16), chemistry 14% (n=5), and physics 43% (n=16); andCo-blogs: biology 0%, chemistry 29% (n=2), and physics 71% (n=5).18 | 63 research design
  19. 19. BLOGGER ELIGIBILITY CO-BLOGS : POSTED W/IN 1 MONTH CO-BLOGS: MEETS SCHOLAR CRITERIA ALL BLOGS: BLOGGER CONTACT INFO19 | 63 research design
  20. 20. CO-BLOGGERS History Econ Law Sciences Criterion (N=151) (N=155) (N=228) (N=49) Freq (%) Freq (%) Freq (%) Freq (%)(Special Condition):Blogger published 43 (29%) 65 (42%) 114 (50%) 19 (39%)within previous monthBlogger meets 31 (21%) 58 (37%) 107 (47%) 16 (33%)scholar parametersBlogger contact 27 (18%) 56 (36%) 102 (45%) 15 (31%)information availableProtocol: Revisedcount and percentage 23 (15%) 53 (34%) 99 (43%) 15 (31%)after removal ofduplicate listings 20 | 63 research design
  21. 21. SINGLE-BLOGGERS History Econ Law Sciences Criterion (N=32) (N=34) (N=22) (N=37) Freq (%) Freq (%) Freq (%) Freq (%)Blogger contact 27 (84%) 32 (94%) 21 (96%) 28 (76%)information available21 | 63 research design
  22. 22. APPENDIX ASAMPLE Criteria 1-9 Data ManagementCODING 48 Categories/AttributesSYSTEM Specific Instructions22 | 63 research design
  23. 23. INSTRUMENT DESIGN QUESTIONNAIRES Q1 (single-bloggers) 41 to 58 questions Q2 (co-bloggers): 41 to 62 questions Qualtrics QUESTIONNAIRES AVAILABLE IN APPENDICES C & D23 | 63 questionnaires
  24. 24. INSTRUMENT DESIGN Lenhart & Fox (2006) Herring et al. (2005) Morton and Price (1999) Olsen et al. (2009) Rainie (2005) Do not White & Winn (2009) Hank et al. (2007) reinventthe wheel24 | 63 questionnaires
  25. 25. INSTRUMENT DESIGN Dillman et al. (2009) Czaja & Blair (2005) Punch (2003).Dillman25 | 63 questionnaires
  26. 26. INSTRUMENT DESIGN PRE-TEST26 | 63 questionnaires
  27. 27. ADMINISTRATIONAll eligible bloggers invited (N=298)Personalized Email Salutation | Blog Title | Blog URL | PINManualInvite and 2 reminders Available for 3 weeksNo inducements (except final report)27 | 63 questionnaires
  28. 28. COMPLETED SAMPLE RR 1: QI: 63% | QII: 46% | QI/II: 52% Completed sample: 153 respondentsOutcome rates derived from Internet surveys of specifically named persons fromthe American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR, 2009) 28 | 63 questionnaires
  29. 29. ANALYSIS Excel SPSS Excel29 | 63 questionnaires
  30. 30. DESIGN & ADMIN11 to 14 questions Protocol | Debriefing Sheet | Pre-Test72 (47%) expressed interest Concurrent to other data collection24 phone interviews (semi-structured)15 to 25+ minutes30 | 63 interviews
  31. 31. ANALYSISInterviews/ NotesDigital Partial Transcripts 3+ listening sessionsRecordings CONSENT SCRIPT, SCHEDULE, & DEBRIEFING SHEET AVAILABLE IN APPENDICES G &D31 | 63 interviews
  32. 32. SAMPLECoded 93 blogs (49.5% sampling ratio) Single-Blogs Co-Blogs Total Blogs Clusters Count Count CountHistory 16 7 23Economics 17 8 25Law 11 13 24BioChemPhys 17 4 21All Clusters 61 32 9332 | 63 Blog analysis
  33. 33. CODE BOOKS CODING SYSTEMS Authorship Blog Elements & Features CB1 (single-) Rights & Disclaimers Authority & Audience 63 Indicators (on/off blog Blog Publishing Activity Post Features CB2 (co-blogs) Archiving57 Indicators (on/off blog) SINGLE- & Co-BLOG CODING SYSTEM AVAILABLE IN APPENDIX J33 | 63 Blog analysis
  34. 34. TESTING/COLLECTING Time in Single-Blog Co-Blog Count Minutes Frequency (%) Frequency (%) ≤9 17 (28%) 5 (15%) 10 to 19 32 (52%) 24 (73%) 20 to 29 9 (15%) 2 (6%) 30 to 39 2 (3%) 1 (6%) ≥ 40 1 (2%) -34 | 63 Blog analysis
  35. 35. ANALYIS Excel SPSS Excel35 | 63 Blog analysis
  36. 36. RESPONDENT PROFILE Hold a doctorate (63%)36 | 63 findings
  37. 37. RESPONDENT PROFILE Male (78%)37 | 63 findings
  38. 38. RESPONDENT PROFILE Post- Secondary Faculty … (76%)38 | 63 findings
  39. 39. RESPONDENT PROFILE … Tenured (78%)39 | 63 findings
  40. 40. RESPONDENT PROFILE Avg. age is 45 (range 25 to 70)40 | 63 findings
  41. 41. RESPONDENT PROFILE Professional age avg. is 15 years (range 0 to 39)41 | 63 findings
  42. 42. RESPONDENT PROFILE Publication & service history42 | 63 findings
  43. 43. RESPONDENT PROFILE Publish just 1 blog (58%)43 | 63 findings
  44. 44. BLOG PROFILE Avg. blog age is 4.5 years old (range 1 to 8)44 | 63 findings
  45. 45. QUESTION (1) public 100% allows use and exchange 94% part of the scholarly record 80% subject to critical review 68%Association of Research Libraries (1986). Braxton, J.M., Luckey, W., & Helland, P. (2002). 45 | 63 findings
