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Scc report

  1. 1. CE 241: Concrete Technology Spring 2004 Report #1:Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances Yang March 9, 2004
  2. 2. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004 Table of ContentsAbstract ...........................................................................................................................3Introduction ...................................................................................................................4Definition........................................................................................................................5Chemical Admixtures....................................................................................................8 Superplasticizers.........................................................................................................8 Viscosity Modifying Admixtures...........................................................................13Mix Proportioning.......................................................................................................11Benefits of SCC............................................................................................................14Standards.......................................................................................................................15Application ...................................................................................................................18List of Figures:Figure 1: Basic workability requirements for successful casting of SCC. .............6Figure 2: Properties of aggregates influencing SCC characteristics.......................7Figure 3: Effect of Superplasticizer .………………………………………….8Figure 4: Optimum combination of superplasticizer and w/c ratio…….….... 10Figure 5: Proper fine aggregate content for SCC…………………………… 13Figure 6: Slump Flow and L-box Tests…………………………………...….17Figure 7: V-funnel Test…………………………………………………….. 17 2of 21
  3. 3. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004 AbstractSelf-consolidating concrete is a concrete that exhibits high deformability whilemaintaining resistance to segregation. This paper investigates the technologybehind creating SCC, including its components and mix proportioningtechniques. It highlights numerous benefits in using SCC and refers to thevarious tools used to parameterize its properties. Precautionary measures thatshould be taken in developing and working with the mix are discussed. Lastlylisted are some exemplary applications. 3of 21
  4. 4. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004 IntroductionUnderstanding self-consolidating concrete is becoming more and moreimportant as the use of this type of mix becomes ever more popular.Meanwhile, the higher level of technology it involves requires a higher level ofexpertise on the part of those who develop it. Its benefits can achieveenormous labor and cost savings, but only if carried out correctly.This paper will cover what constitutes a self-consolidating concrete, how itworks, and its applications. Exploring these topics includes looking at thecomponents of SCC that make it different from normal concrete. These areprimarily the aggregates and chemical admixtures. This paper also includessome of the research that has been conducted in these areas. Supplying thereader with this knowledge will then allow pointing out the many benefits andcommon pitfalls in using self-consolidating concrete. Once understanding themix itself has been developed, this paper presents the more commonly usedinstruments for measuring and defining SCC properties. Finally, somesuccessful applications around the world will be presented.This paper is not an all-inclusive summary of the research that has been doneto advance the technology, nor does it set down a specific formula for creatingan SCC mix. Rather, it recognizes that there are numerous methods andrecommendations proposed by experts and tries to explain the fundamentalreasoning behind each. In this way, the continually advancing field of self-consolidating concrete makes it an exciting study. 4of 21
