Eastern japan great earthquake disaster

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Eastern japan great earthquake disaster

  1. 1. EASTERN JAPAN GREAT EARTHQUAKE DISASTER Byju V M2 Structural Engineering
  2. 2. Date and time Friday, March 11, 2011 02:46:23 PM - Local Time Epicentre 38.322oN and 142.369oE Magnitude 9 Intensity Up to VII Peak ground acceleration 2g to 0.34 g Characteristics 2
  3. 3. Peak ground acceleration 2g to 0.34 g Foreshocks and aftershocks About 50 (5 of magnitude >7) Energy released Earthquake 1.9 0.5 X 1017 J Total including tsunami 3.9 X 1022 J Velocity of tsunami wave 700 kilometers per hour Characteristics 3
  4. 4. Ring of fire Plate movement Pacific plate slipped beneath Eurasian plate It was moving a few cm every year 4
  5. 5. Plate movement 5
  6. 6. Epicentre 6
  7. 7. Intensity of earthquake 7
  8. 8. Tsunami following the quake 8
  9. 9. Impacts • Humanitarian » 13,392 deaths » 15,133 missing » 4896 injured » 3,35,000 refugees • Buildings » 59,806 destroyed » 12,728 damaged » More in tsunami than earthquake 9
  10. 10. Impacts • Infrastructure » Power, nuclear, railway, air port, ports • Economic » Total loss $ 171 to 183 billion » Total cost of recovery $ 122 billion 10
  11. 11. Nuclear crisis • Crisis at Fukushima • Level 7 nuclear event • What happened? • The height of sea wall was insufficient • Power system was poorly designed • IAEA norms – Design to consider events having probability of 1 in 10,000 years 11
  12. 12. Damage to structures Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) report • No widespread structural damage • Damages mainly from tsunami, not shaking • Major damages due to quake suffered by old buildings built before code revisions. • Several changes to building codes in last 40 years, after 1968 earthquake 12
  13. 13. Code revisions  Review procedure for existing buildings for seismic safety.  Reduced the spacing of steel ties in columns to 100 mm  Ultimate strength design for shear of beams and columns  More stringent requirements for shear reinforcement  Two phase design i. 0.08 g to 0.1 g (can occur several times) ii. 0.3 g to 0.4 g (Can occur once in the lifetime of building)  Performance based seismic design introduced in 2000 13
  14. 14. Design flow chart 14
  15. 15. Preparedness  Many measures by Japan after 1995 earthquake  World’s first earthquake early warning system  Rapid and systematic and calm reporting by media  Heavy investment in educating public about disaster management  One of the most stringent construction standards  The highest disaster risk aware population 15
  16. 16. • Very old timber houses are generally collapsed. • Damage is generally limited to roof with tiles. • Damage to timber houses built on a soft ground or nearby creeks or rivers. Damages to timber buildings 16
  17. 17. Damages to masonry buildings o Damage is generally limited to roof with tiles. o As the number of masonry buildings are few, no major collapses were observed 17
  18. 18. Damages to RC buildings Complete collapse of a few buildings built before code revisions 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. Tilting of RC building due to liquefaction 20
  21. 21. Damaged Nakaminato Thermal Power Plant due to heavy liquefaction 21
  22. 22. Shiogama Municipal No. 2 Junior High School retrofitted using an external precast concrete frame braced with tension ties 22
  23. 23. 1. Okada Norio et. al. (2011), “The 2011 Eastern Japan Great Earthquake Disaster: Overview and Comments”, Int. J. Disaster Risk Sci., 2 (1): 34–42 2. Richard Sause et. al, “Preview of PCI’s Japan earthquake Reconnaissance Team Report”, www.pci.org 3. Ömer Aydan and HisatakaTano (2011), Shaking – induced damage to buildings by M 9.0 East Japan mega earthquake on March 11, 2011 4. Ömer Aydan and HisatakaTano (2011), Liquifaction-induced damage to buildings by M 9.0 East Japan mega earthquake on March 11, 2011 5. www.sefindia.org 6. www.jsce-int.org References 23

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