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  3. 3. ABSTRACT This study was carried out with the aim of demonstrating the application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method of investigation in the exploration for groundwater for irrigation and domestic use in Chikuku, Kiyi and Chibiri areas of Kuje. The ABEM Terrameter SAS 300C was used to carry out the investigation and Schlumberger profiling, with an electrode spacing of 2-350m was employed in data collection. A total of 25 Spreads were sounded (forward and reverse) each for five (5) profile. The field data were simulated using IP12WIN Computer interactive program. The results show that there are 4–5 geoelectric layers; topsoil (sandy/lateritic), weathered basement (clay and sandy clay), weathered/fractured basement (clay;sand/clayey sand),fresh bedrock and bed rock within the study area. From the analysis, the thickness of fractured and weathered basement in Chikuku, Chibiri and part of Kiyi is small and can only accommodate shallow aquifer which shows that the area has poor groundwater potential, but the VES 1 in part of Kiyi has very thick layer of weathered/fractured basement and therefore promising good quantity of groundwater source.
  4. 4. List of Abbreviations and AcronymsEM ElectromagneticFAO Food and Agriculture OrganizationGDP Gross Domestic ProductMDGs Millennium Development GoalsMH Magnesium HazardSAR Sodium Adsorption RatioSGI Shallow Groundwater IrrigationVES Vertical Electrical SoundingWHO World Health Organization
  5. 5. LIST OF TABLESTable 2.1: Electrical ResistivitiesTable 2.2: Resistivities of rocks with various water contentsTable 2.3: Criteria for Irrigation water use based on electrical conductivityTable 2.4: Classification of Irrigation water based on SAR valuesTable 2.5: Classification of groundwater samples based on total hardnessTable 4.1: Kiyi VES 1Table 4.2: Kiyi VES 2Table 4.3: Chikuku VES 3Table 4.4: Chikuku VES 4Table 4.5: Chibiri VES 5
  6. 6. LIST OF FIGURESFigure 2.1: The hydrological cycle or water cycleFigure 2.2: Map of Abuja (FCT)Figure 2.3: Mean monthly rainfall histogram for FCTFigure 3.1: Water zones in the lithosphereFigure 3.2: PorosityFigure 3.3: Hydraulic gradientFigure 3.4: Wenner arrayFigure 3.5: Dipole-dipole arrayFigure 3.6: Schlumberger arrayFigure 3.7: The parameters used in defining resistivityFigure 3.8: Electrode configuration used in resistivity measurement (schlumberger array)Figure 3.9: Current flow from a single current electrodeFigure 4.1: Vertical Electrical Sounding for Kiyi VES 1Figure 4.2: Vertical Electrical Sounding for Kiyi VES 2Figure 4.3: Vertical Electrical Sounding for Chikuku VES 3Figure 4.4: Vertical Electrical Sounding for Chikuku VES 4Figure 4.5: Vertical Electrical Sounding for Chibiri VES 5
  9. 9. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 Background studies Government and Non Governmental Organization [NGOs] play important role in the development of agriculture in Nigeria. Government decides to establish agricultural programmes with aim of boosting greater production of crops and livestock. Such programmes include: River Basin Development Authority [RBDA], National Agricultural Insurance scheme [NAIS], Green Revolution, Operation Feed the Nation[OFN], National Agriculture Land Development Agency [NALDA], Agriculture Development Project[ADP],Directorate of Food, Road and Rural Infrastructure [DFFRI], National Accelerated Industrial Crop Production Programme [NAICPS] West African Rice Development Agency[WARDA],National Accelerated Food Production Programme [NAFPP], Agro-Service Centre, Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], Agricultural Loan Scheme, International Fund for Agricultural Development [IFAD], Farm Settlement Scheme, Co-operative Farming etc. The major objective of the Agricultural programmes includes; to provide portable water to the rural area for agricultural and domestic use, to alleviate unemployment or provide job for the teeming population; to bring about changes in agricultural method and teach modern farming practices to the youth; and to develop a modern farming system in order to attract t the young and educated people into farming. Agriculture according to Nigeria Poverty Eradication Strategy [vision 2020] is basis for economic growth and structural transformation. In order word, economic growth and structural transformation are propelled by the agricultural
  10. 10. sector in order to maximize the benefits of accelerated growth. Growth in the sectorwill, therefore impact directly in growth of economy as well as employment.Therefore accelerated development in small- scale agriculture which is persistent inthe rural areas will have direct benefit in poverty reduction in the rural areas andhelp to slow-down the rural –urban migration. It will also ensure food security andcontribute immensely to health and well being of the population .Agriculture inNigeria is largely dependent on rainfall. However, given the erratic and extremelyunreliable nature of rainfall, probably due to climate variability, Irrigationdevelopment is seen as an obvious strategy to increase agricultural production.There are direct linkages between improved control over water and cropping andrelated impacts which consistently underlie the Asian research finding thatirrigation development alleviates poverty in rural areas of developing countries[Mello and Desai 1985, Chambers et al 1989, Hussain 2005]. Glob ally there is astrong positive relationship between higher density of irrigation and lower povertyrates, as Lipton et al [2003] indicates. In Africa, only 3% of cropland is irrigatedand the region has experienced very little reduction in poverty in the 1990s [WorldBank Report 2000]. In contrast, those regions that have the greatest proportion ofcultivated areas irrigated [namely East Asia, Pacific, North Africa and Middle East]have experienced the greatest poverty reduction. One irrigation developmentpathway involves the utilization of small reservoirs. However, the performance ofmany of these systems is affected adversely by management problems and theeconomic benefit relative to the investment is characteristically low and onlybenefits a limited number of famers. The total potential of irrigable land in Nigeriais put at million hectares. Irrigation of some of these arable lands could notmaterialize due to the projected capital involvement in channeling surface waterover long distances to the irrigable
