Aviation has provided a public stage for terrorists and an efficient and expedient distribution channel for criminals. Aviation is essential to sustaining the economic viability of world commerce, movement of passengers and cargo, and the flow of information and knowledge throughout societies. Proactive methods are essential in developing strategic and tactical systems effective against criminal and terrorist activity. Systems effective against criminals/terrorists: Managing pax needs Parking Baggage check-in Screening Guarding restricted areas Health concerns Security personnel are responsible for implementing systems The aviation industry has a "system of systems" or series of overlapping operational areas protected by security personnel that must be evaluated extensively for effectiveness by various govt agencies.
Business travel is a significant percentage. Delta airlines revenue includes 40% HVCs. If pax switch to alternate modes of transport, cost of tickets will increase which will result in fewer leisure travelers. Airlines would have to raise prices to compensate for loss of leisure travelers who cannot afford the already increased ticket prices which could lead to significant restructuring of commercial aviation.
9/11 was designed to damage global security and the U.S. economy, which is reliant on aviation. Terrorist attacks are usually designed with the hope that countries or societies will overreact in ways that further diminish the ability to protect or sustain safety and economic viability. With each subsequent attack, the targeted populace gives up more of its freedom through changes in policy and laws or by accepting that intrusion into private lives is unavoidable and required..... Terrorists can cause social degradation among nations and societies. What are some examples of policy and law changes that have taken place since the attacks on 9/11? * dept of homeland security * TSA * Sterile cockpit * reinforced cockpit door * GA Security changes
Security practitioners using outdated strategies and tactics create opportunities for terrorists to use these systems to their advantage. 9/11 attacks were organized using modern technologies - such as the Internet - to defeat what was then a 1970s aviation security system. Flawed management in designing and implementing modern security systems can also create opportunities for terrorists and criminals - investment in explosives detection equipment..... Mostly valid, but test low and unable to be sustained on a day-to-day usage. Industry is also lagging behind in employee security training and pax profiling...... Strategies that other nations have used since the 1980s.
Timing is critical in the aviation industry. Pax must travel safely and efficiently. Reasonable compromises need to be made for the system to continue functioning. Aviation is vital to the survival and growth of the world's economy and is a symbol of prosperity and stability among societies.
The demand for timely goods delivery is increasing as the advantages allow for shorter production and development cycles nada eliminates excessive inventory. Impact of 9/11 was devastating: aviation industry experienced direct losses of $330 million/day
NAS is both economically and operationally fragile. A 10 minute delay can cost the airport and airlines significant money. Gate assignments are scheduled back to back - if one flight leaves late it produces a domino effect which influences many operational considerations.
Regardless of aircraft type all aircraft may be used for commercial, military, or general aviation operations. Transport of pax or cargo for pay = commercial Company owned or rental aircraft for business = general aviation If sales person takes a pax and charges a fee = commercial Aircraft operation is determined by how it is used, not by the design of the aircraft. It is important to understand how an aircraft is being used as various security measures are applied depending on the type of flight operation is being conducted.
To which type of operation do these aircraft belong?
Transport of pax or cargo for pay = commercial Company owned or rental aircraft for business = general aviation If sales person takes a pax and charges a fee = commercial Scheduled aircraft is siminlar to scheduled bus or train service; a pax pays to occupy space or a seat for the pupose of transportation. the company provides the service to make a profit. Public charter seeks a profit by offering transortation to the client, but departure and arrival times vary and are based on client needs, availability and capability of aircraft Private charter is equivalent to renting a limousine; pax has purchased the exclusive use of the entire vehicle and decides on departures or arrival times. **Private Charter is part of GA operations and may involve using aircraft personally or as part of a business enterprise. (They are not paying someone a fee to transport them, they have “ bought ownership ” of the aircraft for a time. Gen
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If an individual accidentally (without criminal intent) breaches security by entering a concourse without proper screening, the airport must temporarily close while the concourse is evacuated. In such a case, it takes security and other airport and airline personnel around 2 hours to conduct a “ resterilization ” procedure, which encompasses a search for the individual breaking security and any prohibited items he or she may have brought into secure areas. A major impact of a security breach is rerouting inbound aircraft. This backs up aircraft movements across the country and may even affect inbound international flights. If an airport cannot accept an aircraft because of a security breach, the plane is held on the ground at its departure airport, slowed down en route, or placed into a costly holding pattern. During a breach, outbound aircraft are grounded and the aircraft are often evacuated and searched.
Aviation security -_chpt1
Aviation Security Chapter 1
Chapter 1 Introduction Throughout the history of aviation, generalaviation and commercial aircraft have been used by: Terrorists Criminals Special interest groups For: Unlawful activity Gain geopolitical attention Smuggle drugs
Why is Aviation an essential economic viability? World commerce Passengers Cargo Information & knowledge sharingWhat strategic and tactical systems are effective against criminal and terrorist activity? Managing pax needs: Parking Baggage check-in Screening Guarding restricted areas Pax health concerns
Who responsible for implementing these systems? Security Personnel "Aviation is an effective and efficient mode oftransportation affecting worldwide social and economicstability. As such, aviation is a target that both terrorists and criminals highly desire."