  5. 5. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004DefinitionSCC which stands for Self-Consolidating Concrete, or Self-CompactingConcrete, has many other names. It is also called High-Workability Concrete,Self-Leveling Concrete1, or Flowing Concrete.2 All the above terms are used todescribe a highly workable concrete that needs little to no vibration duringplacement.3 It is in want of a standard definition, but may be nominallyconsidered a concrete mix of exceptional deformability during casting, whichstill meets resistance to segregation and bleeding.4 Inadequate vibration ofnormally consolidated concrete in heavily congested areas has led to surfacedefects and inadequate bond with the rebar.5 Because of its low viscosityduring pouring, self-consolidating concrete can fill heavily reinforced areasunder its own weight, without applying vibration. SCC is also used to create“super-flat” floors (1mm over a length of 4m) without post-pour leveling.6The highly flowable nature of SCC is due to very careful mix proportioning,usually replacing much of the coarse aggregate with fines and cement, andadding chemical admixtures. It depends on the sensitive balance betweencreating more deformability while ensuring good stability, as well asmaintaining low risk of blockage. See Figure 1.1 Sebastien Rols, Jean Ambroise, Jean Pera, “Effects of Different Viscosity Agents on the Properties of Self-LevelingConcrete,” Cement and Concrete Research nd2 P. Kumar Mehta, Paulo J. M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties and Materials, 2 edition, October 2001.3 Van K. Bui, Yilmaz Akkaya, and Surendra P. Shah, “Rheology Model for Self-Consolidating Concrete”, ACI MaterialsJournal, November-December 2002.4 M. Lachemi, K.M.A. Hossain, V.Lambros, P.C. Nkinamubanzi, N. Bouzoubaa, “Self-consolidating concrete incorporatingnew viscosity modifying admixtures”, Cement and Concrete Research5 Kamal H. Khayat, Patrick Paultre, and Stephen Tremblay, “Structural Performance and In-Place Properties of Self-Consolidating Concrete”, ACI Materials Journal, Sept-Oct 2001.6 Rols et al. 5of 21
  6. 6. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004 7 Figure 1: Basic workability requirements for successful casting of SCC.Creating this type of concrete involves playing with the many factors that affectdeformability and segregation. These factors include water to cement ratio andthe numerous properties of the aggregate: volume, size, distribution, andspacing, void content, ratio between fine and coarse, surface properties, anddensity. See Figure 2. More importantly, though, chemical admixtures play akey role in the common techniques used today.7 Khayat et al. 6of 21
  7. 7. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004 8 Figure 2: Properties of aggregates influencing SCC characteristics.In fact, since there is not yet a standard definition for SCC, it has beencontended that a better term would be SCT, or Self-Consolidating Technology,because it is the technology behind the chemical admixtures that allows thecreation of this highly workable and stable mix.9 Usually a mix with high finescontent, low water-to-cement ratio, and less coarse aggregates becomes toostiff to work effectively. At the same time, a high viscosity mix through greaterfines and higher water content would have problems with segregation, strength,and durability, among many other important concrete properties. However,these all-important qualities can now be spared from sacrifice in order toachieve highly flowable and stable mixes, due to recent improved technology inadmixtures.8 Bui et al.9 Joe Nasvik, “The ABCs of SCC”, Concrete Construction, January 2002. 7of 21
  8. 8. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004Chemical AdmixturesThe two principle chemical admixtures in SCC are a synthetic high-range waterreducer (superplasticizer) and a viscosity modifying admixture (VMA). Thesemay be used by themselves but are more commonly used together.10SuperplasticizersSuperplasticizers are a water-reducing admixture that causes a significantincrease in flowability with little effect on viscosity.11 For example, the additionof 0.3 to 1.5 percent (by weight of cement) conventional superplasticizer to aconcrete mix with 50-70 mm slump increases slump to 200-250 mm.12 SeeFigure 3.Superplasiticizers have been on themarket for more than 30 years.However, these had the problem ofretarding intial set and inhibitingcomplete hydration of cementparticles. The new generation ofsuperplasticizers is based onpolycarboxylated ethers, which actas powerful cement dispersants that Figure 3: Effects of superplasticizer. (Okamura)require less mix water to providedramatic increase in flow. Some of these have also been engineered to setmore rapidly and provide more complete cement hydration. Polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers are now available from about 50% of the producers ofready-mix concrete in the US, truly opening up the market for SCC.13The primary negative effect when adding superplasticizer alone to concrete isthat the mix may have a tendency to segregate and bleed. There are two pathsto avoid this problem, involving modifying mix proportions and use ofviscosity modifying admixtures. More about each will be discussed later.10 Nasvik11 Hajume Okamura, “Self-Compacting, High Performance Concrete”, Concrete International, July 1997.12 Mehta and Monteiro13 Nasvik 8of 21
