Residential Green Solutions: Post EarthquakeThank You for being here for my final presentation. My topic of research is Residential Green Solutions: Post Earthquake. Before actually getting into the details, we would like to know why concentrate on Earthquake and on Residential Real Estate market specifically. There is a constant increase in the frequency and magnitude of losses experienced due to natural disasters. Especially, earthquakes cause a large amount of destruction. This is because it tends to trigger additional disasters along with it, like for example – fire, landslides and tsunami to name a few. The losses experienced due to recent earthquakes are higher than the earthquakes that occurred before. This is due to the increasing concentration of population and property development in susceptible areas.The next question to be answered is – Why concentrate on Residential Real Estate Sector? The most important reason is the feeling of belonging which is the measure of citizenship or permanence in a community. This is achieved by owning or renting a property in an area. Residential property always takes the central position in an individual’s life. This sector of real estate market is disturbed by the phenomenal losses incurred due to earthquake tremors. Along with the loss of shelter – which is one of the basis of existence, other mis-happenings are prompted due to earthquake. They can range from employment loss, tourism loss, loss of livestock, looting and increase of illness and disease costs.
But what factors actually contribute to disaster risk? Factors such as Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, External Context and Emergency Response & Recovery Capability play a major role. Hazard relates to the severity, extent and frequency of tremors to which a city is subjected to. Exposure takes into account the physical characteristics of an area. Vulnerability shows how easily people and place along with their activities are affected by the earthquake. External Context measures the impact of the earthquake in the affected region in relation to the region surrounding it. And lastly, Emergency Response & Recovery Capability proves how effectively and efficiently a city can reduce the impact of earthquake in the least possible time in an organized manner. These factors determine the intensity and level of risks. The consequences differ at different impact regions. There would be damage and destruction of buildings and infrastructure, i.e. the physical term. Direct and indirect economic losses, deaths, injuries and homelessness, i.e. the human terms. And in terms of disruption to lifeline services, political and social processes.
And when the earthquake hits a region, does it really create an opportunity for better development? Practically speaking, redevelopment opportunity is definitely created because of the disruption in terms of physical and infrastructure. It challenges the impact region to collect all the resources available at that time and produce a better product. This works more towards the long term development at the cost of short term agony. This also allows the political system to grow and prove itself as it would be a major decision-maker during the recovery period.
The post disaster recovery period is broadly divided into 3 phases. As soon as the earthquake hits a region, the first response to the impact is the Emergency Phase. Evacuations take place and people look for an alternative safe shelter. The community initially participates to take people out of the debris and help others from the trauma. As soon as the information about the disaster reaches other regions, relief measures are pooled in along with immediate temporary housing measures. Efforts are also made to re-establish other operations. The emergency phase ends when immediate basic needs of the people like temporary housing, food and water are met and damage assessment is complete.Then the reconstruction phase starts when debris removal is initialized. Repair and rebuilding of damaged property along with the repair of infrastructure starts. This phase ends when the damaged properties are completely rebuilt.Recovery phase comes next, where long-term development and growth plans are decided by the governmental agencies and the non governmental organizations. Hazard Mitigation planning starts along with reconstruction of permanent housing. The main aim of this phase is to gain long-term economic recovery. In order to understand the practical implementation of these theories, we would look at two case studies – one from a developing country and other from a developed country.
Gujarat Earthquake hitBhuj, which is the main city in zone 5 western region of India, located south of Pakistan in the district called Kutch. The earthquake hit this region on January 26th, 2001 at 8.46am Indian Time. January 26th is celebrated as India’s Republic Day and its a national holiday in India. The children are expected to be in school to hoist the Indian flag. When this 7.7 magnitude earthquake hit the Kutch region early in the morning, most of the children were at their schools and other were at their homes. And so, the people could not rescue themselves causing a substantial loss of life and property. The Kutch region consisted mainly of rural artisans who had their own cottage industries to sustain themselves. The buildings in the district of Kutch were mainly non-engineered one to two storey structures. And so major damage was experienced in the household sector costing around 250 million dollars alone. The tremors were experienced in most of the western India. Communication networks failed and transportation and infrastructure were completely destroyed. The Kutch region is an island which was connected to the mainland of India by only one bridge called Suraj Bari till 2001. And this was destroyed in the earthquake which did not allow people to commute to other surrounding regions in search for shelter and food. The relief measures were transported to Bhuj by air for the first few days – restricting adequate resources for the affected people. Later when the bridge was repaired in a few weeks, the relief measures gushed in leading to waste of resources.
