How Do People Use Soil Resources? By: Carlos Felipe Bustillos Serna 5C To: T. Angel Watler Archbold Colegio Bennett 2010 - 2011
Introduction Definition Layers of the soil Soil Properties Composition of soil Types of soil Uses of the soil Elements of healthy soil OUTLINE Quotes Prior knowledge Glossary
Introduction Natural resources: Are materials found on the Earth, are necessary for life on Earth. Same cannot be replaced. We need to protect them. Reduce reuse and recycle Resources Nonrenewable Can`t be replaced quickly exit in fixed amount. Ex: Diamonds Cooper Silver Gold Coal Renewable Earths resources can be cycled over and over. Ex: Fresh air tree, water, and soil
Soil has three layers each layer contains different materials. PRIOR KNOWLEDGE Soil is made up of different-sized rocks, sand, clay and the remanins of living things, such as leaves that have fallen from trees. Plants grow in soil, and animals such as worms, ants and moles live in soil. Soil is a very important natural resource. It helps people, animals and plants. People use soil to grow plants and to raise animals that they use for food.
GLOSSARY Nutrient: Any substance that promotes growth with living organisms. The term is generally applied to nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater, but is also applied to other essential and trace elements. Irrigation: Applying water or wastewater to land areas to supply the water and nutrient needs of plants. Infiltration: Penetration of water into a medium, for instance the soil. Erosion: The wearing away of the land surface by wind, water, ice or other geological agents. Erosion occurs naturally from weather or runoff but is often intensified by human land use practices. Fragmentation: The subdivision of a solid in fragments. The fragments will then adhere to the nearest surface.
<ul><li>SOIL – relatively thin surface layer of the Earth’s crust consisting of mineral and organic matter tha is affected by agents such as weather, wind, water, and organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Home to many animals </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and indirect source of food for much of life on Earth. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Soil formation differs throughout a body of soil and as a result, the soil develops layers – soil horizons. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the soil horizons: </li></ul><ul><li>a- Color </li></ul><ul><li>b- Structure </li></ul><ul><li>c- Chemical conditions </li></ul><ul><li>d- Texture . </li></ul>
O) Litter layer of plant residues in relatively undecomposed form. A) Layer of mineral soil with most organic matter. B) This layer accumulates iron, clay, aluminum and organic compounds. C)Layer of large unbroken rocks. O A B C
Leaf Litter Droppings and animal Remains - Minerals Fungi – Plant and animal matter. Microorganisms – Water air ORGANIC COMPOSITION OF SOIL
<ul><li>Soil is a slowly renewed resource that provides: </li></ul><ul><li>most of the nutrients needed for plant growth. </li></ul><ul><li>helps purify water. </li></ul><ul><li>. Soil formation begins when: </li></ul><ul><li>bedrock is broken down by physical. </li></ul><ul><li>chemical processes. </li></ul><ul><li>biological processes. </li></ul><ul><li>weathering. </li></ul>
What causes soil erosion? Water Wind No Vegetation
SOIL DEGRADATION Soil Salination Soil Erosion <ul><li>Salinity from Drylands </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity from Irrigation </li></ul>The rocks that has slowly broken down into smaller particles by biological, chemical, and physical weathering.
Rill Erosion How did the Canyon Lands of Utah form?
Wind Erosion removed topsoil Rain drop erosion
Strip Cropping Contour Plowing Contour Farming Tilling Soil on flat land Furrow Irrigation
WHAT ARE SOME PRACTICES Of SOIL CONSERVATION? <ul><li>How farmers conserve the soil: </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain high levels of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Plow under certain green plants </li></ul><ul><li>Add ferrtilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Rotate crops to prevent parasitical plants </li></ul><ul><li>Plant in ways to control erosion. </li></ul><ul><li>Farm, grazing, and forestland soil give us many products we use however, it is important to conserve.Foresters help conserve soil by adding parts of trees on the forest forest floor which adds organic matter. </li></ul>
PROBLEMS AND SOLUTION OF SOIL Problem Solution Tree felling Plant trees: We all know that the roots of trees firmly hold on to the soil. Grant your livestock plenty of space in which to graze. When herds of grazing animals are allowed to strip the land to the soil, they leave it exposed to the elements Soil is washed away downhill any time it rains. Terrace your hills. Terracing involves digging steps with a shovel into the land to break up a slope Erosion The farming of lands in places that do not have earring to diminish the depletion of the fertile soil. <ul><ul><li>Over use of chemicals </li></ul></ul>Not to fell vegetation to prevent the fertile cap of the soil from being exposed to the rain.
Rainy season damage to farming to cost $900,000: Govt An Emergency Plan to address damage to Colombia's agriculture caused by last year's extended rainy season requires an investment of $900,000, President Juan Manuel Santos said Wednesday. "We will need, at least this year, $900,000 to implement the Emergency Plan of the Ministry of Agriculture, which aims to tackle the winter crisis in the country," said Santos in a press release . He emphasized that the severe flooding over the rainy season not only affected houses and roads but also caused a lot of damage in the agricultural sector.
By Sara Barraca for Diálogo 28/12/2010 At several recent gatherings, scientists have demonstrated that the global drug problem ─ in particular drug processing and manufacturing ─ is damaging the flora and fauna of some of the world’s most environmentally sensitive areas. Colombia is one of the countries most affected by the drug trade, but it also treasures its biodiversity more than almost any other country in the world, Colombian military officials said. A soldier stands guard near a cocaine laboratory seized by Colombian Army near the San Juan River in Choco province on March 17, 2010. REUTERS/Jaime
Aug 22 / 2010 Dave Schumaker Tremors Around Colombian Volcano CNN reports that 30 earthquakes have shook the Galeras volcano , located in Colombia, since Saturday. This has raised fears of a possible eruption though the government has not upgraded the volcano warning levels. More than 30 temblors have occurred within 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) of the Galeras volcano beginning Saturday, geologist Roberto Torres said. Several had a magnitude near 5 and seven were strong enough to be felt by people. “The tremors are small in earthquake terms, but in terms of the volcano, they are notable,” said Torres, of the government’s Geology and Mines Institute. Galeras erupted in 1993, killing 9 people, including 5 volcanologists monitoring the volcano who were caught inside the crater.