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Plc edexcel unit 1


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Checklist of topics for Unit 1 Dynamic Planet for Edexcel GeographyB (courtesy of Sanders School)

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Plc edexcel unit 1

  1. 1. Geography revision Unit 1 Topic Subtopics Must be able to do Restless Earth The Earth’s interior has a layered structure, with different composition and physical properties. -Interpret a cross-section of the Earth, with details (temperature, density, composition, physical state) of layered structure (including the asthenosphere); -continental and oceanic crust The Earth’s core generates heat and convection currents drive plate motion. -Explain convection currents There are -Explain different plate boundaries and KEY R Read N Notes RC Revision Card PQ Practise question
  2. 2. conservative, constructive and destructive plate boundaries be able to draw and annotate them. -Describe the different types of volcanos and say how they are formed. Volcanic and earthquake hazards affect people in different ways and at contrasting locations. - Investigate the primary and secondary impacts of earthquakes in two named locations (Japan and Haiti). - Examine the primary and secondary economic and social impacts of one volcanic event (Montserrat case study) Management of volcanic and earthquake hazards, at contrasting locations, ranging from short term relief to long-term planning, preparation and - You need to know about the role of prediction, warning and evacuation in relation to volcanic and earthquake hazards. -Contrasting hazard-resistant design in the developed and developing world. - Evaluate the role of immediate response and relief efforts linked to a named
  3. 3. prediction. tectonic hazard event (Japan earthquake) Changing Climate Climate has changed in the past through natural causes, on timescales ranging from hundreds to millions of years. - Examine past climate change on different timescales, including the ‘Ice Ages’ in the Quaternary Period and UK climate since Roman times. - Explore the natural causes of climate change, including asteroid collisions, orbital changes (Milankovitch cycles, volcanic activity and variations in solar output. Natural climate change in the past has affected people and the environment. - Examine the impact of a short-term historical event on people and the environment, e.g. the ‘Little Ice Age’. - Consider the impact of major climatic changes in geological time, e.g. the mass extinction of megafauna at the end of the Quaternary Period. The climate of the UK appears to be changing as - Investigate the climate of the UK today, including temperature, rainfall and seasonality, and consider why they
  4. 4. a result of global changes caused by human activity. might change in the future, including reference to ocean currents and air masses. - Examine how human activities produce rising levels of carbon dioxide and methane and how these contribute to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Future climates are uncertain but likely to present major economic and environmental challenges to the UK and, especially, to people in the developing world. -Consider a range of projections for global temperature change and sea level rise, including reasons for the uncertainty. -Examine the possible economic and environmental impacts of future climate change for the UK and in one named developing country, e.g. Bangladesh. Battle for the Biosphere The distribution of global biomes reflects climate as well as other localised factors. - Define the terms ‘eco-system’ and ‘biome’, -You need to know where the distribution of major biomes are across the planet and why there are where they are.