  9. 9. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004Segregation can also occur with a normally consolidating concrete if over-vibrated.14Another limitation of superplasticizers is that the concrete will lose its high-consistency in 30-60 minutes, reverting back to its original slump. Therefore,there is only this short window of time between mixing and placing. Forprecast concrete, this is usually not a complication. In fact, in precast, it isoften desirable to have this short duration before regaining stiffness, especiallyfor steam curing, which is a more rapid way to cure concrete.15On the other hand, the high slump loss characteristic that occurs with addingsuperplasticizer may pose a serious problem for ready-mix concrete. On thejob site, many other factors may cause a time delay between mixing andpouring. Such unforeseen occasions could lead to wasted concrete and labor, ifnot requiring more for repair. Researchers have discovered two methods ofdealing with this problem.16The first is to perform repeat dosages of superplasticizer after slump loss, tomaintain workability over several hours. After the second or third dosages,however, the concrete mix may become prone to segregation. The secondstrategy is to add a retarding agent to the admixture, which may maintain theincreased slump for 2-3 hours. Such admixtures with these retarding agents aretermed low-slump-loss superplasticizers and have been used in hot-weatherconcrete where the high temperature induces quicker setting times.17Several tests have been performed on superplasticized concrete vs. controlmixes. The following table shows how several important properties of SCCachieved with superplasticizers compare to those of low-slump and high-slumpcontrol mixes:14 Khayat et al.15 Mehta and Monteiro16 Mehta and Monteiro17 Mehta and Monteiro 9of 21
  10. 10. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances Yang CE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004 Table 1: Experimental Results Comparing Properties of Mixes with and without Superplasticizer Properties of Mixes with Compared to high-slump Compared to low-slump Superplasticizer (watery concrete) (75 mm) Slump Loss Faster Setting Time Retardation Slight Segregation & Bleeding Slight Comp & Flex Strength Not much difference Freeze-Thaw Durability Overall satisfactory Permeability Overall satisfactory Drying Shrinkage Less No difference The superplasticizers used were melamine sulfonate and naphthalene sulfonate and increased slump of the control mixture from 75 mm to 215 and 230 mm, respectively.18 The primary purpose behind using superplasticizers is in achieving highly flowable concrete while maintaining low water and high fines content. Low water-to-cement ratio is a principal factor enhancing strength, durability, permeability and shrinkage. See Figure 4. The latest generation of this admixture allows retaining high performance in these categories while making an otherwise unworkable concrete highly flowable during the time required. Superplasticizers can be expensive, adding about $5 per cubic yard of concrete. However, savings in labor and time quickly outweigh the additional cost.Figure 4: Optimum combination ofsuperplasticizer and w/c ratio. (Okamura) 18 Mehta and Monteiro. 10of 21
  11. 11. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004Mix ProportioningThe portioning of the mix is extremely important in developing an effectiveSCC. This involves either modifying the cement paste, or carefully tuning theaggregates, or both.19 The interlocking of coarse aggregates is integral to thestrength of the concrete.20 With coarse aggregate, changing interparticlespacing most practically changes the flowability of concrete. Interparticlespacing depends on particle size distribution and the cement paste. Thecement paste must work with the coarse aggregates to fill the interstitial voidsfor a given particle size distribution of aggregate and produce a desirableinterparticle spacing. Several researchers have produced mixture proportionguidelines from their tests, in terms of ratios between coarse and fineaggregates, and cement to solids. 