  11. 11. lands. Availability of groundwater is therefore a major asset that can greatly influence agricultural production. It has been more fully realized that refine quantitative answers are needed concerning available groundwater resources and their management .Utilization of groundwater continues to accelerate to meet the needs of irrigation, industrial, urban, and suburban expansion. As groundwater development intensifies, users become more interested in the response of aquifers to heavy pumping for example, and the hydrogeology as a whole compete for available sources, this has brought about awareness that one of the principal problems confronting hydrologist is resource management. The resource, therefore, needs to be assessed in quantity and quality to aid sustainable development of the study area in order to meet the development agenda for Nigeria which is driven by Nigeria’s commitment to the Millennium Development Goals [MDGs] 1.1 Justification or Important of the Study: This study presents research finding on the hydrogeological of groundwater for irrigation and domestic use in Kuje area. The farmers within Kuje area are increasingly using groundwater as a source of irrigation water due to the unavailability of surface water in the dry season. There is need to investigate its availability and suitability in order to ensure sustainability in the application and possible expansion of groundwater irrigation in the area, according to FCT geological map Kuje is mapped as agricultural zone .There is no doubt that water is one of the most important inputs in agricultural production in Nigeria apart from labour. More importantly almost all agricultural production depends on natural rainfall. Therefore, crop yields are invariably poor since the rains are very erratic. Groundwater
  12. 12. development for irrigation should therefore be really looked at since it constitutes about 30.1% of the available fresh water on earth. Urbanization, population increase dewatering of aquifers for irrigation and extensive use of chemical fertilizers are some of the factors that have direct effects on quality of groundwater resources especially in arid and semi arid region of northern Nigeria. Hydro chemical data has the potential uses for tracing the origin and history of water. Globally, the quantity and quality of groundwater reserves is diminishing day by day. Therefore, any study that can aid in identifying new sources or threats to groundwater is desirous not only around the study area but anywhere. There is no life without water, therefore, it is essential to safeguard the future of our water resources by studying its past and present both quantitatively and qualitatively. [Arabi et al, 2010]. 1.2 Evaluation and Management of Groundwater Resources The evaluation and management of groundwater resources for any use require an understanding of hydrogeological and hydro chemical properties of the aquifer, sin ce these parameters control groundwater occurrence, its quantity and quality for any use. That is, it is important to have the aquifer characteristics such as geometry, hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity data base readily available for developing local and regional water plans and also to assess and therefore predict future groundwater availability and suitability.
  13. 13.  1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study The main objective of the study is to investigate the groundwater potential for domestic and irrigation use within Kuje area. Other objective of this research is to delineate the areas within the survey area that have potential for groundwater for domestic and irrigation use. Studies have shown that the producing aquifers in these areas are usually limited to the weathered overburden and favorable structural features, like joints and fissures [Enslin, 1961].
  14. 14. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter deals with the review of relevant literature in relation to the study. This includes the concept of groundwater occurrence and movement, groundwater use in the study area and the hydrochemistry if drinking and agricultural (irrigation) water is also discussed in this chapter. 2.2 Hydrologic Cycle and Groundwater According to Freeze and cherry (1979), groundwater is defined as the subsurface water that occurs beneath the water table and flows through voids in the soils and permeable geologic formations that are fully saturated. It does not exist in isolation but it is part of an integral link if the hydrological cycle as shown in fig 2.1 and a valuable supporter of ecosystem.
  15. 15. Figure 2.1: The Hydrological Cycle or Water Cycle
  16. 16. The hydrologic cycle is driving by the energy of the sun and takes water from stored water in oceans and transfers it through the atmosphere back oceans through different routes. A component of rain that fall on the land surface infiltrates into the soil with the remainder evaporating into the atmosphere or as runoff to rivers. Soil moisture can both be taking up by plants and transpired or flow quickly as inter flow to a river channel. Some of the infiltrated water go down deeply, eventually accumulating above an impermeable bed, saturates available pores and forms underground reservoir known as groundwater. The underground water-bearing formation that is capable of yielding considerable amount of water is referred to as an aquifer. 2.3 Hydrogeology of Nigeria The hydrogeological condition of an area is highly influenced by the characteristics and structure of basic geology and climate. In Nigeria, the hydrogeological regions and their characteristics are very similar to the local geological conditions, because the climate zones of the country are mostly conformable to the geological regions. Currently, a lot of hydrogeological studies have been conducted in the country in a bid to increase water supply particularly to the rural community. Nigeria falls into two but district subdivision namely, the basement complex and the sedimentary areas. The Basement complex present is about half the total surface area of the country consisting of a central Northern block, Western block and on Eastern block. The rock consists of Precambrian metal-sediments, guesses, granites and various igneous intrusions.