Till everything had to come in place, people had already started migrating to major metropolitan cities out of Kutch like Ahmedabad, Baroda, Surat and Mumbai. Eventually, government stepped in forming disaster mitigations committees to work on the planning of the city of Bhuj and the surrounding villages. Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority and Bhuj Area Development Authority worked together for planning and execution of the redevelopment of Bhuj for increased attention and investment in the areas of housing, town planning and relocating affected people. Reconstruction task was undertaken in four parts. Relocation and rehabilitation of people was planned by locating the relocation sites around the city of Bhuj by acquiring land and extending the city’s boundaries. Land and infrastructure facilities were planned out along with plot layout and allocation. The next step was to prepare development plans by public consultation and survey procedures. This was done so as to get the community involved in the redevelopment process. Town Planning schemes were prepared with the help of various expert groups and exhaustive studies. This involved town planning of the old city of Bhuj which was completed devastated. It consisted of specific residential regions with the large central commercial area and markets. It also included proper street planning and green open spaces inside the old city of Bhuj unlike before. Finally infrastructure planning was done which included development of 3 relocation sites.
The next case study is from the United States. Northridge earthquake took place in January 1994 with 6.7 magnitude on the Richter Scale. California, located in the highest hazard region in the western part of U.S., experienced major physical and infrastructure destruction. Residential losses were about 49% which amounted to 21 billion dollars alone. This led to a major shift in the owner and renter population of California. The residential sector was hit hard because the building codes were overlooked during construction at that time.
The relief programs in California particularly emphasized on the long-term recovery of residential structures. When compared to the Gujarat earthquake – where migration was one of the major outcomes, in this case - areas that were hardest hit experienced similar or above-average growth in population, housing units, and occupancy— even more so than areas that experienced the least damage. Various recovery actions were taken to increase the speed of housing reconstruction. Moreover, pre-impact recovery planning along with Recovery and Reconstruction Plan proved to be successful because the various departments in charge of different responsibilities knew what had to be done after the earthquake struck California. Departments for example – building and safety, community, housing and planning were given specific responsibilities before the earthquake. This helped them to be ready at the time of emergency.
What does Green Recovery Solutions mean? When an earthquake hits a region, almost all aspects of a region are affected directly or indirectly. They range from physical, economic, political to social. Green Recovery solutions emphasize mainly on eco-development along with environmental management and community development. The five steps to achieve it, starts with the vision to gain a well functioning sustainable society and economy. The recovery methods to be worked out involve pre-disaster planning, relief, reconstruction and development. It further goes on to answer how it needs to be done. By principles like good government led practices and local participation which helps to solve the issues like empowerment, social protection and environment evaluation. These can get the community ready for the impact of a disaster when struck. Damage and need assessment, strategic planning, resource mobilization practices can be worked out efficiently when all the other stages are successfully practiced.
Two of the many examples for sustainable development post earthquake is the Eco Resort in Gujarat, India and Portola Valley Development in California, United States.The eco resort is located in the Banni region of Kutch, which was severely damaged by the Gujarat Earthquake of 2001. It was an initiative taken by a group of 13 non-governmental organizations called Kutch NavNirmanAabhiyan - who worked towards the recovery and revival of the earthquake struck region. It was led by Ar. SandeepVirmani with whom I had worked voluntarily for 6 months. The main aim of developing an eco resort is to employ the local village artisans – ultimately reducing the level of migration which took place due to earthquake and increase tourism in this region. The local resident artisans were educated to build their own community and neighborhood and engage in activities which they were good at like lacquer work, mud painting and constructing bhungas – which are the traditional houses with conical thatched roof and cylindrical interiors. The non governmental organizations provided the building materials and did the site planning incorporating earthquake resistant techniques.The other example is Portola Valley Development in California which was designed and developed by Siegel & Strain Architects and Goring & Straja Architects. It is constructed of wood as building material which is spread over 11 acres consisting a library, community center and townhall. The design was built by recycled materials and sustainable techniques like solar energy generating electricity for the whole development, energy efficient mechanical systems and rainwater harvesting systems. This was done to sustain future earthquakes.
Hence we understand the few practices which helped the impact region overcome effectively and efficiently from the aftermath. A few policy recommendations in this regard would be to formulate disaster pre-impact planning for a region with respect to its physical surroundings. This would help to effectively plan the flow of resources to where it is most needed. Other would be to ensure adequate supply of earthquake resistant affordable housing at the time of recovery. Also, maintaining strong ties with the community based organizations and nonprofit housing corporations would help the governmental agencies to handle post disaster emergency situations. Furthermore, understanding the sustainable development practices taking place in different developing and developed countries would help to integrate and work out the most suitable recovery method for a specific region. This would also help in balancing the long-term needs with the short-term needs during recovery phase.