21 Others recommend development of anoptimum paste using recommended additional values for such characteristics asaggregate surfaces, aggregate shape, difference in density between aggregate andpaste.22As mentioned previously, careful mix proportioning is critical for optimizingthe performance of the flow-enhancing superplasticizers, which introduce thedanger of segregation to the mix. Coarse aggregates tend to settle with theintroduction of superplasticizer, which causes segregation. There are two pathsone can take to avoid segregation due to superplasticizers.The first path is to strictly incorporate a smooth distribution of fine aggregateswithout increasing cement. This will enhance cohesion without requiring morewater, which leads to problems with shrinkage and curling. Nasvikrecommends 20-25% of this be fly ash, because it has the property ofincreasing slump flow.23 Monteiro recommends replacing approximately 5% ofcoarse aggregates with sands, up to 10% if coarse sand.24A well-graded aggregate mix, however, is not always available, since manyproducers lack the more sophisticated equipment and material to do so. Inthis case, mix the designer could pursue a second path, which is to replace a19 Bui et al.20 L. J. O’Flannery and M. M. O’Mahony, “Precise shape grading of coarse aggregate,” Magazine of Concrete Research,October 1999.21 Aaron .w Saak, Hamlin M. Jennings, and Surenda Pl Shah, “New Methodology for Designing Self-CompactingConcrete”, ACI Materials Journal, v.98 no. 6, November-December 2001.22 Bui et al.23 Nasvik24 Mehta and Monteiro 11of 21
  12. 12. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004portion of the coarse aggregate with cementious content. This could be anycombination of fly ash, ground limestone25, granulated furnace slag,26 sand, andcement. With the introduction of more cement in a gap graded mix, morewater is needed to completely hydrate the cement. Thus, two potentiallydeleterious effects arise due to needing more water: higher heat of hydrationand segregation and/or bleeding. Therefore, when taking the second path, useof pozzolan is recommended, since it reduces the added heat of hydration, anduse of viscosity modifying admixtures, to provide stability.27 More aboutviscosity modifying admixtures later.Air entrainment can also be added as necessary to enhance freeze-thawperformance.28 Otherwise, air content between 1.5% and 2.3% in non-air-entrained content has been suggested to maintain workability and flowability.29Some caution must be taken if the concrete needs to be transportedsignificantly after adding high-range water reducers or viscosity modifyingadmixtures. Both can destabilize the air-voids of the mix, but properproportioning can produce concrete resistant to freezing and thawing.30Overall, correct proportioning of the fine and coarseaggregates, cement paste, water and additives iscritical. Increasing w/c can increase deformabilityof the paste, but can reduce cohesiveness.31 Higherfines content can provide the less segregation.However, more fines, as well as manufactured sandor inconsistency in fine aggregates, also leads tohigher shrinkage, creep, and warping potential, aparticular concern for flat slabs.32 Okamurarecommends using 50% coarse aggregate, 40% fineaggregate, 0.9 to 1.0 w/c in volume, and changing Figure 5: Proper fine aggregatethe superplasticizer dosage for the needed self- content for SCC as recommended bycompactibility.33 See Figure 5. Okamura.25 Lechemi et al.26 M.K. Hurd, “Self-Compacting Concrete”, Concrete Construction, January 2002.27 Nasvik28 Hurd29 Lachemi et al.30 Kamal H. Khayat and Joseph Assaad, “Air-Void Stability in Self-Consolidating Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal, July-August 2002.31 K. H. Khayat, “Workability, Testing, and Performance of Self-Consolidating Concrete”, ACI Material Journal, May-June1999.32 Nasvik33 Okamura 12of 21
  13. 13. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004Viscosity Modifying AdmixturesViscosity Modifiers are used to stabilize the rheology of SCC. They essentiallythicken the mix to prevent segregation.34 This viscosity buildup comes fromthe association and entanglement of polymer chains of the VMA at a low shearrate, which further inhibits flow and increases viscosity. At the same time,added VMA causes a shear-thinning behavior, decreasing viscosity, when thereis an increase in shear rate.35There are various types of VMAs, most of which are composed of eitherpolymer or cellulose-based materials, which “grab and hold” water. The mostimportant aspect is that they do not change any properties of the mix besidesviscosity.36 One of the most well-known VMAs is welan gum, which is anatural type of water soluble polysaccharide. When used in large quantities, ithas proven very effective in stabilizing the rheology of SCCs.37 Severalcommercial VMAs are also on the market and their chemical compositions arepropriety secrets. Currently, these commercial brands and welan gum areknown to be very