  17. 17. Sedimentary Area of Nigeria comprise of a central andEastern southern block stretching from the Atlantic to the riverBenue, a middle blocks in the basins of the River Niger andRiver Benue and Northern blocks –one in the northeast and theothers in the Northwest. The rocks are stratified formation oflate cretaceous to recent time aids consist of sandstones,snares, mudstones, siltstones etc
  18. 18. Figure 2.2: Geologic map of FCT, Abuja
  19. 19.  2.4 Location and Geologic setting of the Study Area Kuje, lies within the longitude 70 14’35” and latitude 80 53’47”. The study areas, chukuku, kiyi and chibiri, kuje area, Abuja, Nigeria is predominantly underlain by the Precambrian basement complex rocks. The local lithological units in the study area are migmatite gneiss, granite, and schistose gneiss. The migmatite gneiss is the most wide spread rock unit. The granite occurs in several locations. They are porphyritic and of medium-coarse-grained texture, granites mostly occur as intrusive, low-lying outcrops around the gneiss. They are severely jointed and fairly incised by quartz veins. (Faleye et al, 2011).
  21. 21.  2.5 Soil Type The influences of relief on the soils of the FCT are most evidenced on differences in the depth of the soil, thickness and organic matter content and degree of horizontal differentiation. Two parent materials, namely crystalline rocks of the basement complex and Nupe sandstone are the sources from which the soils were formed. The crystalline basement rocks occur in the northern two-thirds of the territory while the Nupe sandstone occurs in the southern one-third. 2.6 Aquifer Characteristics Aquifer generally has some characteristics or parameters that describe the quantity of groundwater that they can yield or produce and the rate of contaminant flow. These characteristics include the aquifer geometry, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, storativity and specific capacity. That is, each of these Parameters does influence in one way or the other, the quantity of water that an aquifer yields and the behaviour of contaminated flow. Transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity describe the general ability of an aquifer to transmit water, that is, over a unit thickness for hydraulic conductivity, and are among the most important hydro-geologic data needed for managing groundwater resources. Representative Transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity data are required to ensure that the hydrologic assumptions and interpretations used in regional water plans are valid (Mace et al, 1997). Storativity describes the change in volume of water for a unit change in water level per unit area whiles specific capacity is the pumping rate per unit drawdown. Transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, storativity and specific capacity data are needed in tasks such as: Quantitative assessment of groundwater
  22. 22.  Numerical modeling of groundwater flow, Prediction of well performance, Evaluation of how site-specific test result compare with the variability of the regional aquifer, and Assessing the transport of solutes and contaminants. It is important therefore to have a transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, storativity and specific capacity database that are readily available for developing local and regional water plans and to predict future groundwater availability. 2.7 Importance of Groundwater Groundwater has been exploited by mankind since the beginning of time and it is estimated that around 700 billion m3 are drawn out of the earth’s aquifers each year. This makes groundwater by weight, the primary mineral extracted from the earth, (Jean-Claude, 1995). Groundwater has many advantages over surface water: Quantitatively, the storage and inertia capacity of homogeneous aquifer, their very steady regime, allows them to act as buffers between very irregular rainfall and regular discharge through springs-therefore compensating for climatic variations and more or less ensuring water supply during periods of drought. Qualitative, because of the presence of protective surficial geological formations, their depth, filtering capacity of most of their reservoirs and the clogging of river banks, aquifer groundwater is generally better protected than surface water from massive pollution. The physico-chemical quality and the temperature of groundwater are relatively constant and in some case it can be consume without even bacteriological treatment .
  23. 23. constant and in some case it can be consume without even bacteriological treatment Economically, in countries having many aquifer, water is easily attainable, does not require long pipelines and thus involves lower pumping, treatment and energy costs. 2.8 Groundwater Flow System The discontinuous nature of permeable zone (weathered and fissured network) makes regional groundwater movement largely non-existent, local groundwater flow thus predominates. Generally however the groundwater flow distribution coincides with the surface water flow distribution. That is, movement is generally from higher grounds (highlands) towards valleys and stream channels. The water-table, water which seeps through the ground moves downward under the force of gravity until it reaches an impermeable layer of rock through which it cannot pass. If there is no ready outlet for the groundwater in the form of a spring, the water accumulates above the impermeable layer and saturates the rock. The permeable rock in which the water is stored is known as the aquifer. The surface of the saturated area is called the water-table. The depth of the water-table varies greatly according to relief and the type of rocks. The water-table is far below the surface of hill-tops but is close to the surface in valleys and flat low-lying areas where it may cause water logging and swampy conditions. The depth of the water- table also varies greatly with the seasons, when plenty of rain is available to augment groundwater supplies the water-table may rise, but in dry periods, no new supplies are available, and the water-table-lowered as groundwater is lost through seepages and springs. (Van den Berg, 2008).