What other forms of transport does aviation compete with? Internet Video conferencing/telecommuting Rail Trucking Watercraft What advantages does aviation have over competing forms of transportation: Speed Face-to-face communication is preferred
What could sustained criminal or terrorist activity mean for aviation? Pax demand shifts to alternate forms of interaction or travel: Chartered aircraft Private aircraft Videoconferencing Loss of business travel Serious economic challenges for airlinesPossible restructuring of commercial aviation
What makes the aviation industry complex?Infrastructure:1. Aircraft operations • Commercial service • Private ops • GA • Military ops2. Airports • Commercial service • GA • Private • Military3. Supporting agencies
What was the purpose for theterrorist attacks in the U.S. on 9/11?1. Damage global security2. Damage U.S. economy.....How is our economy reliant on aviation?
Terrorists: a breakdown1. Do not have forces or resources to defeat an enemy viatraditional military conflict.2. Asymmetrical operations as an alternative3. Goals are to cause targeted countries/societies to: • incur loss of life • Economic damage • Changes in policy • Other effects4. Attacks designed to diminish ability to protect or sustain safetyand economic viability.
What critical strategies can be employed to ensurefurther deterioration to the economy or stability of asociety due to terrorist attacks is properly managed? Moderate the response so it is appropriate Ensure technologies remain current and viable for defending against new threats. modern security systems Effective management and design Employee security training Passenger profiling Intelligence acquisition and sharing, particularly HUMINT PROACTIVE....not Reactive
"We must not stop moving forward in implementing proactive forms of security -our foes are committed to their cause and we must be exceedingly committed to ours."The ability of a security system to appropriately respond and quickly recover is a fundamental principle in planning and managing aviation security systems.
Economic impact of civil aviation in 2002 was: $900 billion and 11 million jobs 9% U.S. GDP 88% is from Commercial Aviation 12% from GA
• Impact of 9/11 on aviation: Direct losses of $330 million per day Additional losses to rental car, hotel, and tourist industries dependent on aviation for customers Increased costs to airports and airlines to meet government mandated security improvements - leeching monies allocated for maintenance, expansion, and other capital improvement projects Impact on NAS In 2000, delays averaged 12 minutes per flight totaling 142 million hours of pax delays and nearly $10 billion in associated costs to the aviation industry.
Purpose of an Airline: to move pax and cargo from one place to another safely and securely while still making a profit. Commercial vs. General
• Aircraft type• For Pay• Facilitate business• Privately owned*Commercial = uses aircraft to generate a profit 1. Scheduled service 2. Public Charter 3. Private Charter*General = Aircraft are not directly used to generate a profit but may enhance business opportunity as an efficient form of transportation. 1. Flight training 2. Agricultural flying 3. Soaring 4. experimental aircraft 5. Recreational Flying 6. Private Charter * Military = independent of commercial and general, but often uses commercial airports.
Airline Management = organizational structures vary depending on the size and history of theairline, it’s route structure (domestic or int’l), and type of aircraft (regional or long haul).
Airline Economics = points dependent on security staffing and security equipment deployed * Airlines operate on small profit margins = 1-2% * Revenues are seasonal - summer traffic * 26% (majority) revenue comes from business travelers * High traffic times = before 10am and after 4pm * Passenger flow through an airport * Time of day and time of yearMost airlines are operating on loans. Cash flow is necessary to repay debt. * 1/3 of airline’s revenue is allocated to labor, many are unionized * Labor positions include: Pilots, flight Attendants, Reservation, ticket, gate and cargo agents; Security personnel; Cooks; Administrative assistants; Revenue planners; Schedulers and dispatchers; Accountants; Lawyers; Human resource managers; Aircraft cleaners; Baggage handlers.
Airline industry is very sensitive to fluctuations of the national economy In relation to Aviation Security, if airlines raise fares to cover costsassociated with new security requirements, then passenger load factorsmay also decrease. Because of small profit margins, the airline industry is watchful of security practices that may increase costs.
Airline Inter-departmental dependence = when a flight cancels or delays significantly because of a bomb threat, many otherflights for that airline are also affected. If flights were delayed orcanceled each time a threat was issued, one individual could callseveral airlines and shut down the U.S. aviation system. For this reason bomb threats are vetted as thoroughly as possible before canceling or delaying a flight. NAS is also highly sensitive = triggers cancellations of dozens and sometimes hundreds of flights. A security breach at an airport can also have economic impact by disrupting aviation operations.
DIA = 800 departures/day ($12,600)Noon: Security Breach = concourse evacuation and resterilization begins.*390 flights already affected = $4.9 million revenue at riskWith successful resterilization, perpetrator is found or no risk is determined, flight resumewith at least a 2 hour delay.If only half the original flights were canceled, the airport recognizes a net loss of $2.5millionAcross the USA, other airports are affectedBy 5pm, 200 more flights out of Chicago are affected, and by 9pm 800 total flights acrossthe USA are affected.Resterilization procedures result in long security screening lines, upset travelers, and lostrevenue.Airport experiences a loss in productivityAirline personnel are called away from primary job duties to assist the resterilizationprocess.Airlines lose significant revenue when security breaches occur.