expensive, increasing cost of the mix by at least 20%.Consequently, there is a great deal of ongoing research in the materialssciences, often with financial support from industry, to develop cheaper VMAswith equally reliable high performance.One study coming out of Ryerson University in Canada tested four newlyengineered polysaccharide-based VMAs. Performance of four mixes with eachof these new VMAs was compared to two types of control mixes, one withwelan gum and a one with a commercial VMA from a Canadian producer.Results showed that performance of the newly developed admixtures matched,or even beat, the control mixes in properties of slump flow, segregation,bleeding, flow time, setting time, and compressive strength. An importantcharacteristic to note is the increase in setting time caused by addition ofVMAs. This occurs “because the VMA polymer chains become absorbed ontocement grains and interfere with the precipitation of various minerals intosolutions that influence the rate of hydration and setting.”3834 Nasvik35 Lachemi et al.36 Nasvik.37 Rols et al.38 Lachemi et al. 13of 21
  14. 14. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004Another study at the National Applied Science Institute of Lyon in Francetested three new viscosity agents: starch, precipitated silica, and industrial starchwaste. They found that aqueous solutions of 20% precipitated silica and, to alesser extent, 10% starch performed as the best viscosity agents. In particular,both allowed limited segregation and bleeding, contributed to high 28-daycompressive strength, allowed limited permeability, and therefore gooddurability. The only property negatively affected was drying shrinkage, whichincreased 50% due to the reduction in coarse aggregate. To prevent crackingand ensure the concrete develops its potential strength and durability, measuresshould be taken towards proper curing. Overall, these agents could be suitableas alternatives to welan gum.39VMAs can be used alone, but are more commonly used with superplasticizers.In this combination, the superplasticizers take on the role of enhancing flowwhile VMAs act to provide stability. All the while, careful aggregateproportioning still plays a key part. The three acting together can createremarkable SCC, but quality control of each of these materials and over theirproportions becomes that much more critical. In particular, use ofsuperplasticizer makes the mix extremely sensitive to slight changes in watercontent.Benefits of SCCThe technologically advanced components of SCC work together to create amix that produces numerous benefits. It offers many advantages forcontractors, ready-mix producers, and precast concrete fabricators:For Contractors:40,41,42 Reduced vibration effort and noise during placing Ability to fill complex forms with limited accessibility More uniform distribution in areas of closely bunched reinforcement Rapid pumping of concrete Uniform and compact surface Less surface voids and need for rubbing and patching Improved aesthetics of flatwork for less effort39 Rols et al.40 Bui et al.41 Mehta and Monteiro42 Hurd 14of 21
  15. 15. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004 Reduced labor and construction timeFor Ready-Mix Producers:43,44 Better perception from customers by offering a technically advanced, higher value concrete mixture Offers a product that saves customers time and money Faster truck turnaround More efficient use of mixing equipment and delivery Easily expands variety of products offered without adding more equipment (eg, tilt-up, flatwork, walls, etc.) Improved aesthetics of final productFor Cast-in Place Fabricators: All the above, plus Controlled environment allows easier quality control Easier to achieve qualities of an optimally designed mix Can better guarantee properties due to tight quality control Faster slump loss means concrete is ready for steam-curing quickerIn order for these parties to reap the benefits of SCC, they need an increasedunderstanding of SCC’s complex nature. Declines in skilled labor and qualitycontrol in the construction industry will make this a more challenging task forusers. At the same time, developers still need to provide set procedures andways for users to quantify the qualities of mix characteristics.StandardsAs mentioned before, there are as yet no standard definitions or specifications for SCC.The term workability includes flowability, mouldability, cohesiveness, andcompactibility of fresh concrete. Flowability is related to consistency.Cohesiveness is a measure of compactibility and finishability, usually measuredby ease of dowelling and visual judgement of resistance to segregation.45 Giventhat workability is so broadly defined by numerous other factors, measuring theproperties of High-Workability Concrete has gone in all directions.43 Nasvik44 Bui et al.45 E. Chidiac, O. Maadani, A. G. Razaqpur and N. P. Mailvaganam, “Controlling the quality of fresh concrete,” Magazineof Concrete Research, October 2000. 15of 21