  24. 24.  2.9 Groundwater Quality Groundwater quality can be defined as the physical, chemical and biological state of groundwater. Temperature, turbidity, colour, and taste make up the list of physical parameters. Naturally, groundwater contains ions slowly dissolve from minerals in the soils, rocks, and sediments as the water travels along its flow path. Some small portion of the total dissolved solids may have originated from the precipitation water or river water that recharges the aquifer. The ions most commonly found in groundwater quality analysis include: Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Hco3, Cl- , So-24. Minor ions include No3- No2- F-, Co3- K+ Mn2+, and Fe2+. The concentration of these ions gives groundwater their hydro-chemical characteristics, and often reflects the geological origin and groundwater flow regime. 2.9.1 Factors Affecting Groundwater Quality An understanding of the factors that affect groundwater quality can help in decision making on well depth and the best water quality for a particular application. The major factors that directly or indirectly affect groundwater quality include: Climatic variations (rainfall, evaporation etc). Permeability and chemical makeup of the sediments through which groundwater moves, Depth of groundwater from surface 2.10 Irrigation water Quality Besides affecting crop yield and soil physical conditions, irrigation water quality can affect fertility needs, irrigation system performance and how the
  25. 25. water can be applied. Therefore, knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to understanding what management changes are necessary for long-term productivity. 2.10.1 Assessment of Irrigation water Quality In irrigation water quality evaluation, emphasis is placed on the chemical and physical characteristics of the water and only rarely is any other factors considered important. The quality of irrigation water is assessed based on the following criteria: Salinity (total amount of dissolved salts in water) Sodium hazard (the amount of sodium in the water) compared to calcium plus magnesium) Magnesium hazard (MH) These criteria in relation to irrigation water quality and their acceptable limits are discussed below. Salinity Hazard Salinity hazard is a measure of the TDS expressed in the unit of electrical conductance and is the most influential salinity (electrical conductivity) in irrigation water affect crop yield through the inability of the plant to complete with ions in the soil solution for water (osmotic effect or physiological drought). The higher the electrical conductivity (ECw), the less water is available to plants, even though the soil may appear wet. This is because plants can only transpire “pure” water; usable plant water in the soil solution therefore decreases dramatically as ECW increases. Table 2.3 shows suggested criteria for irrigation water use based upon electrical conductivity.
  26. 26. Table2.3. Criteria for Irrigation Water use based on electrical conductivity (Bauder et al, 2007)1 Leaching needed if used2 Good drainage needed and sensitive plants will have difficulty obtaining stands.Sodium HazardSodium hazard is defined separately because of sodium’s specific detrimental effectson soil physical properties.According to Karanth (1994), excessive Na+ content of irrigation water renders itunsuitable for soils containing exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions as the soil take upNa+ in exchange for Ca2+ and Mg2+ causing deflocculation (dispersion) andimpairment of the tilth and permeability of soils. The sodium hazard is typicallyexpressed as the sodium absorption ratio (SAR) which is defined as;SAR = Na [0.5(ca + mg)] -0.5, where chemical constituents are expressed in meg/l.This index quantifies the proportion of sodium (Na2+) to calcium (Ca2+) andmagnesium (mg2+) ions in a sample. General classifications of irrigation water basedupon SAR values according to Bauder et al, (2007) are presented in Table 2.4
  27. 27. Table 2.4: Classification of irrigation water based on SAR values (Bender et al, 2007) Magnesium Hazard (MH) Magnesium is believed to be injurious to plants. Nonetheless, the harmful effect is greatly reduced by the presence of calcium. The MH is defined as 100mg (ca + mg)-1 with the chemical constituents expressed as meg/l. According to szabolcs and Darab (1964), MH>50 in irrigation water is considered to be deleterious to most crops. 2.11 Domestic water Quality Water is said to have good chemical quality for domestic used if it is soft, low in total dissolved solids (TDS) and free from poisonous chemical constituents (Karanth, 1994). Evidence relating chronic human health effect to specific drinking water contaminants is very limited and in the absence of exact scientific information, scientists predict the likely adverse effects of chemicals in drinking
  28. 28. water using laboratory animals studies and when available, human data from clinical reports and epidemiological studies. Much organization such as world Health organization (WHO), have established standards (guideline values) or many normally represents of drinking-water. A guideline value normally represents the concentration of a constituent that does not result in any significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption (WHO, 2004). A number of provisional guideline values has been established at concentration that are reasonably achievable through practical treatment approaches or in analytical laboratories, in these cases, the guideline value is above the concentration that would normally represent the calculated health-based value. Guideline values are also designated as provisional when there is a high degree of uncertainty in the toxicology and health data. 2.11.1 Physico-Chemical Parameters of Domestic Water Physico-chemical parameters of water are the parameters that describe the physical and chemical states of water. These parameters cause health problems beyond certain concentration levels. Some of these physico-chemical parameters have been discussed below. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) TDS comprise inorganic salts (principally calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulfates) and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. Concentrations of TDS in water vary considerably in different geological regions owing to differences in the solubilities of minerals. The palatability of water with a TDS level of less than 600mg/l is