  5. 5. -Evaluate the role of temperature and precipitation in explaining biome location, plus local factors including altitude and soils. The biosphere acts as a ‘life support system’, and produces a wide range of goods. -Explain how the biosphere regulates the composition of the atmosphere, maintains soil health and influences the hydrological cycle. -Investigate how the biosphere provides humans with a range of goods, including food, medicines and raw materials. The biosphere is being degraded by human actions. -Consider the role of human activity in the direct destruction of tropical rainforests, including deforestation for timber, mining and conversion to agricultural land. -Examine how degradation of the biosphere takes place by indirect means, including the impact of climate change on tropical rainforests. Management -Examine two contrasting examples of
  6. 6. measures, at a variety of scales, are being used to conserve the biosphere and make human use of it more sustainable. biosphere conservation, including one global-scale approach, e.g. Ramsar or the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), and one national or local approach, e.g. UK National Parks, a tropical rainforest reserve. -Examine the challenges of producing sustainable outcomes in economic, social and environmental terms and the possible tensions. Water World The hydrological cycle regulates water supply and links the atmosphere, biosphere and lithosphere. -Investigate the role of the biosphere and the lithosphere in regulating the hydrological cycle and ensuring water supply. -Explain how the hydrological cycle works, as a system of interlinked stores and transfers, including the processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation and run-off. Changes to the hydrological cycle -Examine the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle, including
  7. 7. can affect both human and eco-system health. rainfall reliability and groundwater levels, in areas which already experience aridity (Aral sea case study). -Investigate the impact of unreliable and insufficient water supply on humans, using a case study from a vulnerable area, e.g. the Sahel. There are many threats to maintaining a healthy hydrological cycle. -Consider the consequences of human activities on water quality, including sewage disposal, industrial pollution and intensive agriculture. -Examine located examples of human activities which disrupt water supply, including deforestation, over abstraction of groundwater and reservoir construction. There is a range of strategies, at a variety of scales, designed -Consider the costs and benefits of large scale water management schemes in the developed world and the developing
  8. 8. to manage water resources more sustainably using different levels of technology. world, e.g. The Three Gorges dam. -Examine the role of named small-scale intermediate technology solutions, such as water harvesting in the developing world e.g wells, hand pumps. Coastal Change and Conflict Geological structure and rock type have a major influence on coastal development and landforms. -Investigate the contrasts between a named soft rock coast and a named hard rock coast in terms of cliff profiles, cliff features and erosional land forms. -Compare concordant and discordant coasts (headlands and bays) and assess the influence of rock type, joints and faults. Marine processes, sub-aerial processes, mass movement and climate change are -Investigate how destructive waves, sub aerial processes and mass movement create a range of erosional landforms,
  9. 9. also important. including cliffs, wave-cut platforms, caves, arches and stacks and how constructive waves, deposition and longshore drift create beaches, bars and spits. -Explore the possible consequences of climate change on marine erosion and deposition, including an increased frequency of storms and rising sea level. Physical processes lead to coastal change and retreat, which threatens people and property and generates conflicting views. -Investigate a coastline experiencing rapid coastal retreat, e.g. Holderness, to examine why rates of erosion vary and the threats posed to people and the environment by rapid erosion. -Explore the conflicting views of how the case study coastal area should be managed (Holderness coast).Social, economic and environmental. There is a range of coastal management -For a named coastline, investigate the costs and benefits of traditional
  10. 10. options from traditional hard engineering to more modern holistic approaches. hard engineering structures, including groynes and sea walls. -Soft management: Consider the costs and benefits of soft engineering, including beach replenishment, and more radical approaches including ‘do nothing’ and ‘strategic realignment’ linked to Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). Extreme Environments Extreme climates are located in polar regions and hot arid areas; each one has key physical characteristics and they are fragile environments. -Investigate the climate of polar and hot arid areas, including precipitation, temperature range, seasonality and variability. -Examine why these are fragile environments and how flora and fauna have successfully adapted to the extreme climates - How are they vulnerable to change.
