Chapter 23
Nursing
Research: Data
Collection,
Processing,
and Analysis
Information Literacy
Intellectual framework for finding,
understanding, evaluating, and using
information activities that ...
Acquiring Previous Knowledge
Through Internet/Library Holdings
• Information is available through so many
venues, librarie...
Professional Online Databases
Databases range from specific to general and
act as collection points by aggregating
informa...
Search Engines
Allow users to surf the Web and find
information on nearly anything, although
many researchers steer clear ...
Electronic Library Catalogs
Making full use of available library resources
serves to strengthen information literacy skill...
Fair Use of Information and Sharing
• Copyright laws in the world of technology are
notoriously misunderstood.
• The same ...
Fair Use of Information and Sharing
• Almost all software, music CDs, and movie DVDs
come with restrictions of how and whe...
Fair Use of Information and Sharing
• Avoid downloading music illegally from the Internet
and do not use information from ...
Fair use
• Permits the limited use of original works
without copyright holder’s permission.
• An example would be quoting ...
Informatics Tools For Collecting Data
and Storage Of Information
• Formal nursing data sets are made up of
gathered inform...
Data Collection
• Quantitative data collection tools or instruments
include questionnaires, interviews, surveys, quizzes,
...
Internet Data Collection
• protect the privacy of participants by de-identifying
data collected for research
• provide sec...
Types of nursing and health data
• resource data (e.g., financial information);
• patient and client demographics;
• activ...
Processing Data and Data Analysis
Data analysis is the process by which data
collected during the course of a study is
pro...
Quantitative Data Analysis
• Quantitative data focuses on numbers and
frequencies rather than experience and meaning
• Goa...
Qualitative Data Analysis
• qualitative data can include nearly any
information that can be captured and is not
numerical
...
Cohort Research
• two groups of people are identified, one with
an exposure of interest and another without
the exposure.
...
Case Control Research
• Researcher identifies patients who have an
outcome of interest and patients who do not
have the ou...
Summary
Information literacy and informatics tools are
used as a critical skill set for increasing
healthcare efficiency, ...
Thought Provoking Questions
• How will the advent of information literacy affect
nursing informatics in the 21st century?
...
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Chapter 23

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Chapter 23

  1. 1. Chapter 23 Nursing Research: Data Collection, Processing, and Analysis
  2. 2. Information Literacy Intellectual framework for finding, understanding, evaluating, and using information activities that may be accomplished in part through fluency with information technology and sound investigative methods, but most importantly, through critical reasoning and discernment
  3. 3. Acquiring Previous Knowledge Through Internet/Library Holdings • Information is available through so many venues, libraries, special interest organizations, media, community resources, and the Internet in increasingly unfiltered formats, healthcare practitioners must inevitably question information authenticity, validity, and reliability
  4. 4. Professional Online Databases Databases range from specific to general and act as collection points by aggregating information like abstracts and articles from many different journals; two such databases include the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and MEDLINE.
  5. 5. Search Engines Allow users to surf the Web and find information on nearly anything, although many researchers steer clear of search engines because of the vast amounts of unsubstantiated information
  6. 6. Electronic Library Catalogs Making full use of available library resources serves to strengthen information literacy skills, thus enabling learners to master content and extend their investigations, become more self- directed, and assume greater control over their own learning
  7. 7. Fair Use of Information and Sharing • Copyright laws in the world of technology are notoriously misunderstood. • The same copyright laws that cover physical books, artwork, and other creative material are still applicable in the digital world.
  8. 8. Fair Use of Information and Sharing • Almost all software, music CDs, and movie DVDs come with restrictions of how and when copies may be made. • Most computer software developers allow for a backup copy of the software without restriction. • Technology advances have made the sharing of information easy and extremely fast, thus open to violations of copyright and fair use.
  9. 9. Fair Use of Information and Sharing • Avoid downloading music illegally from the Internet and do not use information from the Internet without permission to do so or citing the reference appropriately. • Health care organizations that allow access to the Internet from a network computer should ensure that users are well aware of and compliant with copyright and fair use principles.
  10. 10. Fair use • Permits the limited use of original works without copyright holder’s permission. • An example would be quoting or citing an author in a scholarly manuscript. • The user is responsible for developing appropriate citations. • Citing inappropriately or not at all is plagiarism.
  11. 11. Informatics Tools For Collecting Data and Storage Of Information • Formal nursing data sets are made up of gathered information such as healthcare definitions, classification, and nursing information. • Before data can be analyzed or critically reviewed to determine outcomes or assessment, it must be collected and aggregated
  12. 12. Data Collection • Quantitative data collection tools or instruments include questionnaires, interviews, surveys, quizzes, assessments, e-mail interviews, and Web-based surveys • Nurses may generate and record data from their own observations or with the assistance of various devices. Free text (informational data, such as drug dosages administered, resources used, problems diagnosed) is recorded electronically. • Software has been designed to collect, sort, organize, store, retrieve, select, and aggregate data
  13. 13. Internet Data Collection • protect the privacy of participants by de-identifying data collected for research • provide secure transmission and storage of private information • mine rich qualitative data on public and freely available patient support sites and blogs • issues associated with internet based data collection are whether or not the participant is who he or she actually says they are and whether they actually have the variable of interest, or are pretending to be someone or something they are not
  14. 14. Types of nursing and health data • resource data (e.g., financial information); • patient and client demographics; • activity data (clinical data); and • health service provider data.
  15. 15. Processing Data and Data Analysis Data analysis is the process by which data collected during the course of a study is processed to identify trends and patterns of relationships
  16. 16. Quantitative Data Analysis • Quantitative data focuses on numbers and frequencies rather than experience and meaning • Goal of describing a situation or looking for more robust relationships such as correlations and specific variable contributions to an outcome • may allow the researcher to make inferences to a population beyond the sample, as long as the sample was representative of the population
  17. 17. Qualitative Data Analysis • qualitative data can include nearly any information that can be captured and is not numerical • major types of qualitative data include in-depth interviews, direct observation, and written documents • A central issue to the generation and analysis of free text data is the lack of a generally accepted set of terminology to capture nursing data.
  18. 18. Cohort Research • two groups of people are identified, one with an exposure of interest and another without the exposure. • groups are followed forward to determine if the outcome of interest occurs. • groups are defined based on whether or not they have had an exposure to a particular risk factor.
  19. 19. Case Control Research • Researcher identifies patients who have an outcome of interest and patients who do not have the outcome • Researcher looks back in time (typically using health records) to determine exposures and experiences that could have contributed to the outcome occurring or not occurring • Data mining of EHRs are typical in this research
  20. 20. Summary Information literacy and informatics tools are used as a critical skill set for increasing healthcare efficiency, effectiveness, and safety in the 21st century.
  21. 21. Thought Provoking Questions • How will the advent of information literacy affect nursing informatics in the 21st century? • Reflect on copyright law and why it is needed. If you determine that photographs or other images are able to be replicated based on your assessment of “fair use,” but your administrative assistant refuses to photocopy them since he feels that it is copyright infringement and against company policy, describe in detail how would you handle this situation.

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