  29. 29. generally considered to be good; drinking-water becomes significantly and increasingly unpalatable at TDS levels greater than about 1000mg/l (WHO, 2004). The presence of high levels of TDS may also be objectionable to consumers. No health-based guideline value for TDS has been proposed. Turbidity Turbidity in drinking-water is caused by particulate matter that may be present from source water as a consequence of inadequate filtration or from resuspension of sediments. It may also be due to the presence of inorganic particulate matter in some groundwater or sloughing of bio film within the distribution system. The appearance of water with a turbidity of less than 5 NTU is usually acceptable to consumers, although this may be very with local circumstances. No health-based guideline value for turbidity has been proposed; ideally, however, median turbidity should be below 0.1 NTU for effective disinfection, and changes in turbidity are on important process control parameter (WHO, 2004). Temperature Cool water is generally more palatable than warm water and temperature will impact on the acceptability of a number of other inorganic constituents that may affect taste. High water temperature enhances the growth of microorganisms and may increase taste, colour and corrosion problems. Total Hardness Hardness in water is caused by dissolved calcium and to a lesser extent, magnesium. It is usually expressed as the equivalent quantity of calcium
  30. 30. carbonate. Hardness caused by calcium and magnesium is usually indicated byprecipitation of soap scum and the need for excess use of soap to achieve cleaning.Depending on PH and alkalinity, hardness above about 200mgli can result in scaledeposition, particularly on heating. Todd (1980) classifies groundwater samples basedon total hardness as shown in Table 2.5.Table 2.5: Classification of groundwater samples based on total hardness (Todd, 1980)PHIt is the measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The PH scale runs from 0 to14 (very acidity to very alkaline) with 7 as neutral condition. Dissolved chemicalcompounds and the biochemical processes in the water usually control the PH. Inmost unpolluted water, PH is primarily controlled by the balance free Co2, Co3 andHco3 ions as well as natural compounds such as humic and fulvic acids. AlthoughPH usually has no direct impact on consumers, it is one of the most importantoperational water quality parameters, the optimum PH required often being in therange 6.5 – 9.5.
  31. 31.  Fluoride Fluoride is the water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils through which it passes. Macdonald et al (2005) indicates that, the most common fluorine bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas, and fluoride problems tend to occur where these elements are most abundant in the host rocks. Groundwater from crystalline rocks, especially granites are particularly susceptible to fluoride build-up because they often contain abundant fluoride-bearing minerals. Fluoride is essential for healthy living and hence fluoride causes health concerns when concentrations in drinking-water are too low or high. It has been found to have a significant mitigating effect against dental caries and is widely accepted that some fluoride presence in drinking-water is important. Optimal concentrations are usually around 1mg/I. The chronic ingestion of fluoride concentrations much greater than the WHO (2004) guideline value of 1.5mg/I however is linked with development of dental fluorosis. Chloride (Cl-) Chloride in drinking-water originates from natural sources, sewage and industrial effluents, urban runoff containing de-icing salt and saline intrusion. Excessive chloride concentrations increase rates of corrosion of metals in the distribution system, depending on the alkalinity of the water. This can lead increased concentrations of metals in the supply. No health-based guideline value is - proposed for chloride in drinking-water. However, chloride concentrations in excess of about 250mg/I can give rise to detective taste in water (WHO, 2004).
  32. 32.  Nitrate (No3) Nitrate (No3) is found naturally in the environment and is an important. It is present at varying concentrations in all plants and is a part of the nitrogen cycle. Nitrate can reach both surface water and groundwater as a consequence of agricultural activity (including excess application of inorganic nitrogenous fertilizers and manures), from waste water disposer and from oxidation of nitrogenous waste product in human and animal excreta, including septic tanks. Some groundwater may also have nitrate contamination as a consequence of leaching from natural vegetation. The WHO (2004), guideline values for both nitrate are 50mg/I and 3mg/I respectively. Sodium (Na) Sodium concentrations in potable water are typically less than 20mg/I, they can greatly exceed this in some countries. It should be noted that some water softeners can add significantly to the sodium content of drinking-water. No firm conclusions can be draw concerning the possible association between sodium in drinking-water and the occurrence of hypertension. Therefore, no health based guideline value is proposed. However, concentrations in excess of 200mg/I may give rise to unacceptable taste (WHO, 2004). Sulphate (So4) Sulphates occur naturally in numerous minerals and are used commercially, principally in the chemical industry. The highest levels usually occur in groundwater and are from natural resources. In general, the average daily intake of sulphate from drinking-water, air and food is approximately 500mg, food being the major source, no health-based guideline is proposed for. However, because of
  33. 33. the gastrointestinal effects resulting from ingestion of drinking-water containing high sulphate levels, it is recommended that health authorities be notified of sources of drinking-water that contain sulfate concentrations in excess of 500mg/I (WHO, 2004). Magnesium (Mg) Magnesium ranks eight among the elements in order of abundance and is a common constituent of natural water. Important contributor to the hardness of water, mg salts break down when health forming scale in boilers. Concentrations greater than 125mg/I also can have a catholic and diuretic effect. The magnesium concentration may vary from 0-100mg/I depending on the source of treatment of the water. Chemical softening, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, or ion exchange reduces the magnesium and associated hardness to acceptable levels. Iron (Fe) Iron is one of the most abundant metals in the Earth’s crust. It is found in natural fresh watekl/rs at levels ranging from 0.5-50mg/I. Iron is an essential element in human nutrition. Estimate of the minimum daily requirement for iron depend on age, sex, physiological status and iron bioavailability and range from about 10-50mg/day (WHO, 2004). Iron stains laundry and plumbing fixtures at levels above 0.3mg/I, there is usually no noticeable taste at iron concentrations below 0.3mg/I, and concentration of 1-3mg/I can be acceptable for people drinking anaerobic well water.