  16. 16. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004Some believe SCC should not be defined as a new product. New productsrequire all new testing and approval from ACI and ASTM. Since it is still adeveloping technology, many appreciate the flexibility to develop mixesaccording to project requirements, currently the industry practice.Until test methods to quantifiably characterize the concrete mix arestandardized, the following are several industry measurement standards usedfor the time being.46Flowability:This characteristic is often termed “slump flow” as opposed to “slump”because the initial low viscosity of the SCC causes the concrete in a standardslump test to spread out and flatten so much, the height difference becomestoo little to accurately correlate with the flowability of the mix, not to mentionthe difficulty in measuring the height of the slumped sample. Therefore, slumpflow is measured as the horizontal distance of spreading. Usually, thisdimension is 20-30 inches.47In the slump flow test a standard slump cone is used and SCC is typicallypoured in without consolidation efforts. See Figure 6. The flow diameter (Fd)is the mean diameter measured in two perpendicular directions.48 Someresearchers recommend a slump flow value between 500 to 700 mm. At lessthan 500 mm, the mix may have trouble flowing in a confined space. Slumpflow exceeding 700 mm could lead to segregation of the mix.4946 Nasvik47 Nasvik48 Bui et al.49 Lachemi et al. Figure 7: V-funnel Test (Lachemi)Figure 6: Slump Flow and L-box Tests(Nasvik) 16of 21
  17. 17. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004The L-box test measures the ability of SCC to flow in a confined space. It tests tosee if the concrete can flow through an L-shaped box with several grilles ofrebar designed to inhibit flow.50,51 See Figure 6. Another way to measuredeformability through restricted areas is the V-funnel test. See Figure 7. Afterconcrete is filled into the funnel, the bottom outlet is opened and the time untilflowing stops is measured. To be termed an SCC, it is generally required thatthis flow time be less than 6 sec.52The T50 test measures rate of flow in terms of the time required for SCC toreach 19-3/4 inches (or 50 cm) in diameter in the slump flow test.53 Bui et al.states that the flow time of SCC should be no larger than 12 seconds.54Stability:Stability is the characteristic of SCC to resist segregation. It is often quantifiedwith the Visual Stability Index, which ranges from 0 to 3 in increments of0.5.55Another, more exact segregation test, is to pour 2 liters fresh concrete over a5 mm mesh and measure the mass of mortar passing though the screen in 5min. The segregation index (SI) of a stable concrete should be less than 5%.56Current Action:ASTM C 09.47 subcommittee is in the process of voting on a terminologystandard and standard methods for conducting the slump flow test. They are50 Bui et al.51 Nasvik52 Lachemi et al.53 Nasvik54 Bui et al.55 Nasvik56 Lachemi et al. 17of 21
  18. 18. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004also developing a way to use existing compressive strength test methods onSCC.57 Another fresh concrete property in definite need of study is formworkpressures, in particular, the effects of SCC’s changing viscosity characteristic.Long-term evaluation also needs to be made specifically in areas of creep,shrinkage, and modulus of elasticity.58ApplicationSCC technology originated in Japan in the early 1980s,59 arising out of durabilityconcerns due to poor compaction on the job site.60 Use of SCC quicklybecame widespread in Japan, especially since the government implemented aplan to use SCC for 50% of all concrete jobs by 2003. It then spread toEurope in the 1990’s after invention of polycarboxylate superplasticizers. Inthe UK, The Concrete Society has issued official measures to expand the use ofSCC as a means of replacing vibratory compaction.61In the US and Canada, SCC technology is available mostly in the form ofproprietary concrete mixes from ready-mix producer subsidiaries of cementmanufacturers such as Lafarge and Lehigh. It is also available as specializedadmixtures combining superplasticizer and viscosity modifiers.62Given how important maintaining mix quality of SCC is for its successfulperformance, using SCC demands increased attention and skill. In particular,superplasticizer dramatically increases the sensitivity of the mix to water. Thisallows little room for error in mix proportioning, which can becomeproblematic in-field when weather and timing can not always be controlled bythe contractor. In light of this, most applications of SCC in the US have beenlimited to precast construction due to tighter quality control ensured in-plantcompared to in-field.63 However, the industry has shown eagerness to expandits use. Whereas in 2000, only about 10% of the precast industry had triedSCC, by 2003, the number jumped to almost 90%, of which 40% used it on aregular basis.57 Nasvik58 Hurd59 Bui et al.60 Okamura.61 Hurd62 Hurd63 Hurd 18of 21