  11. 11. People adapt to the challenges of extreme environments in a variety of ways. - Investigate the adaptations people make in extreme environments, including farming methods, building styles, clothing, transport, energy use. - Examine the culture and uniqueness of peoples living in extreme environments and the value of this culture to others. Extreme environments are under threat from a range of processes, including climate change. - Investigate the threats to people and natural systems in extreme environments, including out-migration because of limited economic opportunities, cultural dilution through tourism, pollution though resource exploitation and land degradation through poor land management. - Investigate how climate change could threaten natural systems, including melting of permafrost, loss of sea ice,
  12. 12. desertification and species migration and the impact of these on traditional economies. Sustainable management is needed locally and globally if communities in extreme environments are to survive. - Assess a range of local actions, e.g. intermediate technology and adaptation to changing climates, and assess their effectiveness in achieving a sustainable future for local communities. - Assess the role of global actions to protect extreme environments from the threat of climate Antarctic treaty etc
  13. 13. Some practice questions: Restless Earth: Key words you should know Trench Lithosphere Core Mantle Plate Boundary Convection currents Mantle Epicentre Volcanic eruption Asthenosphere Continental crust Magma Subduction Oceanic crust Focus Magnitude Frequency Richter Scale Seismometer Lava Evacuate Crater Magma chamber Relief Effort Prediction Preparation Mitigation Hazard Resistant Design 2 mark Exam Questions: - Describe one method that can be used to predict when a volcano is likely to erupt. - State two ways in which a volcanic eruption can endanger human life. - Describe one action that can be taken to reduce the impact of earthquakes. - State two facts about the distribution of volcanoes. - Describe one way a region affected by earthquakes can prepare for this hazard. 4 mark Exam Questions: - Using an example(s), describe the effects of earthquakes on people and property
  14. 14. - For a named earthquake or volcanic eruption, describe its economic impacts - For either an earthquake or a volcanic eruption you have studied, describe the immediate responses in managing its impact. - Explain how volcanoes are formed on either constructive or destructive plate boundaries. You may draw a diagram to help you. - Describe how people can prepare for earthquakes.
  15. 15. Climate Key words you should know Global warming Holocene Enhanced Greenhouse Effect Carbon Dioxide Quaternary Stratosphere Desertification Nitrous Oxide Food chain Extinction Methane Sunspot Theory Orbital Theory Little Ice age Eruption Theory Stern Report Megafauna Glacial Interglacial Pollution 2 mark Exam Questions: - Suggest two reasons why carbon dioxide emissions are higher in urban areas than in rural areas - Describe one way in which human activity is contributing to climate change. - Describe one possible economic impact of future climate change in the UK. 4 mark Exam Questions: - Describe how orbital changes and varying solar output can lead to climate change. - Describe how climate change in the past, such as the Little Ice Age, affected people and ecosystems. - Explain how an increase in greenhouse gases can result in climate change. - For a named developing country, explain why climate change is likely to have a large impact on its people..
  16. 16. Biosphere Key words you should know Biome Mass Extinction Biodiversity CITES Gene Pool Biosphere Green Lungs Temperature RAMSAR Zoning Precipitation Mineral Extraction Transnational Corporation (TNC) Sustainable Stakeholders /Players International Convention Climate Graphs Keystone species Nutrient Cycling Nutrient cycle 2 mark Exam Questions: - Describe one management measure that can be used to conserve the biosphere. - The biosphere acts as a life support system for the planet. Describe one way in which it does this. - For a named biome, describe one way it has been damaged by human activity. - Describe one way in which people are trying to conserve the biosphere. 4 mark Exam Questions: - Explain how temperature and precipitation affect the distribution of global biomes. - Describe how local factors can affect biomes. - Describe the management methods that can be used to conserve the biosphere. - Describe the value of a named biome in providing goods and services. :
  17. 17. Water world Key words you should know Infiltration Evapotranspiration Lithosphere Water Quality Percolation Water table River Basin Water Scarcity Groundwater Surface Run off Reservoir Subsistence Farmers Saturation Throughflow Water Stress Pollution Precipitation Interception Evaporation Condensation Deforestation Siltation Domestic Industrial Overabstraction Appropriate Technology Hand Pumps Eutrophication 2 mark Exam Questions: - For a named water management project, describe ways it has benefited local people. - Outline the process of precipitation. - For a named vulnerable area, describe one problem caused by an unreliable or - insufficient water supply. - Outline why an unreliable water supply can cause problems for farmers. - Describe one human activity that can lead to a reduction in water quality. 4 mark Exam Questions: - Explain how water is transferred from the land to the atmosphere in the hydrological cycle. - Using examples, describe how human interference can disrupt water supply. - Describe the costs and benefits of a named large-scale water management project.