  34. 34.  Calcium (Ca) The presence of calcium in water results from passage through or over deposit of limestone, dolomite, gypsum and gypsiferous shales. The calcium content may range from zero to several hundred milligrams per litre, depending on the source and treatment of the water small concentrations of caco3 combat corrosion of metal pipes by laying down a protective coating. Biologically, calcium prevents the absorption and transfer of toxic ions from the intestines to the blood. Calcium contributes to dialysis or iron exchange and is used to reduce associated hardness. Manganese (Mn) Manganese is one of the most abundant metals in the Earth’s crust, usually occurring with iron. Manganese green sand is used in some location for potable water treatment and is an essential element for humans and other animals and occurs naturally in many food sources. Manganese is naturally occurring in many surface water and groundwater sources, particularly in anaerobic or low oxidation conditions, and this is the most important source for drinking-water. The guideline value for manganese is 0.4mg/I (WHO, 2004). Rainfall In Kuje there are two main seasons namely, rainy and dry seasons. The rainy season falls within the period of April and October while the dry season falls within the period of November and March. The temperature drop from 950f (350c), during the dry season to 770f (250c), during rainy season due to dense cloud cover, the relative humidity rises in the
  35. 35. afternoon to above 50%. The annual range of rainfall for the FCT is in theorder of 1100mm to 1600mm (Mamman et al 2000).Kuje enjoys higher rainfall total, than the more southerly regions of FCT.The FCT experiences heavy rainfall occurrence during the months of July,August and September. These three months contribute about 60% of thetotal rainfall in the region (Dawam, 2000). Figure 2.4. Mean Monthly Rainfall Histogram for FCT
  36. 36. CHAPTER THREE 3.0 MATERIAL AND METHOD 3.1 Basic Concepts in Hydro-Geology 3.1.1 Groundwater Setting Formation The occurrence and movement of groundwater depends on the subsurface characteristics, like lithology, texture and structure. The different formations are classified into the following types depending on their relative permeability (Singhal and Gupta, 1999). Aquifer An aquifer is a natural formation that contains sufficient amount of water and permeable material to yield significant amount of water is wells or springs. Rock formations that serve as aquifers are gravel, sand, fractured granite etc. Aquifers can be classified into confined; unconfined; perched and leaky aquifers (Sen, 1995). Aquiclude This formation is capable of absorbing water slowly, but not capable of transmitting it fast enough to yield enough water to a well. These confining formations like crystalline rocks, clays and shales (Sen, 1995). Aquitard Aquitards have insufficient permeability to act as an aquifer, but can still serve as source or interchange between neighboring aquifer. These are usually or silt or shale (Singhal and Gupta, 1999).
  37. 37. 3.1.2 Classification of GroundwaterSubsurface waters are classified into different groups, depending on its physical occurrencein the soil. Two layers can be broadly identified, which are the saturated and layer wherethe pores are completely filled with water and the unsaturated layer where the voids containa mixture of water, moisture and air. The unsaturated layer can be divided into threedifferent groups. The soil moisture layer, intermediate layer and capillary layer, which isessential for plants and differs in thickness depending on soil type and climate is the toplayer. The movement of water can be either upwards or downwards depending on gravity.The intermediate layer is the second zone and here water is held due to intermolecular forceagainst the pull of gravity. The capillary layer is the third zone and is located above thewater table and the water here is held by the capillarity forces acting against gravity (Sen,1995). Figure3.1. Water zones in the lithosphere (after Sen, 1995)
  38. 38. 3.1.3 Hydraulic Properties of RockThe hydraulic properties of rock are important because they demonstrate the storage andtransmitting attributes of the aquifer.PorosityPorosity (n) is a measure of voids in the rock formation. It is defined as the ratio betweenthe volumes of the pores and that of the rock i.e. pore volume and total volume. Porosity isof two types. Primary porosity is governed from the rock formation and secondary porosityis developed through weathering (Sen, 1995), is expressed in %Figure 3.2:Hydraulic Conductivity and PermeabilityHydraulic conductivity (k) is a measure of the ability for a rock formation totransmit water or the ability of a material to let a water current flow through itwhen a hydraulic pressure is applied. It depends both on the properties of themedium and of the fluid, which makes it rather complicated to use. A morerational concept is permeability (k), which does not take the fluids properties
  39. 39. Into consideration (The permeability is linked not only to the volume of theavailable water, but also to the size of the pores (Singhal and Gupta 1999).Permeability = [water yields Sample section] / Hydraulic gradientHydraulic gradient =∆h/∆lFigure 3.3Transmissivity.This parameter characterizes the ability of the aquifer to transmit water. It is definedas the rate flow of water at unit hydraulic gradient through a cross-sectional areareleases from storage as the average head within this column declines by a unitdistance or the transmissivity of an aquifer layer is the product of the permeabilityby its thickness (sen 1995). Transmissivity = Permeability X Thickness. is expressed in m2/s
  40. 40.  Storativity The ability of an aquifer to store water is called storativity. It is defined as the volume of water which a vertical column if the aquifer of unit cross-sectional area releases from storage as the average head within this column declines by a unit distance (Singhal and Gupta 1999). 3.1.4 Groundwater Resource Applications Groundwater can be located indirectly through remote sensing data. Since EM radiation only penetrates a few millimeters into the ground in visible region and a few meters in the microwave region, indicators on the surface like different geological, hydrological, vegetation phenomenon can help locate and approximate the quantity of groundwater (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). The different types of groundwater indicators can be divided into two different groups (1) direct indicators and (2) indirect indicators. The direct indicators are directly related to groundwater establishments, i.e. recharge zones, discharge zones, soil moisture and vegetation. Indirect indicators could be different rock and soil types, structures including fracture zones, landforms, and drainage characteristics. Feature associated with Recharge/Discharge zones surface water bodies like lakes, ponds, rivers, creeks etc are indicators of recharge /discharge zones. Near-infrared, thermal infrared and microwave are highly sensitive to surface moisture. Since discharge zones have shallow water-tables and lower reflectance than the recharge zones, discharge and recharge zones can be separated. Even the shape s of the water body can determine whether it is a recharge or a discharge zone. Depending on if a river gets thinner or thicker downstream, it is