Finally, concluding points for effective and sustainable post disaster management would be - Understanding the population mechanism for present and future in order to design a region sufficiently.Working out a regions’ sustainable emergency response plans for various events.Strict caution in terms of quality of construction with regular examinations with the help of public –private collaborationSpreading disaster mitigation and recovery awareness among people which could help overcoming previously neglected aspects in planning, recovery and emergency phases.My concluding statement would be – For acceptable levels of effectiveness Post Disaster Management needs to adapt to future sustainability needs.
Residential Green Recovery Solutions Post Earthquake
Residential Real Estate Green Recovery Solutions : Post Earthquake<br />Introduction<br />WHY EARTHQUAKE?<br />WHY RESIDENTIAL?<br />Disaster Risk<br />Measure of citizenship or permanence in a community<br />Property damage and loss<br />Other losses – <br /><ul><li>Employment loss
Increase illness and disease costs</li></ul>4. Large disaster estimates: loss in millions to billions <br />Increase in the frequency and magnitude of losses <br />Earthquakes trigger additional disasters<br />Losses higher than those that occurred earlier in time<br />Increasing concentration of population and property development in susceptible areas<br />Impacts<br />Recovery<br />Case Studies<br />Green<br />Policy<br />Conclusion<br />
Impacts of Earthquake on Residential Real Estate Market<br />Introduction<br />Factors that contribute to disaster risk with respect to Expected consequences<br />Hazard :Severity, extent and frequency of tremors to which the city may be subjected<br />Exposure :Size of the city, Quantity of physical objects and population, and amount and type of activities they support<br />Vulnerability :How easily the people, physical objects and activities may be affected by the earthquake in short-or-long term<br />External Context :How impact within a city affects people and activities outside the city<br />Emergency Response & Recovery Capability :How effectively and efficiently a city can reduce the impact of an earthquake through formal, organized efforts made specifically for that purpose<br />In physical terms <br /><ul><li>Damaged buildings and infrastructure facilities
Destroyed buildings and infrastructure facilities</li></ul>In economic terms<br /><ul><li>Direct economic loss
Indirect economic loss</li></ul>In human terms<br /><ul><li>Deaths
Relocation sites2. Land and infrastructure facilities 3. Plot layout and infrastructure planning4. Plot allocation<br />Relocation and Rehabilitation<br />Preparation of Development Plans<br />1. Public consultations and survey process2. Questionnaire surveys3. Focus group meetings4. City-level workshops<br />Preparation of Town Planning Schemes<br />1. Detailed exhaustive studies and support2. Geological Survey of India3. Central Ground Water Board4. Area Dev. Authority Expert Group -CEPT & IIT<br />Infrastructure Development<br />1. Land development of relocation sites2. Reconstruction of roads and street lights<br />Pathways to Recovery: Case-study Analysis <br />Introduction<br />Gujarat Earthquake at Bhuj, India - January 26, 2001<br />Disaster Risk<br />Impacts<br />Recovery<br />Case Studies<br />Green<br />Policy<br />Conclusion<br />
Pathways to Recovery: Case-study Analysis <br />Introduction<br />Northridge Earthquake, California - January 17, 1994<br />Magnitude 6.7 on Richter Scale at 1230 GMT<br />Disaster Risk<br />In physical terms <br /><ul><li>Damaged buildings – 4,000
Green Recovery Practices<br />Introduction<br />Eco Resort of Hodka, Banni in Kutch, Gujarat state, India<br />Portola Valley in California, United States<br /><ul><li>Main NGO - Kutch NavNirmanAbhiyan
Local People - build own community and neighborhood
NGOs - site planning and infrastructure, supply building materials
Policy Implications and Recommendations<br />Introduction<br />1. Disaster pre-impact planning to facilitate the flow of resources to where they are most needed<br />2. Support housing production and ensure an adequate supply of earthquake resistant affordable housing <br />3. Handling post-disaster emergency and recovery operations should maintain strong ties with community-based organizations and nonprofit housing corporations<br />4. Combining the disaster recovery patterns from both – developed and developing countries to form sustainable recovery solutions suitable for a particular region<br />5. Long-term needs must be balanced with short-term needs when designing rehabilitation programs<br />Disaster Risk<br />Impacts<br />Recovery<br />Case Studies<br />Green<br />Policy<br />Conclusion<br />
Conclusion<br />Some points to be considered for effective and sustainable post disaster management – <br /><ul><li>Understand present and future population densities for sufficient planning
Effective implementation of sustainable emergency response plan
Strict vigilance on quality of construction with regular examinations