  46. 46. QUESTION (2) Preservation Preferences Personal access/use 16% Short-term future Personal access/use 19% Short-term future Personal access/use 76% Indefinite future Public access/use 80% Indefinite future 0% 100%46 | 63 findings
  47. 47. QUESTION (2) Preservation Perceptions47 | 63 findings
  48. 48. QUESTION (2) Preservation Perceptions48 | 63 findings
  49. 49. QUESTION (2) DoomsdaySADNESS Scenario“Pretty bad;” “Very bad;” “Sad;” “Pretty sad;” “Panicked;”“Devastated, both emotionally and professionally.”ANGER“Mad as hell;” “Pretty peeved;” “Pretty angry;” “Angry and upset;” “Frustrated;”I‟d do something drastic [in response] (i.e., legal action).RELIEF“I don‟t have to do it anymore;” “I get half an hour of my life back.”C’EST LA VIE“Pour another cup of coffee and get back to work;” “Probably have a drink andforget about it;” “Not welcomed but not tragic … I‟d get over it;” “Drop out of theblogosphere until something else comes along.”DOUBT“How would that happen?;” “It would take an extreme catastrophe;”“Hard to believe lost and unrecoverable.”49 | 63 findings
  50. 50. QUESTION (2) Preservation Priorities Works-in- progress Scientific & Book Scholarly Reviews Research Books Books Traditional Books Peer- Publications Books Reviewed Dissertations Law review Published Publications & Theses articles Papers Peer- Self- Class Published Reviewed Lab Publications Blogs Papers Publications Notebooks Select Journal Blog Posts Filter Pedagogical Monographs articles Research & Tools Books Blogs Informal Blogs Journal Teaching Journal Publications Filter articles materials Teaching articles Blogs Blogs Blogs Blogs Journal materials Blogs Blogs Blogs Email articles Journal Blogs articles Journal Journal Personnel Blogs Blogs articles articles Communications Blogs HIGHER LOWER50 | 63 findings
  51. 51. QUESTION (3) Dynamic, changing Co-producer dependencies Understandability Versioning Rights and Use Some Archiving Activity05 || 3551 63 findings RESEARCH DESIGN
  52. 52. QUESTION (3) BLOGS BLOGGERS 55 of most % 55 % update their recent posts blog published several ≤ 3 days times a week52 | 63 findings
  53. 53. QUESTION (3)95% edit posts after publication Spelling & grammatical errors Rephrasing Remove incorrect info Published before ready29% delete posts after publication Duplicate post “Post regret” Too sensitive or revealing53 | 63 findings
  54. 54. QUESTION (3) Most Recent PostText 99% Links 82% (avg. 5) Other image elements 16% 544 total words Photos 16% 79 quoted words Comments 57%465 original words 54 | 63 findings
  55. 55. QUESTION (3)50% check for permissions beforepublishing content at least half thetime.05 || 3555 63 findings RESEARCH DESIGN
  56. 56. QUESTION (3) Rights 51 % 37 % 14 % none text Creative statement Commons Other Policies56 | 63 findings
  57. 57. QUESTION (3)80% of blogs in sample archivedto Internet Archive WaybackMachine50% of law cluster blogs (n=12)archived at Library of Congress‟Legal Blawgs Web Archive57 | 63 findings
  58. 58. CONCLUSIONS (2007)Findings FutureBloggers are interested MethodologySave some but not all ResponsibilityNew content added Access scenariosOld content altered VersioningPersonal responsibility Intellectual PropertyDefining roles of others Access scenarios Process in time 58 | 63 discussion
  59. 59. CONCLUSIONS (2010) Blogs in support of service, teaching, and research First line of defense Last line of defense Service Providers and Networks Tools, Resources, Engagement59 | 63 discussion
  60. 60. Continued analysis Personal and Programmatic Approaches BlogForever Twitter and the Library of Congress Terms of Service Agreements60286330 | | FUTURE next steps WORK
  61. 61. WWTD what would Tufte do? (see handout for references Paul Jones61 | 63 references
  62. 62. Thanks to .... Dr. Helen R. Tibbo Dr. Lynn Silipigni Connaway Dr. Jeffrey Pomerantz Paul Jones Dr. Richard Marciano Paul Jones Thanks for .... Beta Phi Mu 2010 Eugene Garfield Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship Paul Jones62 | 63 acknowledgements
  63. 63. And thank you. CAROLYN HANK Email: carolyn.hank@mcgill.ca Phone: 514.398.4684 Web: http://ils.unc.edu/~hcarolyn Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/63 | 63 questions

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