  41. 41. evidently loosing or getting richer in water and can therefore be classified as either recharge or discharge area. Other indicators on discharge areas are due to the surface moisture a divergence in vegetation and temperature (Singhal and Gupta, 1999). Soil Moisture The intensity of soil moisture can easily be detected throughout the EM spectrum. On the panchromatic band high moisture content shows as darker photo-tones. Moisture can also be easily detected in the NIR and the thermal-IR where wet areas appear cooler because of the evaporation, i.e. darker, than the dryer parts (Singhal and Gupta, 1999). Except for moisture, there are two other factors that can reduce soil reflectance i.e. surface roughness and organic matter (Lillesand and Kiesfer, 2000). Vegetation Vegetation can be a direct indication of groundwater. Lush vegetation associated with lineament could be a sign on possible bedrock fractures, with higher porosity and permeability that allows for root systems easier to develop and water to be stored. Some vegetation is better indicators than others. Plants which are used for agriculture purposes could be irrigated and are therefore bad indicators (Taylor et al, 1999). In general phreatophytic vegetation refers to shallow water-table where as xerophytic plants would indicate dry arid conditions (Singhal and Gupta, 1999). Vegetation strongly absorbs energy in the wave length bends 0, 45-0, 67 um, which is the chlorophyll absorption bends. What our eyes consider as healthy vegetation is a strong green colour, which means a strong absorbance of blue and red and a high reflectance of green. If a plant is exposed to some kind of stress that interrupts its natural growth and productivity which
  42. 42. 1Ω-1m-1
  43. 43. ρa= --------------------3.4 Resistivity surveys can take different forms of arrangement of the current and potential electrodes. In most cases, there are always two (2) current electrodes and two (2) potential electrodes. Normally the potential electrodes are placed between the current electrodes. Schlumberger configuration is considered in this study. In the schlumberger arrangement, the spacing between the potential electrodes “a” is fixed, and is less than the separation between the current electrodes “L” which is progressively increased during survey. The apparent resistivity is ------------------3.5 However, for most cases, L2>>a2, hence ρa= ----------------------------3.6
  44. 44. What is actually measured in the above equation is the apparent resistivityρa, and as it implies, it depends on the mode of spacing of the electrodes.The equation also implies that when the ground is uniform, the resistivityshould be constant and will not depend on the surface location or electrodespacing. Generally, the potential electrodes are placed between the twocurrent electrodes.
  45. 45. CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 INSTRUMENTATION, DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS INTERPRETATION 4.1 Instrumentation and Applications The equipment required in a geo-electrical resistivity survey include a power source, tape, electrodes (current and potential) cable, crocodile clip, hammer, and the resistivity meter (ABEM Terrameter).It’s electronic device automatically calculates the value of V/I and digitally displays it in Milli Ohms (mΩ), Ohm (Ω), or Kilo Ohms (kΩ) 4.2 Field Procedure Electrical resistivity method exploits the large contrast in resistivity between ore bodies and there host rocks that occur as good conductors. Its principle is very simple, it involves a measurement of potential difference across electrodes, after a direct current or a low frequency alternating current has been injected into the earth by means of current electrodes. What is actually measured is the resistance since the resistivity values are averages over the total current path length. The resistivity of the subsurface is then a function of the magnitude of the current, the recorded potential difference, and the geometry of the electrodes array. The spacing of the electrodes can take different methods, which in most cases involves the placement of the potential electrodes between the current electrodes. Two main techniques used in electrical resistivity survey are the vertical electrical sounding [VES] and the resistivity profiling method. In most surveys, both procedure are employed and could be used with either
  46. 46.  schlumberger or the wenner configuration. Vertical electrical sounding [VES] is used for the purpose of determining the vertical variation of resistivity. The current and potential electrodes are maintained at the same relative spacing and the whole spread is progressively expanded about a fixed central point. Since the aim of investigation is the depth, the schlumberger configuration is commonly used for VES investigations as increase in the current electrode separation create more penetration and hence reaches greater depth. It is also a useful technique in environmental applications. For example, due to the good electrical conductivity of ground water, the resistivity of a sedimentary rock is much lower when it is waterlogged than in the dry state. The survey covered three settlements, namely, settlement A (Kiyi), settlement B (Chukuku), and settlement C (Chibiri). Two (2) settlements have two points of investigation (sounding point) which are settlement A and B and the other have one (1) point of investigation i.e. settlement C. Survey were carried out when the ground was dry in all the settlements. The three (3) settlements have electrode spacing (m) for current electrode and (m) for potential electrode with their different geometric factor which L is calculated by K = where L is half current electrode spacing and ι is half potential electrode spacing. The ABEM Terrameter SAS 300C was used to carry out the investigation and Schlumberger profiling, with an electrode spacing of 2-350m was employed in data collection. A total of 25 Spreads were sounded (forward and reverse) each for five (5) profile. 4.3 Data Collection In Settlements A, B and C, the survey was carried out during the dry season but the electrode connection with the ground was watered to ensure good contact.