  19. 19. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004Some notable projects have utilized SCC in Canada. One is the TorontoInternational Airport, where concrete had to be pumped upwards from theground to form 101-foot tall columns. Another project in Vancouver, B.Cused SCC so little patching would be required for highly visible, outriggercolumns.64 In Asia, SCC was used for a monolithic foundation mat inSingapore where the concrete needed to reach massive dimensions in a shortamount of time. In the US, a high-strength SCC was imperative forconstructing tightly reinforced elements poured in below-freezing weather forthe 68-story Trump Tower in New York City.65 SCC has also shown successfulapplication for residential projects, such as homes for Habitat for Humanity inthe Houston area.6664 Hurd65 Mehta and Monteiro66 Hurd 19of 21
  20. 20. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004 ConclusionIn conclusion, self-consolidating concrete is an exciting technology that hasfound many successful applications. Although the concept has been aroundfor a few decades, new products are still emerging and better mixproportioning strategies are still in development. The new generation ofpolycarboxylate-based superplasticizers has taken SCC a giant step forward.Meanwhile, multiple viscosity modifying admixtures are available, whileresearchers continue to seek better and cheaper recipes. While there is no setdefinition for SCC yet, for now the concrete construction industry generallyfollows certain methods of measuring mix properties to define an SCC. Theabsence of an established industrial standard for SCC allows more creativity intailoring a mix to specific job requirements. At the same time, the lack ofstandards means devising a successful mix depends on the expertise of theproducer and contractor. Therefore, it is clear that educating manufacturersand contractors is the crucial first step in expanding the use of SCC’s extremelypromising technology. 20of 21
  21. 21. Self-Consolidating Concrete Frances YangCE 241 Spring 2004: Report #1 March 18, 2004 References 1. Sebastien Rols, Jean Ambroise, Jean Pera, “Effects of Different Viscosity Agents on the Properties of Self-Leveling Concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research 2. Van K. Bui, Yilmaz Akkaya, and Surendra P. Shah, “Rheology Model for Self- Consolidating Concrete”, ACI Materials Journal, November-December 2002. 3. M. Lachemi, K.M.A. Hossain, V.Lambros, P.C. Nkinamubanzi, N. Bouzoubaa, “Self-consolidating concrete incorporating new viscosity modifying admixtures”, Cement and Concrete Research 4. Kamal H. Khayat, Patrick Paultre, and Stephen Tremblay, “Structural Performance and In-Place Properties of Self-Consolidating Concrete”, ACI Materials Journal, Sept- Oct 2001. 5. Joe Nasvik, “The ABCs of SCC”, Concrete Construction, January 2002. 6. Hajume Okamura, “Self-Compacting, High Performance Concrete”, Concrete International, July 1997. 7. L. J. O’Flannery and M. M. O’Mahony, “Precise shape grading of coarse aggregate,” Magazine of Concrete Research, October 1999. 8. Aaron .w Saak, Hamlin M. Jennings, and Surenda Pl Shah, “New Methodology for Designing Self-Compacting Concrete”, ACI Materials Journal, v.98 no. 6, November- December 2001. 9. E. Chidiac, O. Maadani, A. G. Razaqpur and N. P. Mailvaganam, “Controlling the quality of fresh concrete,” Magazine of Concrete Research, October 2000. 10. Kamal H. Khayat and Joseph Assaad, “Air-Void Stability in Self-Consolidating Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal, July-August 2002. 11. K. H. Khayat, “Workability, Testing, and Performance of Self-Consolidating Concrete”, ACI Material Journal, May-June 1999. 12. M.K. Hurd, “Self-Compacting Concrete”, Concrete Construction, January 2002. 13. Aaron .w Saak, Hamlin M. Jennings, and Surenda Pl Shah, “New Methodology for Designing Self-Compacting Concrete”, ACI Materials Journal, v.98 no. 6, November- December 2001. 21of 21

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