  47. 47. Table 4.5: CHIBIRI VES 5 DATA
  48. 48.  4.4 Data Analysis The ABEM Terrameter SAS 300C was used to carry out the investigation and Schlumberger profiling, with an electrode spacing of 2-350m was employed in data collection. A total of 25 Spreads were sounded (forward and reverse) each for five (5) profile. The field data were simulated using IP12WIN Computer interactive program, by plotting apparent resistivity values against the corresponding distances traversed. This provides an idea of the minimum and maximum apparent resistivity values at various points along the profiles. 4.5 Information near the Study Area Lithologic information obtained in the vicinity of the study areas, using VES reveals the presence of various soil types at various depths. Some of the information obtained are: Kuchiyaku Kuje Area Geophysical and Geotechnical characterization of foundation Beds at Kuchiyaku Kuje Area, Abuja Nigeria by Faleye et al (2011), revealed that the VES interpretations delineated topsoil, the layer resistivity ranges from 199 to 1947Ωm, weathered basement, the layer resistivity ranges from 32 to 540Ωm and the fractured/fresh bedrock, the layer resistivity ranges from 495 to 16986Ωm within the study area with maximum depth to bedrock of about 31m. Lugbe FHA Investigation of groundwater potential at Mrs Bukola: site Lugbe FHA Abuja by Toark and Partners Ltd march 2009. The borehole may be drilled to a depth of about 38-40mtrs through the weathered zone and possibly fractured aquifer. Revealed that the area is underlain by a fractured
  49. 49. basement rocks, mainly mica-riched granite gneiss bedrock and theborehole may be drilled to a depth of about 38-40m through the weatheredzone and possibly fractured aquifer.
  55. 55. INTERPRETATIONThe result of the 25 Spread points each for five (5) profiles arepresented in table 4.1 to 4.5. The simulated results of the 25Spread points each for five (5) profiles in three (3) Settlementsreveal the presence of 4 – 5 geoelectric layers. These layers aregrouped as: topsoil (clayey; sandy or lateritic), weatheredbasement (clays/sandy clays), slightly weathered/fracturedbasement (clayey sand), fresh bedrock and bedrock.The first geoelectric layer correspond to the topsoil with resistivityvalues ranging from 3.065 to 1948 ohm-m while thickness variesfrom 0.1164 to 1.821m.The second and third geoelectric layerwith resistivity values ranging from 2.444 to 1783 ohm-m and2.576 to 1812 ohm-m while thickness varies from 0.2036 to9.519m and 0.48 to 166.7m respectively. The mean thickness is20m (weathered /fractured basement). The fourth geoelectriclayers which has resistivity values ranging from 824.9 to 9905ohm-m with the thickness of 22.56m.The fifth layer which ischaracterized by high resistivity values of 420000 ohm-m. Thelayer extends infinitely into the earth subsurface. From theanalysis, the thickness of weathered/fractured zone found inChikuku, Chibiri and part of Kiyi gives use to shallow aquiferwhich shows poor groundwater potential, but the VES 1 in part ofKiyi has very thick layer of weathered fractured basement andtherefore promising good quantity of groundwater source.
  56. 56. CHAPTER FIVE5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1 CONCLUSIONThe method of investigation adopted by this study has helped in theidentification of the aquiferous units and has provided an understanding ofaquifer dimension especially the thickness of the weathered basement, thedepth to bed rock and fractured zones which are required for locatingpoints with high potentials for groundwater occurrence. The geophysicalinvestigation survey and the local geology of the study area, reveal the geo-electric parameters established through the computer analysis that thesounding points is hydro logically prolific especially in VES 1. From theanalysis, the thickness of fractured and weathered basement in Chikuku,Chibiri and part of Kiyi is small and can only accommodate shallowaquifer which shows that the area has poor groundwater potential, but theVES 1 in part of Kiyi has very thick layer of weathered/fractured basementand therefore promising good quantity of groundwater source. Theunderground water condition of the study areas shows that water could beseen in region of weathered/fractured basement that were delineated.5.2 RECOMMENDATIONThe investigation will serve as an avenue to update groundwater data bankof the study area for those whose responsibility is the provision of safedrinking water to the entire populace around the area. It will also help inplanning agricultural practices in advising the farmers on choosing theappropriate crops to be cultivated around the study area.
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